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England sets down “Paradise by Hatton Garden” as one of the places he should visit.
September 23, 1673.— I went to see Paradise, a room in Hatton Garden furnished with the representations of all sorts of animals handsomely painted on boards or cloth, and so cut out, and made to stand, move, fly, crawl, roar, and make their several cries. The man who showed it made us laugh heartily at his formal poetry.—Evelyn.
Pardon Church and Churchyard, on the north side of OLD St. Paul's CATHEDRAL.
There was also one great cloister, on the north side of this church, environing a plot of ground, of old time called Pardon Churchyard ; whereof Thomas More, Dean of Paules, was either the first builder, or a most especial benefactor, and was buried there. About this cloister was artificially and richly painted the Dance of Machabray, or Dance of Death, commonly called the Dance of Paul's. . . . The metres, or poetry of this dance, were translated out of French into English by John Lydgate, monk of Bury (1430), and with the picture of Death leading all estates, painted about the Cloister, at the special request and at the dispence of Jenken Carpenter, in the reign of Henry VI. In this cloister were buried many persons, some of worship, and others of honour; the monuments of whom, in number and curious workmanship, passed all other that were in that church.–Stow, p. 122.
Over the east quadrant of the cloister was a "fair library,” built by Walter Sherrington, and “well furnished with fair written books in vellum;" but of these few were left when Stow wrote. In the midst of Pardon Churchyard was the fair chapel, “first founded by Gilbert Becket, portgrave and principal magistrate in this City in the reign of King Stephen," and father of the famous English St. Thomas. The chapel was rebuilt by Dean More in the reign of Henry V. “In the year 1549, on the roth of April," the chapel and the whole cloister, with the Dance of Death, the tombs and monuments, were begun to be pulled down by command of the Protector Somerset ; so that, says Stow, "nothing thereof was left but the bare plot of ground, which is since converted into a garden for the petty canons. The materials were used by Somerset in building his new house in the Strand.
There was also a Pardon Churchyard by the Charterhouse, formed by Ralph Stratford, Bishop of London, who on occasion of the great plague of 1348 “bought a piece of ground called No Man's Land, which he enclosed with a wall of brick and dedicated for burial of the dead,” for whom there was not room in the churchyard. “In this plot of ground there was, in that year, more than 50,000 persons buried, as I have read in the charters of Edward the Third.” The chapel built by the bishop was in Strype's day used as a dwelling, "and the burying plot is become a fair garden, retaining the old name of Pardon Churchyard.” 2 As late as 1831 the memory of Pardon Churchyard was preserved in Pardon Passage and Pardon Court, St. John Street, Clerkenwell, “about a quarter of a mile on the right-hand side, going from Smithfield," 3 but these have since disappeared. Paris Garden, a manor or liberty west of the Clink on the Bank
1 Stow, p. 122; Dugdale, p. 132 ; Greyfriars' Chronicle, pp. 40, 58. ? Strype, B. iv. p. 62.
3 Elmes, p. 329.
side in Southwark. This manor was in 1113 given by Robert Marmion to the monastery of Bermondsey, whose property it remained till 1537, when it was conveyed to Henry VIII. It was subsequently held by Queen Jane Seymour, by Lord Hunsdon, and by Thomas Cure, founder of the almshouses in Southwark which bore his name. (See Cure's College.] It is almost if not quite identical with the parish of Christ Church.
The private Act 22 and 23 Charles II. (1670-1671), c. 28, is an “Act for making the Manor of Paris Garden a parish, and to enable the parishioners of St. Saviour's, Southwark, to raise a Maintenance for Ministers and for repairs of their church."
The earliest known name is Parish Garden, later on Parish or Paris Garden indifferently. Taylor the Water Poet gives a classical origin for the name :
How it the name of Paris Garden gained-
From Paris, Paris Garden hath the name. The garden was covered with trees, and was full of hiding-places with the convenience of river-side landing-places. It was therefore a suitable place for plots and conspiracies. Mr. Recorder Fleetwood, writing to the Vice-Chamberlain, July 12, 1578, describes Paris Garden as notorious for secret meetings of foreign ambassadors and their agents, and mentions instances. On the previous night, he says, the French ambassador was discovered in the company of Sir Warham St. Leger and Sir William Morgan. When questioned they resisted. “The ambassador swore great oathes that he would do many things,” but the watch told him plainly that “they knewe not his dignitie,” and that he and his companions were "night walkers contrary to the law."1 To Burghley Fleetwood writes the same day that he had endeavoured to get into St. Leger's house at Chandos Place, and afterwards went on to Paris Garden, but the place there is so dark with trees that one man cannot see another, "except they have lynceos oculos, or els cattes eys." He repeats what he wrote to the Vice-Chamberlain as to the secret meetings of the French ambassador with Sir Warham St. Leger and Sir William Morgan, and warns Burghley that Paris Garden “is the very bower of conspiracy."? In consequence Burghley took examinations in person regarding these meetings.
In 1657 it was in the hands of William Angell for building purposes ; much objected to by certain influential petitioners as excessive building and injurious to them. On appeal made to the Protector Cromwell he writes with his own hand, “We refer the petition to the consideration of our Counsell desiringe the petitioners may be speedilye heard thereupon,” May 22, 1657.
In 1670, when the Act was passed constituting the parish of Christ Church, three-fourths of it consisted of fields, the population a i Cal. State Pap., 1547-1580, P. 595.
2 Ibid., 1547-1580, p. 595.
thousand or so. The parish of the same extent now contains 13,000 people.
Paris Garden Theatre. A circus in the manor of Paris Garden, in Southwark, erected for bull and bear baitings as early as the 17th of Henry VIII., when the Earl of Northumberland is said in the Household Book of the family) to have gone to Paris Garden to behold the bear-baiting there. Ralph and Edward Bowes were successively Masters of the Game of Paris Garden in the reign of Elizabeth. The office was subsequently held and the Paris Garden leased by Henslowe and Alleyn, and under their management (when plays were all popular in the reign of James I.) occasionally converted into a theatre.
Tucca. Thou hast been in Paris Garden, hast not?
Dekker, The Untrussing of the Humorous Poet. March 20, 1611.-Warrant to pay Phil: Henslow and Edw:Allen, Masters of the Game at Paris Garden, £42 1os. and 12d. per diem in future for keeping two white bears and a young lion.-Cal. State Pap., 1611-1618, p. 17.
Sunday was the day of exhibition in the reigns of Henry VIII., 2 Mary and Elizabeth. John Bradford the martyr, preaching before Edward VI., showed
The tokens of God's judgment at hand for the contempt of the Gospel, as that certain gentlemen upon the Sabbath day going in a wherry to Paris Garden, to the bear baiting, were drowned ; and that a dog was met at Ludgate carrying a piece of a dead child in his mouth.— Two Notable Sermons, etc., 1574.
A terrible accident which occurred on Sunday, January 13, 1583, gave occasion for much similar comment :
On Sunday the stage at Paris Garden fell down all at ones, being full of people, beholding the bear baiting. Many being killed thereby, more hurt, and all amazed. The godly expownd it as a due plage of God for the wickedness there usid and the Sabbath dayes profanely spent.—D'Ewes's Diary, p. 18.
The names and addresses of many persons killed and hurt on this occasion are given in a rare black-letter volume entitled “J. Field's Godly Exhortation, by occasion of the late Judgment of God, shewed in Paris Garden, the 13 day of January, where were assembled above 1000 persons, whereof some were slain, and one-third maimed and hurt, given to all estates for their instruction to keep the Sabbath Day" (8vo, Waldegrave, 1583). The Exhortation is dedicated to the Lord Mayor of London, the Recorder, Serjeant Fleetwood, etc. James I. prohibited performances on Sundays, and Henslowe and Alleyn represent their loss as very great in consequence. The sports not unfrequently were of a cruel character : on one occasion we hear of a pony baited with dogs with a monkey on his back; and on another of a sport called “whipping the blind bear”- tying a bear to a stake, and whipping him till the blood ran down his shoulders. Some of the bears were very famous. Harry Hunks is often referred to by our Elizabethan writers, and the name of Sackerson is known to every reader of The Merry Wives of Windsor. 1 Malone's Shakespeare, by Boswell, vol. iii. p. 844.
? Strype, B. iv. p. 6.
Publius, student at the common law,
Sir John Davies's Epigrams (In Publium).
Stunk not so ill.
Ben Jonson, Epigram, p. 133; and see his Execration upon Vulcan. How wonderfully is the world altered! And no marvel, for it has lain sick almost five thousand years; so that it is no more like the old Theatre du Monde than old Paris Garden is like the King's Garden at Paris.—The Gull's Hornbook (1609), p. 8.
Here [Paris Garden) come few that either regard their credit or loss of time: the swaggering Roarer, the Cunning Cheater, the rotten Bawd, the swearing Drunkard, and the bloody Butcher have their rendezvous here, and are of chief place and respect. London and the Country Carbonadoed, by T. Lupton, 1632, 12mo. Butler makes his “brave Orsin” to have been
Bred up where discipline most rare is
In Military Garden Paris.—Hudibras, vol. i. p. 2, 1. 171. “Military Garden” refers to an association instituted by James I. for training soldiers, who used to practise in Paris Garden.
The Bear Garden was closed by the Parliament at the beginning of 1642, and five years later the ground was sold. It was, however, reopened after the Restoration, and though but partially successful, the performances were continued till 1687, when the bears were sent to Hockley-in-the-Hole, and the doors of Paris Garden Theatre finally closed. The name survived for many years in “Parish Garden Stairs."
The Swan Theatre, built about 1596, was in Paris Garden (see Swan), and probably some of the references to the Paris Garden Theatre belong to it.
Parish Clerks' Hall, No. 24 SILVER STREET, Falcon SQUARE, the hall of the master, wardens, and fellows of the fellowship of parish clerks" of London, Westminster, Borough of Southwark, and fifteen out-parishes.” The Company was licensed as a guild in 1233, by the name of the Fraternity of St. Nicholas. It was dissolved and reincorporated by patent 24th of Henry VIII. The actual charter was granted by James I., December 31, 1611. It directs that "each parish clerk shall bring to the Clerks' Hall weekly, a note of all christenings and burials,” and that only such shall be admitted to be clerks as are “able to sing the Psalms of David, and to write." The direction as to the “note of all christenings and burials” had reference to the Bills (or tables) of Mortality which the guild commenced keeping from the great plague year of 1593, and were issued as weekly bills from 1603, when London had a similar but heavier visitation. Charles I. in 1636 granted permission to the Parish Clerks to have a printing-press and employ a printer in their hall, for the purpose of printing their weekly bills.
The first hall of the Fraternity was at the sign of the Angel in Bishopsgate, and by it was an almshouse for seven poor widows of deceased members. The second hall was in Broad Lane, in Vintry Ward, and was consumed in the Great Fire of 1666, when a third hall was erected between Silver Street and Wood Street, Cheapside; this was damaged about 1844. in a fire which destroyed several great warehouses. It was restored or rebuilt in a more ornamental style, and a new entrance made in Silver Street.
Park Crescent, REGENT'S PARK. Joseph Bonaparte, the ex-king of Spain, lived at No. 23 when in London in 1833. Here is a statue of the Duke of Kent (father of the Queen) by George Gahagan.
Park Lane, HYDE PARK, runs from Piccadilly to Oxford Street, by where stood Tyburn Turnpike, and was originally called Tyburn Lane. Londonderry (formerly Holdernesse) House, the residence of the Marquis of Londonderry (S. and B. Wyatt, architects), is one of the finest of the London mansions, and contains many noble pictures and other works of art. In Dorchester House (bought in 1848 by R. S. Holford, Esq., and pulled down) died the Marquis of Hertford, the favourite of George IV. The present Dorchester House, designed for Mr. Holford by Lewis Vulliamy, 1852-1853, is of superior design externally and very splendid inside. Besides many admirable pictures by Claude Lorraine, Velasquez, Hobbema, Cuyp, Ostade, Vandyck, Greuze, Wilkie (the Columbus), etc., it contains a choice collection of rare and valuable books. Dudley House, the residence of Earl Dudley, is another noble mansion rich in paintings by Raphael and the earlier Italian masters. Brook House, on the other side of . Upper Brook Street (T. H. Wyatt, architect), is the residence of Lord Tweedmouth; and Gloucester House of H. R. H. the Duke of Cambridge. Camelford House (at the Oxford Street end of the lane) was the town residence of Prince Leopold and the Princess Charlotte of Wales. Mrs. Fitzherbert lived in Park Lane, and it was in her drawingroom that the ceremony of her marriage with the Prince of Wales (George IV.) was performed, December 21, 1785.1
Park Place, St. James's STREET. Built 1683. The north side
9 Rate-books of St. Martin's.