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in July 1656.1 Sir William Davenant. Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham. Sir Harry Vane, the younger. Sir William Coventry.

March 11, 1668-1669.-Up and to Sir W. Coventry to the Tower. . .. We walked down to the Stone Walk, which is called, it seems, my Lord of Northumberland's walk, being paved by some one of that title who was prisoner there : and at the end of it there is a piece of iron upon the wall with his armes upon it, and holes to put in a peg for every turn they make upon that walk.–Pepys. Earl of Shaftesbury; Earl of Salisbury, temp. Charles II. When Lord Salisbury was offered his attendants in the Tower he only asked for his cook. The King was very angry. William, Lord Russell, 1683; Algernon Sidney, 1683; Seven bishops, June 8, 1688; Lord Chancellor Jeffreys, 1688; the great Duke of Marlborough, 1692. Sir Robert Walpole, 1712 (Granville, Lord Lansdowne, the poet, was afterwards confined in the same apartment, and has left a copy of verses on the occasion.) Harley, Earl of Oxford, 1715 ; William Shippen, M.P. for Saltash, for saying, in the House of Commons, of a speech from the throne by George I., “that the second paragraph of the King's speech seemed rather to be calculated for the meridian of Germany than Great Britain ; and that 'twas a great misfortune that the King was a stranger to our language and constitution." He is the "downright Shippen ” of Pope's poems. Bishop Atterbury, 1722.

How pleasing Atterbury's softer hour,

How shone his soul unconquered in the Tower !-POPE. At his last interview with Pope Atterbury presented Pope with a Bible. When Atterbury was in the Tower Lord Cadogan was asked, “What shall we do with the man ?” His reply was, “ Fling him to the lions." Dr. Freind; here he wrote his History of Medicine. Earl of Derwentwater; Earl of Nithsdale; Lord Kenmuir. Lord Nithsdale escaped from the Tower, February 28, 1715, dressed in a woman's cloak and hood, provided by his heroic wife, which were for some time after called “Nithsdales.” The Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Kenmuir were executed on Tower Hill. The history of the Earl of Nithsdale's escape, contrived and effected by his countess with admirable coolness and intrepidity, is given by the countess herself, in a letter to her sister, printed in the appendix to Cromek’s Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song, p. 311. Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat, 1746. The block on which Lord Lovat was beheaded is preserved in the Armoury. John Wilkes, 1762; Lord George Gordon, 1780; Sir Francis Burdett, April 6, 1810. [See Piccadilly.] Arthur Thistlewood, March 3, 1820. [See Cato Street.

Persons born in.-Carew Raleigh (Sir Walter Raleigh's son); Mrs. Hutchinson, the biographer of her husband; Countess of Bedford, (daughter of the infamous Countess of Somerset, and mother of William Lord Russell).

• The chief officer of the Tower is the Constable, a dignity dating from the Conquest, and first held by Geoffrey de Mandeville. Langton, i Whitelocke, p. 649.

? Henry, ninth Earl.

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Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert de Burgh, Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Duke of Wellington, Sir John Fox Burgoyne, and Lord Napier of Magdala, are amongst the familiar historical characters who have held the post of Constable of the Tower. The present (1890) Constable is Field-Marshal Sir Daniel Lysons. [See St. Peter's ad Vincula.]

The entrance to the Tower is from Tower Hill by the western gate. Admission from ten to four by tickets, for the Armoury and White Tower, 6d.; and for the Crown Jewels 6d. each person ; but on Mondays and Saturdays free.

Tower Hamlets (The), certain parishes, or hamlets, and liberties without the jurisdiction of the City of London, and formerly within the liberties of the Lieutenant of the Tower. These liberties include Hackney, Norton Folgate, Shoreditch, Spitalfields, Whitechapel, East Smithfield, St. Katherine's, Wapping, Ratcliffe, Shadwell, Limehouse, Poplar, Blackwall, Bromley, Old Ford, Mile End, Bethnal Green, etc. By the Reform Act of 1831 they were constituted a Parliamentary Borough, returning two members to represent their interests in the House of Commons. By the Reform Act of 1867 the borough was divided into the parliamentary boroughs of Hackney and the Tower Hamlets, each to return two members to Parliament. At the census of 1881 the parliamentary borough contained 438,910 inhabitants. By the Reform Act of 1885 Hackney was divided into north, central, and south, each returning one member; and the Tower Hamlets into Whitechapel, St. George's, Limehouse, Mile End, Stepney, Bow, and Bromley and Poplar, each returning one member.

Tower Hill, the high ground to the north-west of the Tower.

From and without the Tower ditch west and north is the Tower Hill, sometime a large plot of ground, now greatly straitened by encroachments (unlawfully made and suffered) for gardens and houses. ... Upon this Hill is always readily prepared, at the charges of the City, a large scaffold and gallows of timber, for the execution of such traitors or transgressors as are delivered out of the Tower, or otherwise, to the sheriffs of London, by writ, there to be executed.–Stow, p. 49.

When we came upon the Hill, the first object that more particularly affected us, was that emblem of destruction, the scaffold.-Ned Ward's London Spy, pt. 13.

The scaffold was removed about the middle of the last century.

In 1543 Marillac the French Ambassador lived on Tower Hill, and the Duke of Norfolk (son of the victor of Flodden) and his brother, Lord William Howard, frequently paid him “mysterious midnight visits.”] Lady Raleigh lodged on Tower Hill while her husband was a prisoner in the Tower.

The Lady Raleighe must understand his Mats Expresse Will and comandment that she resort to her house on Tower Hill or ellswhere wth her women and sonnes to remayne there, and not to lodge hereafter wthin the Tower.-Orders conuerning the Tower of London, to be observed by the Lieutenant (Sir W. Wade's Reg., 1605, 1611; Addit. MSS. Brit. Mus., No. 14,044).

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was born on Tower Hill, October 14, 1644.

i Froude, vol. iv. p. 250.

Your late honoured father dwelt upon Great Tower Hill on the east side, within a court adjoining to London Wall.-P. Gibson to William Penn, the Quaker (Sir W. Penn's Life, vol. ii. p. 615).

At a public-house on Tower Hill, known by the sign of the Bull, whither he had withdrawn to avoid his creditors, Otway, the poet, died (it is said of want), April 14, 1685. In a cutler's shop on Tower Hill Felton bought the knife with which he stabbed the first Duke of Buckingham of the Villiers family; it was a broad, sharp, hunting knife, and cost one shilling. The second duke often repaired in disguise to the lodging of a poor person, “about Tower Hill," who professed skill in horoscopes. Smith has engraved a view of a curious old house on Tower Hill, enriched with medallions evidently of the age of Henry VIII., and similar to those at old Whitehall and at Hampton Court.

Executions on Tower Hill.-Bishop Fisher, June 22, 1535; Sir Thomas More, July 6, 1535.

Going up the scaffold, which was so weak that it was ready to fall, he said hurriedly to the Lieutenant, “I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safe up, and for my coming down let me shift for myself.”- Roper's Life.

Cromwell, Earl of Essex, July 28, 1540 ; Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury, mother of Cardinal Pole, May 27, 1541; Earl of Surrey, the poet, January 21, 1547 ; Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, the Lord Admiral, beheaded March 20, 1549, by order of his brother the Protector Somerset; The Protector Somerset, January 22, 1552 ; Sir Thomas Wyatt, 1554; John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Northumberland, 1553; Lord Guilford Dudley (husband of Lady Jane Grey), February 12, 1553-1554 ; Sir Gervase Elways or Helwys, Lieutenant of the Tower, hanged for his share in the murder of Sir

Thomas Overbury; Earl of Strafford, May 12, 1641; Archbishop Laud, January 10, 1644-1645 ; Sir Harry Vane, the younger, June 14, 1662; “The trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard” 2; William Howard, Lord Viscount Stafford, December 29, 1680, beheaded on the perjured evidence of Titus Oates and others; Algernon Sidney, December 7, 1683.

Algernon Sidney was beheaded this day; died very resolutely, and like a true rebel, and republican.Duke of York to Prince of Orange, December 7, 1683. Duke of Monmouth, July 15, 1685 ; Sir John Fenwick, January 28, 1697; Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Kenmuir, implicated in the Rebellion of 1715; Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino, August 18, 1746.

Kilmarnock was executed first, and then the scaffold was immediately new strewn with sawdust, the block new covered, the executioner new dressed, and a new axe brought. Then old Balmerino appeared, treading the scaffold with the air of a general, and reading undisturbed the inscription on his coffin.—Walpole to Mann, August 21, 1746. Simon, Lord Lovat, April 9, 1747. He was not only the last person beheaded on Tower Hill, but the last person beheaded in this country. i Clarendon's Autobiography, vol. iii. p. 27.

? Pepys, June 14, 1662. VOL. III


The Tribulation on Tower Hill, mentioned by Shakespeare, has puzzled his commentators; the reference seems to be to a Puritan congregation, but it is hard to see why they should be ready to endure “the youths that thunder at a playhouse.”

Porter. These are the youths that thunder at a playhouse, and fight for bitten apples; that no audience but the Tribulation of Tower Hill, or the limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, are able to endure.— Shakespeare, Henry VIII., Act v. Sc. 3.

Among the miscellaneous titles of City ordinances in Book iv. of the Liber Albus is one of a “Grant of the Hermitage near the garden of his lordship the King upon Towrhille.” 1

Tower Royal, Watling STREET, in Vintry Ward, so called, according to Stow, from an ancient tower or messuage of the Kings of England, but really from the adjacent street of the Reole or Riole, “which was built (in the 13th century probably) by the Merchants of the Vintry, who imported wine from the town of La Reole, near Bordeaux.” 2

Tower Royal was of old time the King's House. King Stephen was there lodged; but sithence called the Queen's Wardrobe. The princess, mother to King Richard II., in the fourth year of his reign was lodged there ; being forced to fly from the Tower of London, when the rebels possessed it.-Stow, p. 27.

This Tower and great place was so called of pertaining to the kings of this realm, but by whom the same was first built, or of what antiquity continued, I have not read more than that in the reign of Edward I., the 2nd, 4th, and 7th years, it was the tenement of Simon Beawmes (Beauvais] ; also that in the 36th of Edward III., the same was called the Royal [the Riole) in the parish of St. Michael de Pater. noster, and that in the 43rd of his reign, he gave it by the name of his inn called the Royal, in the city of London, in value twenty pounds by year, unto his college of St. Stephen at Westminster. --Stow, p. 92.

In early records it is invariably called “la Real,” “ la Reole,” “la Riole,” or “la Ryal or Ryole ;” and it is described simply as a “tenement;" I have never found an instance of its being called a “tower.” At the close of the reign of Henry III. it was held by one Thomas Bat, citizen of London, who demised it to Master Simon of Beauvais, surgeon to Edward I. ; this grant was confirmed by that sovereign by charter in 1277 (Rot. Cart. 5 Edw. I. m. 17.Placita de Quo Warranto, p. 461). This Simon of Beauvais figures in Stow and Pennant as Simon de Beawmes. In 1331 Edward III. granted “la Real” to his consort Philippa, for the term of her life, that it might be used as a depository for her wardrobe (Rot. Pat. 4 Edw. III., 2d part, m. 15). By Queen Philippa it was extensively repaired, if not rebuilt, and the particulars of the works executed there by her direction, may be seen in the Wardrobe Account of the sixth year of her reign, preserved in the Cottonian MS. Galba E. ii., fo. 177, et seq. ; this account is erroneously attributed in the catalogue to Eleanor, consort of Edward I. One Maria de Beauvais, probably a descendant of Master Simon, received compensation for quitting a tenement which she held at the time Philippa's operations commenced. In 1365 Edward III. granted to Robert de Corby, in fee, “one tenement in the street of la Ryole, London,” to hold by the accustomed services. Finally, in 1370, Edward gave the “inn (hospitium) with its appurtenances called le Reole, in the city of London,” to the canons of St. Stephen's, Westminster, as of the yearly value of £20 (Rot. Pat. 43 Edw. III., m. 24).

It is thus sufficiently clear that in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries this place was not called Tower Royal ; nor does there appear to be any ground for sup

i Liber Albus, p. 477.

2 Riley, Memorials, vol. xx.

ing for the stow wrote it ha320, in both of discovered in the

posing that it was so named in earlier times, or, indeed, that it was ever occupied by royalty before it became Philippa's wardrobe. --T. Hudson Turner, in Notes and Queries, No. 8.

The earliest notices of the building Mr. Riley discovered in the City archives are of A.D. 1318 and 1320, in both of which it is called La Riole. When Stow wrote it had been "neglected and turned into stabling for the King's horses; and is now (1598) letten out to divers men, and divided into tenements." What remained of it was entirely destroyed in the Great Fire.

Tower Street (Great), Tower Hill to LITTLE TOWER STREET by Idol Lane.

This is the way
To Julius Cæsar's ill-erected Tower.

Shakespeare, Richard II., Act v. Sc. 1. When the profligate Earl of Rochester, under the name of “ Alexander Bendo," played the part of a mountebank physician in the City, he took up his lodgings in Tower Street, next door to the Black Swan, at a goldsmith's house, where he gave out that he was sure of being seen from 3 of the clock in the afternoon till 8 at night.”

Being under an unlucky accident, which obliged him to keep out of the way, he disguised himself so that his nearest friends could not have known him, and set up in Tower Street for an Italian mountebank, where he [had a stage and] practised physic some weeks not without success. —Burnet's Life, p. 37, ed. 1680. Observe.-On the south side, No. 48, the Czar's Head.

Having finished their day's work (Peter the Great and his boon companions] they used to resort to a public-house in Great Tower Street, close to Tower Hill, to smoke their pipes and drink beer and brandy. The landlord had the Czar of Muscovy's head painted and put up for his sign, which continued till the year 1808, when a person of the name of Waxel took a fancy to the old sign, and offered the then occupier of the house to paint him a new one for it. A copy was accordingly made from the original, which maintains its station to the present day as the sign of the “Tzar of Muscovy."— Barrow's Life of Peter the Great, p. 83. The house has since been rebuilt, and the sign removed, but the name remains ; and out of Trinity Square is Muscovy Court. On the north

side, by Tower Hill, is the church of Allhallows, Barking. ✓ Tower Street (Little), from GREAT TOWER STREET to EASTCHEAP. Here Thomson composed his poem of Summer.

I go on Saturday next to reside at Mr. Watts's academy in Little Tower Street, in quality of Tutor to a young gentleman there.Thomson to Aaron Hill, May 24, 1726.

When you honour me with an answer, please to direct for me at Mr. Watts's academy in Little Tower Street. Ibid., June 7, 1726. V Tower Street Ward, one of the twenty-six wards of London, and

so called from its contiguity to the Tower of London. It is bounded on the north by Fenchurch Street, on the south by the Thames, on the east by Tower Hill, and on the west by Billingsgate. Stow enumerates three churches in this ward — Allhallows, Barking ; St. Olave's, Hart

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