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Street ; St. Dunstan's-in-the-East. The Custom House, and two Halls of Companies, the Clothworkers' and Bakers', are also in this ward—the extreme ward of the City to the east upon the Thames.

Tower Subway (The), a tunnel under the Thames from Tower Hill to Tooley Street, constructed in 1869-1870 by Mr. P. Barlow, C.E. The subway is remarkable for simplicity, celerity, and economy of construction rather than for commercial success. It was formed by excavating a tunnel through the clay bed of the Thames by means of a wrought-iron tubular shield, 8 feet in diameter, which was pushed forward, as the cutting advanced, by powerful screw - jacks. The tunnel was lined with a tube formed of cast-iron rings, 7 feet in diameter, firmly bolted together, the space between this tube and the clay being filled with an impermeable blue-lias cement. The work was carried through at the average rate of 9 feet a day, and completed for £16,000. The tunnel is reached at each end by a shaft about 60 feet deep. When first opened passengers were conveyed through the tunnel in an omnibus drawn by small steam - engines fixed at the Tower and Tooley Street ends. Some difficulties occurring in the working this plan was abandoned and it was found necessary to make passengers walk.

Town Ditch.

Town Ditch, a broad passage just without the City wall, between Christ's Hospital and Little Britain . . . and so called from the ditch that was formerly without the walls of the City.--Hatton, p. 83.

The Town Ditch, without the wall of the City, which partly now remaineth, and compassed the wall of the City, was begun to be made by the Londoners in the year 1211, and was finished in the year 1213, the 15th of King John. This ditch was then made of 2001 feet broad . . . was long carefully cleansed and maintained, as need required; but now of late neglected and forced either to a very narrow and the same a filthy channel, or altogether stopped up for gardens planted and houses built thereon.-Stow, p. 8.

A portion of the playground fronting the grammar school at Christ's Hospital is still called “The Ditch.” [See Houndsditch.)

Town's End (The), an old name for that part of Pall Mall west of the Haymarket. Sir Robert Naunton, author of Fragmenta Regalia, was living in “The Town's End” in 1632.2 There was also a Town's End Lane at Hockley in the Hole; and another in Thames Street, in which two pirates are reported to be concealed in December 1616.

Toynbee Hall, 28 COMMERCIAL STREET E., was founded in 1884, and is supported by voluntary contributions. The institution is managed by a council elected by members of the Universities Settlement Association and by committees of the residents. The objects are “to educate citizens in the knowledge of one another, to provide teaching for those willing to learn, and recreation to those who are weary.” 1 At p. 186 he says 204 feet.

2 Rate-books of St. Martin's.

Trafalgar Square, CHARING Cross, a spacious square at the junction of Whitehall, Cockspur Street, the Strand, St. Martin's Lane, and Pall Mall East, where the Royal Mews and the Bermudas stood, commenced in 1829, and completed, as it now appears, from designs furnished in 1841 by Sir Charles Barry; Barry's original designs (rejected as too costly) were on a much grander scale. The square derives its name from Lord Nelson's last victory. It is said to have coșt, in granite work alone, upwards of £10,000. The north side of the square is occupied by the National Gallery; on the west side are the Union Club and the College of Physicians, both designed by Sir Robert Smirke ; at the north-east angle is the fine portico of St. Martin's-inthe-Fields, by James Gibbs, and on the east side are Morley's Hotel and the west central branch Post Office. The south side is open to Whitehall. The fountains, of Peterhead granite, were designed by Barry and made by Messrs. M‘Donald and Leslie of Aberdeen. They are supplied with water by two artesian wells, one' 395 feet deep, in front of the National Gallery, the other 300 feet deep, in Orange Street, which are carried by a tunnel to a tank capable of containing 70,000 gallons. The Nelson column, on the south side of the square, was designed by William Railton, and carried out 1840-1843, but not completed until 1846-1849. The statue on the top (18 feet high, and formed of two stones from the Granton Quarry) was the work of E. H. Baily, R.A. It has been styled “the beau ideal of a Greenwich pensioner." The capital is of bronze, cast from cannon recovered from the wreck of the Royal George. The statue was set up November 4, 1843.

The bronze bas-reliefs on the four sides of the base of the column are—the Death of Nelson, by Mr. Carew; the Battle of the Nile, by Mr. Woodington; the Bombardment of Copenhagen, by Mr. Ternouth; and the Battle of St. Vincent, by Mr. Watson. The colossal bronze lions erected in 1867 on the salient pedestals at the four anglesstudies from nature by Sir Edwin Landseer, are grand in their majestic repose. It is to be regretted, however, that they are repetitions of the same model. The total cost of the column has been about £46,000. The equestrian statue of George IV., by Sir Francis Chantrey, at the north-east corner of the square, was originally ordered for “the top of the marble arch" in front of Buckingham Palace-now at the Oxford Street entrance to Hyde Park. The statue was commenced in 1829, under an express order from the King himself, and the sum agreed upon was 9000 guineas. Of this sum one-third was paid, in January 1830, by the King himself; a second instalment, upon the completion of a certain portion of the work, by the Department of Woods and Forests; and the third and last instalment, in 1843, after the artist's death, by the Lords of the Treasury. The statue of General Sir Henry Havelock, at the south-east, is by W. Behnes; and that of Sir Charles Napier, at the south-west, by G. G. Adams. The statue of General Gordon in the centre of the square is the work of Hamo Thornycroft, R.A. (1888). In 1875 were set up, under the direction of the Astronomer Royal, official “Secondary Standards of Length,” along a solid granite platform erected for the purpose at the foot of the north wall of the square, for its entire length of 2594 feet. The measures comprise standards of the surveying land-chain of 66 feet, with divisions of 10 links each; and the building land-chain of 100 feet, with divisions of 10 feet, the first division of 10 feet being subdivided into feet; mural standards of the imperial yard, 2 feet, i foot, and subdivided inches. The defining lines of the several measures are bronze blocks let into the granite, and the exact measurement is in the middle of each line.

1 Life of Sir C. Barry, by his son, p. 122.

Traitors' Gate. [See Tower.]

Travellers' Club (The), PALL MALL, next door to The Athenæum, originated soon after the peace of 1814, in a suggestion of Lord Londonderry, then Lord Castlereagh, for the resort of gentlemen who had resided or travelled abroad, as well as with a view to the accommodation of foreigners, who, when properly recommended, receive an invitation for the period of their stay.1 Here Prince Talleyrand often played a game at whist. With all the advantage of his great imperturbability of face, he is said to have been an indifferent player. The present Club House, designed by Sir Charles Barry—the design based on that of the Villa Pandolfini at Florence — in 1830-1832, is deservedly admired. The Carlton Terrace front has been injured by the erection of a smoking-room on the attic. The Club is limited to 800 members. Each member pays 30 guineas on admission, and an annual subscription of 10 guineas. Rule 6 directs, “That no person be considered eligible to the Travellers' Club who shall not have travelled out of the British Islands to a distance of at least 500 miles from London in a direct line."

Treasury Buildings, WHITEHALL, a range of buildings between the Horse Guards on one side and Downing Street on the other, and now consisting of the Treasury, Education, and Privy Council offices. The Treasury is so called from its being the office of the Lord Treasurer or Lord High Treasurer: an office of great importance, first put into commission in 1612, on Lord Salisbury's death, and so continued with very few exceptions till abolished in 1816. The last Lord Treasurer was the Duke of Shrewsbury, in the reign of Queen Anne, but the last acting Lord Treasurer was the duke's predecessor, Harley, Earl of Oxford, the friend of Pope and Swift. The Prime Minister of the country is usually First Lord of the Treasury. He has a salary of £5000 a year, and an official residence in Downing Street. In the Treasury all the national money transactions are conducted. The Lord High Treasurer used formerly to carry a white staff, as the mark of his office. The royal throne still remains at the head of the Treasury table. The present façade towards the street was designed (1846-1847) by Sir Charles Barry, R.A., replacing a façade, the work of Sir John Soane in 1824-1828, for the Council Chamber, a handsome room incorporated in the new buildings. The old Treasury, a stone building fronting the Horse Guards' Parade, was erected in 1733, from the designs of W. Kent, and is only a portion of a much more extensive front.

i Quarterly Review, No. cx. p. 481

Trig Stairs, Tric LANE, UPPER THAMES STREET; so called after John Trigge, owner of the stairs in the reign of Edward III. Trigg Lane is on the south side of Upper Thames Street, opposite Lambeth Hill. There is a Trig Wharf still, but the stairs have disappeared.

A pair of stairs they found, not big stairs,
Just such another pair as Trig Stairs.---

Cotton's Virgil Travestie, B. 1. The motion or puppet show of Hero and Leander, in Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, is thus described by Littlewit, the author :

I have only made it a little easy and modern for the times, that's all. As for the Hellespont, I imagine our Thames, here ; and the Leander I makes a dyer's son about Puddle Wharf, and Hero a wench o' the Bankside, who going over one morning to Old Fish Street, Leander spies her land at Trig Stairs, and falls in love with her. And again

Leander does ask, Sir, what fairest of fairs,

Was the fare he landed but now at Trig Stairs. For Calamy's Adventure at Trig Stairs, see his Autobiography, vol. ii. p. 138.

Trinity Chapel, CONDUIT STREET. [See Conduit Street.]

Trinity Church, CHURCH STREET, MINORIES (formerly Little Minories)—the first turning on the left hand from Aldgate—the church of the Priory of the Holy Trinity, founded by Matilda, Queen of Henry . I., A.D. 1108. It escaped the Fire of 1666, and being very old, was taken down in the year 1706, and rebuilt.

Here [in the Little Minories) is the Trinity Minories Church, which pretends to privileges, as marrying without license.—R. B., in Strype, B. ii. p. 28.

On the north side of the chancel is a monument to William Legge, groom of the bedchamber and lieutenant-general of the ordnance to King Charles I. (d. 1672). Here his son, the first Earl of Dartmouth, and his grandson, the second earl, and annotator of Burnet, are both buried. In the church is preserved in a tin box a man's head, which the tradition of the place affirms to be that of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, father of Lady Jane Grey, who was beheaded February 23, 1554. . Trinity Court, ALDERSGATE STREET. [See Aldersgate Street.] V Trinity House, on the north or upper side of Tower Hill, was built, 1793-1795, from the designs of Samuel Wyatt. The principal

1 Hatton, p. 573.

front consists of a main body and wings of the Ionic order on a rusticated basement. Over the windows are medallions with portraits in low relief of George III. and Queen Charlotte, representations of lighthouses and emblematic devices. The house belongs to a Company or Corporation founded by Sir Thomas Spert, Comptroller of the Navy to Henry VIII., and commander of the Harry Grace de Dieu, who was appointed its first master. It was incorporated (March 20, 1514) by the name of “The Guild or Fraternity of the most Glorious and Undividable Trinity of St. Clement,” which name was extended by a later charter (James II. 1685) into “The Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brotherhood, of the Most Glorious and Undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement, in the parish of Deptford Strond, in the county of Kent.” The Corporation consists of a Master, Deputy-Master, Wardens, Assistants, and Elder Brethren, twenty-four in all, and an unlimited number of inferior members, and has for its object the increase and encouragement of navigation, etc., the regulation of lighthouses and sea-marks, the securing of a body of skilled and efficient pilots for the navy and mercantile service, and the general management of nautical matters not immediately connected with the Admiralty. The revenue of the Corporation, arising from tonnage, beaconage, etc., is applied (after defraying the expenses of lighthouses, buoys, etc.) to the purposes of the Mercantile Marine Fund, as provided by the Merchant Shipping Acts since 1853. Other funds, derived from estates and bequests, are administered for the relief of decayed pilots and seamen, their widows and children. The Duke of Edinburgh is the present master, and the Prince of Wales an elder brother. The old hall at Deptford in which the Company met was pulled down in 1787, and was replaced by another building which is still standing. Their first London house appears to have been at Ratcliffe. In 1618 a petition to James I. from the “Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle for leave to freight in strangers' bottoms” was sent to the Master, Wardens, etc., for report; and their reply to the Council is dated “Trinity House, Ratcliffe, June 3d.” 2 Again, there is a certificate of May 13, 1620, also dated from Trinity House, Ratcliffe, describing the “boundaries of the Mediterranean or Levant Sea, and declaring that Malaga distinctly lies within that sea, and that the Malaga wines are rolled into the Levant Sea to be shipped." 3 Fifty years later their house was in Water Lane, Lower Thames Street, the site and name of which are still preserved. Hatton describes it as “a stately building of brick and stone (adorned with ten bustos), built anno 1671."4 In the court-room of the present house are busts of Nelson, St. Vincent, Howe, and Duncan ; portraits of James I., James II., Sir Francis Drake, William Pitt, the Earl of Sandwich, etc., and a large painting by Gainsborough Dupont, representing the Members

i The Harry Grace de Dieu had four masts, 2 Cal. State Pap., 1611-1618, p. 543. and is represented with great minuteness in the 3 Ibid., 1619-1623, p. 145. picture at Hampton Court of Henry VIII.'s em Hatton, p. 573.

barkation at Dover.

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