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Hall; College Hill; Dowgate; Allhallows the Great ; Coldharbour ; Steelyard; Suffolk Lane ; Lawrence Poultney Hill; Old Swan Stairs (here was the Shades, at London Bridge, noted for the excellent flavour of its wines and its moderate charges). Here the street passes under London Bridge. Observe-In Lower Thames Street, Fish Street Hill, church of St. Magnus (built by Wren); Pudding Lane (where the Great Fire of 1666 broke out); Botolph Lane, so called from the church of St. Botolph, destroyed in the Great Fire; Billingsate ; St. Mary-at-Hill (so called from the church on the hill, on the left as you ascend); church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East (built by Wren);

Custom House ; the Tower. v

Thames Subway. [See Tower Subway.]

Thames Tunnel (two miles below London Bridge). A tunnel 1300 feet in length and 35 feet in width, beneath the bed of the river Thames, connecting Wapping on the left side of the river with Rotherhithe, or Redriff, on the right. This work was projected and carried out under enormous difficulties by Sir Mark Isambard Brunel. commenced in January 1825, closed for seven years by an inundation; recommenced in 1835 and opened for public traffic March 25, 1843. It cost over £600,000, of which £270,000 was lent by Government. Only about £100,000 of this advance was repaid, and a Treasury Warrant remitted the balance of over £150,000. As a footway for passengers this tunnel never more than paid the bare expenses of working, and was sold in 1865 to the East London Railway Company for £200,000. Sloping approaches were added by this Company, and trains now run through the Tunnel, connecting the Great Eastern and other lines north of the Thames with the Brighton and those on the south. The Tunnel consists of two arched passages . 1 200 feet long, 14 feet wide, 161 feet high, separated by a wall of brick 4 feet thick, with 64 arched openings in it. The crown of the arch is 16 feet below the bottom of the river.

Thanet House, ALDERSGATE STREET,

And the 7 day of May 1664, being Saturdaie, about 3 o'clock in the morning dyed my sonne-in-law John Tufton Earle of Thanet in his house called Thanet House, in Aldersgate Street at London in those lodgings that look towards the street, which he had about 20 years since built with freestone very magnificently.— True Memorials of Anne Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery.

[See Aldersgate Street.]

Thanet Place, 231 STRAND, a few doors west of Temple Bar, was so called after the Tuftons, Earls of Thanet. John Martin the painter was living here in 1811. (See Rose Tavern.]

Thatched House Club (formerly Civil Service Club), No. 86 ST. JAMES'S STREET—west side, next the Conservative Club House. The Club (established 1865) comprises 1200 members, who are elected by ballot. Entrance fee, 25 guineas; annual subscription, 10 guineas.

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Thatched House Tavern, ST. JAMES'S STREET, a celebrated tavern, with a large room for public meetings, stood from 1711 up to about 1843 on the site of the present Conservative Clubhouse. It then occupied the adjoining premises from 1845 to 1865, when it was pulled down and the Civil Service Club (now the Thatched House Club) and Thatched House Chambers were built on the site.

The Deanery House may well be match'd,
Under correction, with the Thatch'd.

Swift, Birthday Verses on Mr. Ford. December 27, 1711.-I entertained our Society at the Thatched House Tavern to-day at dinner ; but brother Bathurst sent for wine, the house affording none. — Swift, Journal to Stella.

In the debates on the Regency, a prim peer, remarkable for his finical delicacy and formal adherence to etiquette, having cited pompously certain resolutions which he said had been passed by a party of noblemen and gentlemen of great distinction at the Thatched House Tavern, the Lord Chancellor Thurlow, in adverting to these, said, “As to what the noble lord in the red riband told us he had heard at the ale. house.”—Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vol. v. p. 643.

In this tavern Gildon has laid the scene of his Comparison between the Two Stages (12mo, 1702). The Society of Dilettanti met at the Thatched House, and here were kept their famous portraits until the removal to Willis's Rooms. [See Dilettanti Society.]

Thavie's Inn, HOLBORN Circus, an Inn of Chancery appertaining to Lincoln's Inn, but sold by that society in 1771 to a Mr. Middleton. It derives its name from John Thavie, of the Armourers' Company, who in 1348 bequeathed certain houses in Holborn towards the fabric of the adjoining church of St. Andrew, still possessed by the parish. The north end of the Inn was cut off in forming the Holborn Viaduct.

I must and will begin with Thavis Inne, for besides that at my first coming to London I was admitted for probation into that good house, I take it to be the oldest Inn of Chancery, at the least in Holborn. It was before the dwelling of an honest citizen called John Thavie an armorer, and was rented of him in the time of King Edward the 3 by the chief Professors then of the Law, viz., Apprentices, as it is yet extant in a record in the Hustings, and whereof my Lord Coke shewed to me the transcript, but since that time it was purchased for the students and other professors of the Law of Chancery by the Benchers of Lincoln's Inn, about the reign of King Henry the Seventh, and retaineth the name of the old Landlord or owner Master Thavie.—Sir George Buc, in Howes, ed. 1631, p. 1074.

Thavie's Inn was purchased by the Society of Lincoln's Inn in 1550 of Gregory Nichols, citizen and mercer, for the sum of “three score and fifteen pounds,” for the use of students of the law. It was sold to Mr. Middleton in 1769 for £4100. The scene of Hogarth's Second Stage of Cruelty is laid at the gate of Thavie's Inn. The longest

'shilling fare” in London was from this Inn to Westminster, and the foreground of the picture is occupied by four lawyers in wigs and gowns, who have clubbed their threepence each for the Hackney Coach, No. 24, F. Nero driver, to carry them to Westminster. But

The generous steed in hoary age

Subdued by labour lies,

I Cooper's Melmoth, p. 335.

And mourns a cruel master's rage

While Nature strength denies.- Inscription under Print. Thayer Street, MANCHESTER SQUARE (Hinde Street to George Street). Here, at No. 4, was the Venetian Embassy in 1796—the last of the long line. And here at his lodgings, in No. 16, died (1857) Long Tylney Wellesley Pole, known as the last and prodigal owner of Wanstead, and condemned to lasting fame by the "Rejected Addresses."

Theatre (The), HOLYWELL LANE, SHOREDITCH, the earliest building erected in or near London purposely for theatrical entertainments, stood on certain howsing and void grounds lying and being in Holywell, in the county of Middlesex,” let (April 13, 1576) by Giles Allein, of Haseleigh, in Essex, gentleman, to “ James Burbadge, late of London, joiner,” for twenty-one years, at the yearly rent of £14. The house was erected at the cost of John Braynes, the father-in-law of Burbadge, who advanced £600 on condition that Burbadge should assign to him a moiety of the theatre and its profits. That assignment does not seem to have been executed in the lifetime of Braynes, and his widow was obliged to commence proceedings in equity, to compel a fulfilment of the contract. The point in dispute was afterwards moved to the Star Chamber, Allein, the ground landlord, complaining to the Privy Council that the rent was partly unpaid, and that Cuthbert Burbadge, the son, had, December 28, 1598, “carried the wood to the Bankside, and there erected a new playhouse with the said wood.” Allein's bill was referred to Francis Bacon, Esq. (afterwards Earl of St. Alban), whose decision was that “the said bill is very uncertain and insufficient, and that no further answer need to be made thereto."1 The “new playhouse was the Globe. The present Standard Theatre is said to occupy, at least in part, the site of the Theatre in Holywell Lane,

In the Middlesex County Records (edited by J. C. Jeaffreson, vol. ii. p. xlvii.) there is a notice of an indictment against John Braynes and John Burbadge in Elizabeth's reign on account of commotions and riots, etc., which had taken place at the theatre. We have no description of either the exterior or interior of the building, but in De Witt's later description of the London Theatres, 1596, it is described as one of four amphitheatres (See Transactions of the New Shakspere Society, 1887-1891, p. 218).

Theobalds Road, RED LION SQUARE to GRAY's InN LANE, was so called because it led towards Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, the favourite hunting-seat of King James I. The King, on leaving Whitehall, went through the Strand, up Drury Lane, and so on into Holborn, Kingsgate Street, and the King's Way or Theobalds Road. Hatton (1708), speaking of Kingsgate Street and the King's Way, says, “This street and way are so called because the King used to go this way to Newmarket : some call the easterly end of this street Theobalds Road.” 2 John le Neve

1 Proceedings in the Star Chamber preserved in the Chapter House ; Shakspere Society's Papers, vol. iv. p. 63.

2 Hatton, p. 44.

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lived in this road, and here he advertised that his Monumenta Anglicana (5 vols. 8vo, 1717-1719) might be bought. Theobalds Road' has within the last few years been in parts much widened and altered to fit it to form part of the great thoroughfare from Oxford Street to Old Street and Shoreditch. In 1878 King's Road was renamed and included in Theobalds Road.

Thieving (or Thieven, i.e. Thieves) Lane, WESTMINSTER. Great George Street nearly represents it.

And now to pass to the famous monastery of Westminster : at the very entrance of the Close thereof, is a lane that leadeth toward the west, called Thieving Lane, for that thieves were led that way to the Gate House, while the Sanctuary continued in force.-Stow, p. 169.

This place by some is called Bow Lane, from its turning passage into Broken Cross, or Long Ditch, like a bent bow. The houses are not over well built, and divers of its inhabitants drive a trade in second hand goods.—Strype, B. vi. p. 63.

Thomas (St.) of Acon or Acres, was a Militia Hospitalis "on the north side of Chepe," on the ground now occupied by Mercers' Chapel, founded by Agnes, sister of Thomas à Becket, and named after that popular saint. St. Thomas was named of Acon or Acre in consequence of the belief that Acon. or Acre in Syria was captured through his miraculous interposition. The house in which à Becket was born stood on the site of the chapel dedicated to him. In the early ordinances of the City the Mayor and Alderman are directed on divers feasts and other solemn occasions to go in procession “ from the church of St. Thomas de Acon to St. Paul's," and on the Wednesday “in the week of Pentecost, from St. Thomas de Acres to Saint Paul's," the terms being used indifferently. The site of the chapel is now merged in Mercers' Hall and chapel (which see).

In the 13th Henry VIII. (1521) when the Mercers borrowed a large sum from the Prior of the Charterhouse, “the annuity or yearly rent” due upon it was to be paid " at the aulter of Seynt Thomas the Martyr, in the northe parte of the body of the chyrche of Seynt Thomas the Martyr in London, called Seynt Thomas of Acon."

In the sermon preached by Bishop Latimer before Edward VI. on April 12, 1547, he related the following anecdote :

I had rather ye shoulde come of a naughtye minde to heare the worde of God, for noveltye, or for curiositie to here some pastime than to be awaye. I had rather ye shoulde come, as the tale is, by the gentlewoman of London. One of her neighbours mette her in the streate, and sayed Mestres whither go ye? Marry, sayed she, I am goynge to S. Tomas of Acres, to the sermon. I coulde not slepe al thys laste nyghte, and I am goynge now thether, I never fayled of a good nap there. And so I had rather ye shoulde go a napping to the sermons than not go at al.

Thomas (St.) The Apostle, "a proper church” in Knightrider Street, by Wringwren Lane, in the ward of Vintry, destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt. The church of the parish is St. Mary Aldermary. 1 Liber Albus, p. 6, etc; Erasmus speaks of Becket as “Thomas Acrensis."-Life, by Jortin,

° Stow, p. 92.

yol. i. p. 33.

was

Thomas (St.) Apostle, SOUTHWARK, on the north side of St. Thomas Street. The church of the dissolved Monastery or Hospital of St. Thomas in Southwark; made parochial after the dissolution of religious houses. In 1360 (34 Edward I.) the brethren of St. Thomas were allowed to celebrate divine service. Before 1489 a church was here, with chapels and altars and statues, and in 1521 the parish was known as "the parish of St. Thomas's Hospital.” The living is in the gift of the governors of St. Thomas's Hospital. The register records the marriage, January 27, 1613, of the father and mother of John Evelyn. In 1700 the church had long been unfit for its purpose, and in 1703 a new one was erected at a cost of £3043 : 2 : 8, allowed out of the duty upon

“coales and culm." The parish is the smallest in Southwark, but it included within it the two magnificent hospitals of St. Thomas and Guy's, until the former was removed to make room for the extension of the South Eastern Railway. The sculptor of the monument of Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster Abbey, and of the remarkable tomb of Sir Roger Aston and his wives in Crayford, describes himself in the agreement, dated January 4, 1612-1613, for making and setting up the latter work, as “of St. Thomas the Apostle in Southwarke.” The sculptor of the monumental bust and tomb of Shakespeare at Stratford - upon - Avon

“Gerard Johnson, a Hollander, in St. Thomas Apostells.” 1 In the first edition of this work Mr. Cunningham assumed that this was St. Thomas the Apostle in the Ward of Vintry, but further inquiries convinced him that he was mistaken, and that “Gerard Johnson lived, liked Cure, in St. Thomas the Apostle, Southwark, near to the Globe Theatre, and that he must have often seen Shakespeare. If I am right in this conjecture, the Stratford bust becomes additionally valuable as a likeness.”2 The register of neither parish throw any light on the subject.

Thomas (St.) Hospital, ALBERT EMBANKMENT, rebuilt on 8.1 acres of ground recovered from the river by the construction of the Albert Embankment, lies between Westminster Bridge and Lambeth Palace.

The old Hospital in High Street, Southwark, was founded in 1213 by Richard, Prior of Bermondsey, as an Almonry; bought at the dissolution of religious houses by the citizens of London, and opened by them as a Hospital for poor and impotent people in 1552. building having fallen into disrepair was entirely rebuilt in 1701-1706 by public subscription. In 1862 the South Eastern Railway, requiring a portion of the site for their branch line to Charing Cross, gave by award £ 296,000 for the building and ground. The new building was commenced in 1868 and opened by the Queen in June 1871. It consists of 7 blocks (or pavilions as they are technically designated) of about equal size, with a smaller one between the fourth and fifth, and

1 Dugdale's Diary, by Hamper, 1653, p. 79; and App. 2, 1592.

2 Letter in Builder, April 4, 1386.

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