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of his boyish quality for the stage. In No. 5 William Vandervelde the younger died, in 1707:1 and in 1799, in the front room of the second floor of the same house, died Thomas Major, the engraver. It was afterwards occupied by “Irish Johnstone,” the actor. No. 13 was Zincke's, the celebrated miniature painter; and Dr. Wolcot (Peter Pindar), wrote many of his invectives against George III. and the Royal Academy in the garret of the same house. William Godwin was living in Tavistock Row in 1755. One of John (Lord] Campbell's early London lodgings was at No. 3, “a couple of rooms," he wrote to his father, February 17, 1800, " for which I pay only nine shillings a week."

Tavistock Square, north of Russell Square, was built about the same time as Tavistock Place, and like it named from the second title of the Duke of Bedford. Prince Hoare resided at No. 3 in 1807. In the same house from 1816 to 1821 lived John Braham, the famous singer, and father of the Countess Waldegrave. Charles Knight at No. 51 in 1828.

Tavistock House,” in the open space at the north-east corner of Tavistock Square, was long the residence of James Perry, editor of the Morning Chronicle, and Tavistock House was noted for its reunions of men of political and literary distinction during the great days of that celebrated Whig paper. The house was afterwards divided and the moiety, which still retained the name of Tavistock, became the residence of Frank Stone, A.R.A., the painter, of whom the lease was purchased by Charles Dickens towards the end of 1850. During the next ten years it was his London abode. He built a little theatre in the garden and gave in it a series of brilliant amateur performances, in which he himself played the leading parts. The play-bills were headed “The Smallest Theatre in the World, Tavistock House.” In the summer of 1860 Dickens sold the lease, and on September 4 wrote to Mr. Wills, “Tavistock House is closed today and possession delivered up." He now made Gad's Hill his home, hiring a furnished house in London for a few weeks each year. Later it was for a time the residence of M, Gounod the composer.

Tavistock Street, Covent GARDEN, runs from Southampton Street to Wellington Street. Richard Leveridge, the celebrated singer, kept a tavern in this street after his retirement from the stage. Here he brought out “A Collection of Songs, with the Music by Mr. Leveridge. In two volumes. London : Engraved and Printed for the Author, in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, 1727."

Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, was once the street of fashionable shops—what Bond Street was till lately, and what Bond Street and Regent Street together are now. I remember hearing an old lady say that in her young days the crowd of handsome equipages in Tavistock Street was considered one of the sights of London. I have had the curiosity to stride it. It is about 160 yards long, and before the footways were widened would have admitted three carriages abreast.-—Walker, The Original, No. 3, June 3, 1835.

1 Smith's Nollekens, vol. i. p. 209.

2 Ibid., vol. ii. p. 335. 3 Letters of Charles Dickens, vol. ii. p. 120.

Returning thence the disappointed fleet
Anchors in Tavistock's fantastic street :
There under Folly's colours gaily rides
Where Humour points or veering Fashion guides.

Cumberland (Cradock, vol. iv. p. 262). When he (Lord Thurlow) was young he would do the kindest things and at an expense to himself which at that time he could ill afford, and he wd do them, too, in the most secret manner. I know not what is become of her now, but in those days there was a certain Miss Christian, the daughter, if I mistake not, of a Norfolk clergyman, who had been a friend of Thurlow's father. The girl was left pennyless, and he established her in Tavistock Street as a milliner, disbursing three hundred pounds to furnish a shop for her. I went with him to the house, and having seen her, am ready to swear that his motives were not, nor could be, of the amorous kind, for she was ugly to a wonder. --Cowper to Carwardine, June 11, 1792 ; Southey's Cowper, vol. vii. p. 127.

It is on such occasions snuff takers delight to solace themselves with a pinch of Thirty seven ; and we accordingly do so in imagination at our friend Fliddon's in Tavistock Street, who is a higher kind of Lilly to the Indicator-our papers lying among the piquant snuffs, as those of our illustrious predecessor, the Tatler, did among Mr. Lilly's perfumes at the corner of Beaufort Buildings. ----Leigh Hunt.

A large building used as a flower market has been erected on the north side of the street, but all that side west of the flower market now (1890) lies an open space.

Technical Institute, and Technical College. (See City and Guilds of London.]

Temple (The). A liberty or district between FLEET STREET and the Thames, and so called from the Knights Templars, who made their first London habitation in Holborn, in 1118, and removed to Fleet Street, or the New Temple, 1184. Spenser alludes to this London locality in his beautiful “Prothalamion":

those bricky towres 1
The which on Themmes brode aged back doe ryde,
Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers,
There whylome wont the Templer Knights to byde,

Till they decayd through pride. At the downfall of the Templars, in 1313, the New Temple in Fleet Street was given by Edward II. to Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, whose tomb, in Westminster Abbey, has called forth the eulogistic criticism of the classic Flaxman. At the Earl of Pembroke's death in 1323 the property passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (see St. John's Gate), by whom the Inner and Middle Temples were leased to the students of the Common Law, and the Outer Temple to Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, and Lord Treasurer, beheaded by the citizens of London in 1326. No change took place when the Temple property passed to the Crown at the dissolution of religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII., and the students of the two Inns of Court remained the tenants of the Crown till 1608, when James I. by letters patent conferred the two Temples on the Benchers of the two societies and their successors for ever. There are two edifices in the Temple specially worthy of a visit : the Temple Church (serving for both Temples), and the Middle Temple Hall.

1 The Fire of London was stopped in its march The houses in Fleet Street were of wood. (Sce westward by the brick buildings of the Temple. Ram Alley.)

The Temple Church was the church of the Knights Templars, and consists of two parts, the Round Church and the Choir. The Round Church (transition Norman work) was built in the year 1185, as an inscription in Saxon characters, formerly on the stonework over the little door next the cloister, recorded, and dedicated by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem ; the Choir (pure Early English) was finished in 1240. The restorations and alterations, made 1839-1842, at a cost of £70,000, are in correct 12th and 13th century taste; but it is much to be lamented that the changes were of so sweeping a character that the interest of association was not regarded, and that the monuments to several great men (though architecturally out of place) were not suffered to remain in the arcades and compartments in which they were first erected. Many of these monuments were removed to the triforium. Observe.—Entrance doorway (very fine); two groups of monumental effigies, in Round Church, of Knights Templars, cross-legged (names unknown, at least very uncertain); the figure between the two columns on the south-east having a foliage-ornament about the cushion supporting the head, and the feet resting upon a lion, represents, it is said, William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke (d. 1119), Earl Marshal and Protector of England during the minority of Henry III. ; monument of white marble, left of the altar, to the learned Selden (d. 1654; he was buried beneath); and in the triforium (ascended by a narrow staircase), the tombs of Plowden, the jurist ; Richard Martin (d. 1618), to whom Ben Jonson dedicates his Poetaster; James Howell, the letter-writer (d. 1666); Edmund Gibbon.

My family arms are the same which were borne by the Gibbons of Kent in an age when the College of Heralds religiously guarded the distinctions of blood and name; a lion rampant, gardant, between three schallop shells argent, on a field azure. I should not, however, have been tempted to blazon my coat of arms were it not connected with a whimsical anecdote. About the reign of James I. the three harmless schallop shells were changed by Edmund Gibbon, Esq., into there ogresses, or female cannibals, with a design of stigmatising three ladies, his kinswomen, who had provoked him by an unjust lawsuit. But this singular mode of revenge, for which he obtained the sanction of Sir William Seager, king at arms, soon expired with its author ; and on his own monument in the Temple Church the monsters vanish, and the three schallop shells resume their proper and hereditary place. Gibbon.


His grave was about ten foot deepe or better, walled up a good way with bricks, of which also the bottomc was paved, but the sides at the bottome for about two foot high were of black polished marble, wherein his coffin (covered with black bayes) lyeth, and upon that wall of marble was presently lett downe a huge black marble

stone of great thicknesse, with this inscription: 'Hic jacet corpus Johannis Seldeni, qui obijt 30 die Novembris, 1654.' Over this was turned an arch of brick (for the House would not lose their ground) and upon that was throwne the earth etc.”-Aubrey, vol. iii. p. 533.

The so-called Penitential Cell, off the corkscrew stairs leading to the gallery. In the burial-ground east of the Choir, and without the building, Oliver Goldsmith was buried, on April 9, 1774, at 5 o'clock in the evening. There is a coped gravestone with an inscription to his memory in the graveyard on the north side, but the exact place of his interment is unknown, although the inscription says “Here lies.” Lord Chancellor Thurlow was buried with unusual pomp under the south aisle, September 1806.1 The Round was used as a place where lawyers received their clients, each occupying his particular post, like a merchant upon 'Change.

Face. Here's one from Captain Face, sir [to Surly],
Desires you meet him in the Temple Church
Some half hour hence, and upon earnest business.

Ben Jonson, The Alchemist, Act ii. Sc. 1.
Face. I have walk'd the Round

Till now, and no such thing.--Ibid., Act iii, Sc. 2.
And for advice 'twixt him and us he had made choice of a lawyer, a mercer, and
a merchant, who that morning were appointed to meet him in the Temple Church.
Middleton, Father Hubburd's Tales, 4to, 1604.

Retain all sorts of witnesses
That ply i' the Temples under trees,
Or walk the Round with Knights o'th' Posts
About the cross-legg'd knights their hosts ;
Or wait for customers between

The pillar rows in Lincoln's Inn.Hudibras, pt. iii. c. iii. Courtin. I shall be ere long as greasy as an Alsatian bully; this flapping hat, pinned up on one side, with a sandy weather-beaten peruke, dirty linen, and to complete the figure, a long scandalous iron sword jarring at my heels. My companions the worthy Knights of the most noble order of the Post, your peripatetic philosophers of the Temple Walks.-Otway, The Soldier's Fortune, 4to, 1681.

Nor was this custom forgotten when the present cloisters were rebuilt, after the Great Fire of 1666.

I remember that after the fire of the Temple, it was considered whether the old cloister walks should be rebuilt, or rather improved into chambers ; which latter had been for the benefit of the Middle Temple. But in regard it could not be done without the consent of the Inner houses, the Masters of the Middle houses waited upon the then Mr. Attorney Finch, to desire the concurrence of his society, upon a proposition of some benefit to be thrown in on his side. But Mr. Attorney would by no means give way to it, and reproved the Middle Templars very bitterly and eloquently upon the subject of students walking in evenings there, and putting cases “which,” he said, “was done in his time, as mean and low as the buildings were then, however it comes,” said he, “that such a benefit to students is now made so little account of.”? And thereupon the cloisters, by the order and disposition of Sir Christopher Wren, were built as they now stand.-North’s Life of Lord Keeper Guildford, ed. 1826, vol. i. p. 27.

The preacher at the Temple is called Master of the Temple, and this was once an appointment of greater dignity and expectations than

i Campbell, Lives of the Chancellors, vol. v. p. 631.

? Evelyn received the first rudiments of his education in the church porch at Wotton.

it is now.1 The "judicious Hooker, author of the Ecclesiastical Polity, was for six years Master of the Temple—"a place,” says Izaak Walton, “which he accepted rather than desired.” Travers, a disciple of Cartwright, the Nonconformist, was then lecturer; and Hooker, it was said, preached Canterbury in the forenoon, and Travers Geneva in the afternoon. The Benchers were divided ; and Travers, being first silenced by the Archbishop, Hooker resigned and retired to the quiet parsonage of Boscombe to complete his great work, the Ecclesiastical Polity. In this church Archbishop Ussher preached the funeral sermon of the learned Selden. The organ was made by Father Schmydt, or Smith, in honourable competition with his great rival Renatus Harris. Blow and Purcell, then in their prime, performed on Father Smith's organ on appointed days; and till Harris's was heard every one believed that Smith's must be chosen Harris employed Baptiste Draghi, organist to Queen Catherine, "to touch his organ," which brought it into favour; and thus the two continued vying with each other for near a twelvemonth. The decision at length was left to the notorious Judge Jeffreys, who decided in favour of Father Smith. Smith excelled in the diapason, or foundation stops; Harris principally in the reed stops. The choral services on a Sunday are well performed and well attended. The Round of the church is open to all, but the Choir is reserved for the Benchers, barristers, and students. Strangers are admitted by the introduction of a Bencher of either Temple. Shakespeare (or the writer of the First Part of King Henry VI.) has made the "Temple Gardens ”—a fine open space, fronting the Thames —the place in which the distinctive badges (the white rose and red rose) of the houses of York and Lancaster were first assumed by their respective partisans.

Suffolk. Within the Temple Hall we were too loud :
The garden here is more convenient.

Plantagenet. Let him that is a true-born gentleman,
And stands upon the honour of his birth,
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth,
From off this brier pluck a white rose with me.

Somerset. Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

. Hath not thy rose a canker, Somerset ?
Somerset. Hath not thy rose a thorn, Plantagenet ?


This brawl to-day,
Grown to this faction in the Temple Gardens,

“Which way!" says the doctor; "why, fool, with the

To St. Paul's or to Lambeth was all one to him.

1 When Sherlock, Bishop of Salisbury, was Master of the Temple, the sees of Canterbury and London were vacant about the same time (1748); this occasioned an epigram upon Sherlock:At the Temple one day Sherlock taking a boat, The waterman asked him, “Which way will you float?",


The tide in favour of Sherlock was running to St.
Paul's. He was made Bishop of London.


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