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of the Board in 1794.

There is also a museum of maritime relics and curiosities. To ensure the greatest possible efficiency in the lighting of the lighthouses round the coast, as also of the fog-signals and other appliances, the Trinity House has generally an adviser of the highest scientific eminence. Prof. Faraday held this post, and used to say that there was no part of his life that gave him more delight.

Trinity Lane, UPPER THAMES STREET, so called from the church of the Holy Trinity, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt, but united to St. Michael's, Queenhithe. At the corner of Trinity Lane and Upper Thames Street was the church of St. Michael Queenhithe; and in Little Trinity Lane, No. 9, is Painter Stainers' Hall.

Trinity Square, TOWER Hill. Behind the houses in this square, on the west side of a vacant plot of ground in George Street, Tower Hill, stands one of the most perfect of the very few remaining portions of the old wall of London. (See London Wall.)

Tufnell Park, UPPER HOLLOWAY, a collection of modern villas, so called after the Tufnell family, lords of the Manor of Barnsbury (which see]. It is built on a portion of the demesne lands, under powers of a private Act (3 George IV. cap. 18, 1832), "enabling the trustee under the will of the late William Tufnell, Esq., to reduce the fines of the copyholds held of the Manor of Barnsbury, and to grant building and repairing leases of the devised estates," etc. St. George's, Tufnell Park, a rather elegant circular church, with a short transept, an apsidal chancel, and detached tower and spire, was erected in 1867 from the designs of Mr. G. Truefitt, architect.

Tufton Street, WESTMINSTER, built by Sir Richard Tufton of Tothill Street (d. 1631), runs from Great College Street to Horseferry Road, Westminster. Here was the “Royal Cock Pit;" (which see) probably the last in London.

Tun (The), CORNHILL, “a prison for night-walkers and other suspicious persons,” built of stone and castellated by Henry le Waleis, Lord Mayor of London in the year 1283, and “called the Tun, because the same was built somewhat in the shape of a tun standing on one end."1 The Tun formed a part of the structure known as the Conduit. An Ordinance of Edward respecting “persons wandering at night” was to the effect that any person found in the streets of the City after curfew, armed or of suspicious appearance—“unless it be a great lord, or other substantial person of good reputation," or some one of their household and having a warranty from them, and who “is going from one to another with a light to guide them,”—and any stranger who shall have no occasion to come so late into the City, shall “be taken by the keepers of the peace and put into the Tun, which for such misdoers is assigned,” and on the morrow be taken before the mayor

1 Stow, p. 71.


and aldermen to be by them dealt with according to law. But the Tun was not for night-wanderers only. Another Ordinance directs that “such bakers and millers as shall steal dough or flour shall be drawn on a hurdle, and be committed to the Tun on Cornhulle and there confined.” Item-If any priest be found with a woman he shall be taken unto the Tun on Cornhulle, with minstrels” playing before him.” The Tun was in fact the ordinary prison for persons charged with incontinence, against which the City laws were in the Middle Ages very severe.

Turf Club, PICCADILLY—the corner of Clarges Street. This club, formerly the Arlington, had its house in Grafton Street till 1876, when it purchased the lease of No. 47 Clarges Street, till then the residence of the Dukes of Grafton, and fitted it up sumptuously as a first-class club-house. The Turf Club ranks next to the Portland as the great whist club of London. Members are elected by ballot, two black balls excluding. The entrance fee is 30 guineas, the annual subscription 15 guineas.

Turk's Head Coffee-house, “the next house to the Stairs," New PALACE YARD, WESTMINSTER. Here, about 1659, James Harrington's celebrated Rota Club met. Among the members were Cyriac Skinner, Major Wildman, and Sir William Petty. For them “was made purposely,” says Aubrey, “a large oval table with a passage in the middle for Miles (the landlord] to deliver his coffee. About it sate his (Harrington's] disciples and the virtuosi. We many times adjourned to the Rhenish Wine-house." 3

Turk's Head Coffee-house, STRAND, opposite Catherine Street. A modern building (No. 142) occupies the site.

July 21, 1763.—At night Mr. Johnson and I supped in a private room at the Turk's Head Coffee-house in the Strand. I encourage this house,” said he, "for the mistress of it is a good civil woman, and has not much business.”—Croker's Boswell, p. 152.

They again supped together at the Turk’s Head on July 28, and on the 30th concluded the day there “very socially."

On Wednesday August 3 [1763] we had our last social meeting at the Turk’s Head Coffee-house, before my setting out for foreign parts.-Ibid., p. 158.

Turk's Head, GERARD STREET. [See Gerard Street.] Gibbon wrote to Malone from the “Turk's Head, Gerard Street, February 5, 1782."

Turk's Row, CHELSEA. On the front of a house at the southwest corner a stone is let in with the inscription, “Garden Row, anno 1733."

Turnagain Lane.

Near unto this Seacoal Lane, in the turning towards Holborn Conduit, is Turnagain Lane, or rather, as in a record of the 5th of Edward III., Windagain Lane,

i Liber Albus, pp. 145, 240.

9 Ibid., p. 396.

3 Aubrey, vol. iii. p. 375.

for that it goeth down west to Fleet Dike, from whence men must turn again the same way they came, for there it stopped.–Stow, p. 145.

There is an old proverb, “He must take him a house in Turnagain Lane." Turnagain Lane may still be found, though sadly shorn of its ancient 'proportions, on the east side of Farringdon Street, near the Holborn Viaduct bridge.

February 28, 1560 (Ash Wednesday).—In Turnagayne Lane, in Sent Pulker's [St. Sepulchre's) paryche, a lame woman with a knef kylled a proper man.

March 8, 1560.-Rode to hanging the woman that killed the man in Turnagayne Lane.—Machyn's Diary, p. 227.

Turnbull Street (properly TURNMILL STREET), between Clerkenwell Green and Cow Cross, and long a noted haunt for harlots and disorderly people. Middleton in his Black Book (1604) calls it Tunbold Street. The west side of Turnmill Street has been cleared away for the Metropolitan Railway.

Under Fleet Bridge runneth a water, sometimes called the river of the Wells, since Turnmill or Tremill brook, for that divers mills were erected upon it, as appeareth by a fair register book of the priory at Clerkenwell, and donation of the lands thereunto belonging, as also by divers other records. —Stow, pp. 6, 11.

Falstaff. This same starved justice (Shallow) hath done nothing but prate to me of the wildness of his youth, and the feats he hath done about Turnbull Street ; and every third word a lie, duer paid to the hearer than the Turk's tribute. — Shakespeare, Second Part of Henry IV., Act iii. Sc. 2.

One of the characters in Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair is “Dan Jordan Knockem, a horse-courser and a ranger of Turnbull;" and there are many uncleanly references to it in Beaumont and Fletcher, Taylor the Water Poet, London Carbonadoed, etc.

Ursula. You are one of those horse-leeches that gave out I was dead in Turnbull Street, of a surfeit of bottle-ale and tripes.

Knockem. No, 'twas better meat, Urse : cows' udders, cows' udders !-Ben Jonson, Bartholomew Fair.

Turners' Company, the fifty-first in order of precedence of the City Companies. Though by repute an ancient, fraternity, the Company received its first Charter of Incorporation in the ad of James I. (June 12, 1604) by the appellation of the Masters, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Art or Mystery de lez Turners of London. The Company has a livery but no hall. The old hall (long since sold) was on College Hill. Of late years the Company has taken great interest in the furtherance of technical instruction, and instituted prizes, includ'ing the freedom of the Company, for the best specimens of the turners' art, and the freedom of the Company has been presented to many distinguished men.

Turnmill Street. (See Turnbull Street.)

Turnstile (Great), on the south side of HOLBORN, a passage to, and in a straight line with, the east side of Lincoln's Inn Fields. The place derives its name from the turnstile, or revolving barrier, erected for the purpose of excluding horses, but admitting pedestrians to pass between Holborn and Lincoln's Inn Fields. Occasionally the name occurs as Turningstile. In a Presentment of the Jury of Middlesex, 1 Edward VI., mention is made of “twoe tenements at the Turne style in Holborne.”1

The Lives of the Roman Emperors.--Sold by George Hutton at the sign of the Sun, within Turning-Stile in Holborne, 1636.

And here he published Sir Edwin Sandys's Europe Speculum in 1637.

Great Turnstile Alley, a great thoroughfare which leadeth into Holborn, a place inhabited by shoemakers, sempsters, and milliners, for which it is of considerable trade, and well noted.—R. B., in Strype, B. iv. p. 75.

Mr. Bagford (the celebrated antiquary) was first a shoe-maker at Turnstile, but that would not do; then a bookseller at the same place, and that as little.-J. Sotheby to Thomas Hearne, May 19, 1716 (Letters from the Bodleian, vol. ii. p. 21).

Lump. I will not break my method for the world ; I have these twenty years walked through Turn-stile Alley to Holborn Fields at four : all the good women observe me, and set their bread into the oven by me.—A True Widow; a Comedy, by T. Shadwell, 4to, 1679.

At Dulwich College is a Library having a collection of plays, given by one Cartwright, bred a bookseller, and afterwards turned player. He kept a shop at the end of Turn Stile Alley, which was first designed as a 'Change for vending Welsh flannels, friezes, etc., as may be seen by the left side going from Lincoln's Inn Fields. The house being now divided remains still turned with arches. Cartwright was an excellent actor, and in his latter days gave y not only plays, but many good pictures, and intended to have been a further benefactor with money, and been buried there, but was prevented by a turbulent woman there.—Bagford, Harl. MS. 5900, fol. 54 b.

Here, in Great Turnstile, about 1750-1760, John Smeaton, the builder of the Eddystone Lighthouse, kept a shop for making and selling philosophical instruments. John Britton was in the habit of meeting the Chevalier d'Eon (who dressed as a female and was respectable and respected) “at an eating-house in Great Turnstile, Holborn.”

Turnstile (Little), on the south side of HOLBORN, a passage to the west side of Lincoln's Inn Fields.

These much frequented thoroughfares (Great and Little Turnstile) derived their names from the Turning Stiles which, two centuries ago, stood at their respective ends next Lincoln's Inn Fields, and which were so placed both for the conveniency of foot passengers, and to prevent the straying of cattle, the fields being at that period used for pasturage.--Brayley's Londiniana, vol. ii. p. 125.

Turnstile (New), on the south side of HOLBORN, the next opening west of Little Turnstile. A stone let in to the wall is inscribed “ New Turnstile, 1688.". There was yet another Turnstile out of Lincoln's Inn Fields, on the south side. In 1661 Leonard Sowerby was a "publisher at “the Turn-stile near New-Market [i.e. Clare Market] in Lincoln's Inn Fields."

Tussaud's Waxworks, MARYLEBONE ROAD. This exhibition, which is said to be the oldest in Europe, was opened on the Boulevard du Temple at Paris in 1780, and was first shown in London at the Lyceum in 1802. It was located for many years at the Bazaar in Baker Street, Portman Square, but in 1884 the present building was erected by Mr. H. W. Williams, from the designs of Mr. F. W. Hunt, for the reception of the continually increasing collection of waxworks. It has an average depth of 60 feet and a frontage of 400 feet. The white marble staircase was brought from the huge residence at Kensington built by Baron Albert Grant, when the materials of that house were publicly sold. Madame Tussaud (niece of M. Curtius, who modelled figures in wax and taught her the art), was born at Berne in 1760. She was in Paris during the period of the great French Revolution and modelled the head of the celebrated and notorious men und women whose figures form so characteristic a portion of the gallery. Madame Tussaud died in London, April 15, 1850. The relics of Napoleon I. are of great interest.

1 Notes and Queries, 7th S., vol. v. p. 415.

Tuthill Street. (See Tothill Street.]

Tyburn (Aye-bourne, 't Aye - bourne), a brook, or bourne, that rose near Hampstead, and, after receiving several tributary streamlets, ran south into the Thames at a place called King's Scholars' Pond, a little

below Chelsea. Crossing Oxford Street, near Stratford Place, it made its way by Lower Brook Street and the foot of Hay Hill (Aye Hill) through Lansdowne Gardens, down Half Moon Street, and through the hollow of Piccadilly, where it was crossed by a stone bridge, into the Green Park. Here it expanded into a large pond, from whence it ran past the present Buckingham Palace in three distinct branches into the Thames, first, in early times, spreading into a marsh and surrounding the wooded Thorney, or Isle of Thorns, on which the Abbey of Westminster was built. It formed one of the main sewers. Rosamond's Pond, in St. James's Park, was in part supplied by the Tyburn waters. When Tyburn church was rebuilt it was dedicated to the Virgin by the name of St. Mary-le-bourne-hence the present Marylebone. (See Hay Hill.]

Tyburn Lane, PICCADILLY, the original name for what is now Park Lane, between Piccadilly and Oxford Street; and so called because it led to Tyburn. It is introduced into the rate-books of the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields for the first time in 1679, and was then called "Tyburn Road : " in 1686 it is called Tyburn Lane.

Tyburn, TYBURN GALLows, or TYBURN TREE (or DEADLY NEVER GREEN), a celebrated gallows or public place of execution for criminals convicted in the county of Middlesex. It existed as early as the reign of Henry IV., and derives its name from Tyburn Brook, described above. It stood, there is reason to believe, on the site of Connaught Place, and near its south-west corner, though No. 49 Connaught Square is said to be the spot. (See Connaught Square.]

1 The question was discussed in Notes and Queries, 1860, without any definite result.

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