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starch, and a principal in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury.1 The famous booksellers Awnsham and John Churchill were located at the Black Swan in this Row in 1700. Nos. 38-41 are the premises of ·Messrs. Longman and Co., the eminent publishers. Thomas Longman, the founder of the house, died June 18, 1755. An edition of Rowe's Dramatic Works, 2 vols., 12mo, 1725, was printed for T. Longman, at the Ship and Black Swan, 1725. The present handsome building (Griffith and Dawson, architects) was erected in 1863. Observe.-The carvings of the Ship and Black Swan, the old sign of the house. No. 47 is Messrs. Chambers's publishing house and warehouse. This was formerly Baldwin and Cradock's. It was here, by "R. Baldwin at the Rose in Paternoster Row," that Smollett's Critical Review was originally published. No. 56, a spacious recent building, is the Religious Tract Society.

Paternoster Square occupies the site of Newgate Market, which


Patten-Makers Company, the seventy-sixth in order of the City Companies, was incorporated by letters patent of 22 Charles II. (1670). The Company have a small livery but no hall.

Paulet House. [See Winchester Street.]

Paul's (St.), the Old Cathedral of London, destroyed in the Great Fire, was begun to be built by Bishop Maurice, A.D. 1087, on the site of a church to the same saint, founded about A.D. 610, by Ethelbert, King of Kent, of which church Mellitus was the first, and Erkenwald (whose shrine stood at the back of the high altar) the fourth bishop. According to a tradition of the time the first church was erected on the site of a temple dedicated to Diana. Bishop Maurice's cathedral was built in part from the ruins of the Palatine Tower, or castle, which stood by the Fleet river, where afterwards was placed the monastery of the Black Friars. The ruins of the Palatine Tower were the Conqueror's contribution towards the cost of the new cathedral. The progress of the works was necessarily slow, and the church was far from being completed when, 1136, it was seriously damaged (Mathew Paris says destroyed) by fire. When resumed the works appear to have been continually carried forward, but in their progress great alterations were made in the scale and character of the several parts. The steeple is reported as finished in 1221, and a new choir in a similar style in 1240; then again it was lengthened eastward in 1255, and "nearly completed" in 1283, nearly two centuries after its commencement. It exhibited therefore examples of the Norman, of the whole period of the Early English, and of the opening years of the Decorated style. Subsequent repairs and additions carried it through the whole of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, but the portions executed in these latter styles were unimportant: essentially the church was Norman, Early English and Early Decorated.

1 D'Ewes's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 71.

dimensions, according to the careful investigations of Mr. E. B. Ferrey,1 were, length, from east to west, 596 feet; breadth, 104 feet; height to outer ridge of nave roof, 130 feet; of choir, 142 feet; internal height to ridge of vaulting of nave, 93 feet; of choir, 101 feet; Lady Chapel, height of tower, 285 feet; of spire, 208 feet. Dugdale, following Stow, makes the total length 690 feet, and in breadth 130. There was a Lady Chapel at the east end, with a chapel on the north of it, dedicated to St. George, and one on the south, dedicated to St. Dunstan. In the crypt below the choir was the parish church of St. Faith, and at the Ludgate corner (towards the Thames) the parish church of St. Gregory. "St. Paul's," says Fuller, "may be called the mother church indeed, having one babe in her body [St. Faith] and another in her arms [St. Gregory]." The nave of twelve bays was very long and very noble, the central tower appears to have been open as a lantern internally, the choir windows of unusual length and height, and at the east was a rich circular window. At the west end were two massive angle towers "made for bell towers,' "2 but used also as prisons. On the west side of the south transept were small cloisters, in which was painted the celebrated Dance of Death, and in the centre of the cloister garth was the Chapter House, built in 1332, "a beautiful piece of work," as Stow says, but small, its internal diameter being only 32 feet 6 inches. Next the cloisters was a charnel-house, with a chapel over it. [See Pardon Churchyard.] The church of St. Gregory was at the southwest angle of the cathedral. The bishop's palace was at the north-west corner of the churchyard. At the north-east end of the cathedral, "about the midst of the churchyard," stood the celebrated Cross of St. Paul's, from which sermons were regularly preached and occasionally political addresses delivered. The cathedral and precincts were encompassed by a stone wall, in which for entrance and exit were six gate-houses. [See St. Paul's Cross; St. Paul's Churchyard.]

Old St. Paul's was so severely injured by fire in 1561 that it was necessary to take the steeple down and roof the church anew with boards and lead. Several attempts were made to restore it, and money for the new building of the steeple was, it is said, collected. James I. countenanced à sermon at Paul's Cross in favour of so pious an undertaking, but nothing was done till 1633, when reparations commenced with some activity, and Inigo Jones designed, at the expense of Charles I., a classic portico to a Gothic church. This portico (of itself a noble structure) was 200 feet long, 40 feet high, and 50 feet deep. It was without a pediment, Inigo intending to have it surmounted by ten statues of kings, benefactors to the church.5 Charles designed to have built the church anew (of which Inigo's portico was only an instalment), but his thoughts were soon drawn in another direction, and Old St. Paul's, under Cromwell, was made a horse-quarter for soldiers. 1 Longman's Three Cathedrals of St. Paul, p. 29, etc.

2 Stow, p. 138.

3 Ibid., p. 123.

4 Stow, p. 124.

5 There is a large engraving of it by H. Hulsbergh, executed at the expense of the Earl of Burlington.

The Restoration witnessed another attempt to restore the church—a commission was appointed and a subscription opened, but before a sufficient fund was raised the whole structure was destroyed in the Fire of London.

The daring flames peep'd in, and saw from far

The awful beauties of the sacred quire :

But since it was profan'd by Civil War,

Heaven thought it fit to have it purg'd by fire.--Dryden.

On the north side of the choir, "on whose monument hung his proper helmet and spear, as also his target, covered with horn," 2 stood the stately tomb of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (d. 1399), with recumbent effigies of the old knight and of Constance of Castile, his second wife. In St. Dunstan's Chapel was the fine old tomb of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln (d. 1310), from whom Lincoln's Inn derives its name. In the middle aisle of the nave, on the right hand, approaching the altar, stood the tomb of Sir John Beauchamp, (d. 1358), constable of Dover Castle, and son to Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. This Sir John Beauchamp lived in great state in the ward of Castle Baynard, and his house after his death was bought by Edward III., for the purposes of the royal wardrobe. [See Wardrobe Place.] His tomb was commonly called Duke Humphrey's Tomb, and the nave of the church, from this circumstance, Duke Humphrey's Walk. At the upper end of the nave was the mortuary chapel of Thomas Kemp, Bishop of London, who built Paul's Cross pulpit, and here and elsewhere in the nave and choir were monuments of various degrees of richness-the tombs of many other bishops of London.3 Between the choir and south aisle was a noble monument to Sir Nicholas Bacon (d. 1578), the father of Lord Chancellor Bacon; and higher than the host and altar-for so Bishop Corbet describes it

Nor needs the Chancellor boast whose pyramids

Above the host and altar reared is-Bishop Corbet, p. 8.

Hentzner (1598) calls it a "magnificent monument, ornamented with pyramids of marble and alabaster." Here stood (between two of the columns of the choir) the sumptuous monument of Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor (d. 1591). Near Hatton's tomb was a tablet to Sir Philip Sydney, and another of the same unpretending description to his father-in-law, Sir Francis Walsingham. The stately appearance of Hatton's monument, and the humble nature of Walsingham's and Sidney's, occasioned the following epigram, of which, by the bye, John Stow was himself the author :

Philip and Francis have no tomb,

For great Christopher takes all the room.

In the south aisle of the choir stood the tombs of two of the deansColet, founder of St. Paul's School, and Dr. Donne, the poet-Colet

1 Harl. MS. 4941. Commission dated April 18, 1663. All subscriptions to be paid to Sir John Cutler ("His Grace's fate sage Cutler could foresee").

2 Dugdale, ed. 1658, p. 47.

3 Milman, Annals of St. Paul's Cathedral, p. 376.

represented as a recumbent skeleton, Donne standing in his shroud. Dean Nowell, who played so prominent a part in the controversies throughout the reign of Elizabeth, was also buried here. So also were Lily, the grammarian, the second master of St. Paul's School, and Linacre the physician, "the friend of Colet and Erasmus." Here, too, in a vault on the north side of the choir, near the tomb of John of Gaunt, was Vandyck buried (d. 1641); but the outbreak of the wars under Charles I. prevented the erection of any monument to his memory.

The "Pervyse of Paul's," or the middle aisle of the church, commonly called "Duke Humphrey's Walk" or "Paul's Walk" (a piece of naked architecture, unenriched by any other piece of sculpture than the so-called Duke Humphrey's tomb), was for a century and more (1550 to 1650) the common news-room of London, the resort of the wits and gallants about town.

It was the fashion of those times, and did so continue till these, for the principal gentry, lords and courtiers, and men of all professions not merely mechanic, to meet in St. Paul's Church by eleven, and walk in the Middle Aisle till twelve; and after dinner from three to six; during which time some discoursed of business, others of news. Now, in regard of the universal commerce there happened little that did not first or last arrive here. And I being young did associate myself at those hours with the choicest company I could pick out.-Works of Francis Osborn, ed. 1701, p. 403.

Here lawyers stood at their pillars (like merchants on 'Change) and received their clients.1 Here masterless men, at the Si quis door, as it was called, set up their bills for service. Here the rood loft, tombs and font were used as counters for payments.

If A pay B on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel next coming, in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's in London. at the rood loft of the rood of the north door within the same church; or tomb of St. Erkenwald; or at the door of such a chapel, or at such a pillar within the same church, etc.-Littleton's Tenures, B. iii. c. v. § 342.

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Here Falstaff bought Bardolph ("I bought him in Paul's "). Here the young gallant took "four turns," as Dekker prescribes, and gratified his vanity by strutting about in the most fashionable attire. Here assignations were made.

Mrs. Honeysuckle. I'll come. The hour?

Justinianus. Two: the way through Paul's; every wench take a pillar; there

1 "There is a tradition that in times past there was one Inne of Court at Dowgate, called Johnson's Inn; another in Fetter Lane; and another in Paternoster Row: which last they would prove because it was next to St. Paul's Church where each Lawyer and Serjeant at his Pillar heard his client's cause, and took notes thereof upon his knee as they do in Guildhall at this day. And that after the Serjeants' Feast ended they do still go to Paul's in their habits, and there choose their Pillar whereat to hear their client's cause (if any come) in memory of that old custom."-Dugdale's Orig. Jurid., ed. 1680,

p. 142.
The xvij day of October [1552] was
made vii. serjants of the coyffe: and after dener
they went unto Powlls and so went up the stepes
and so round the qwere and ther dyd they ther
homage, and so [to] the north-syd of Powlles and
stod a-pone the stepes ontil iiij old serjantes came
to-gether and feytchyd iiij [new] and brought
them unto certen pelers and left them, and then
did feyched the residue unto the pelers."-Diary
of a Resident in London, 4to, 1848, p. 26.

2 Pierce Penniless, p. 42.
his Humour, Act iii. Sc. 1.
ii. Sat. 5.

Every Man out of
Hall's Satires, B.

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clap on your masks: your men will be behind you; and before your prayers are half done be before you, and man you out at several doors. You'll be there.-Westward Ho (4to, 1607), Act ii. Sc. I; and see Act ii. Sc. 2.

Here the penniless man dined with Duke Humphrey. Here spur money was demanded by the choristers from any person entering the cathedral during divine service with spurs on.

Never be seen to mount the steps into the quire, but upon a high festival day, to prefer the fashion of your doublet; and especially if the singing-boys seem to take note of you; for they are able to buzz your praises above their anthems, if their voices have not lost their maidenheads: but be sure your silver spurs dog your heels, and then the boys will swarm about you like so many white butterflies; when you in the open quire shall draw forth a perfumed embroidered purse, the glorious sight of which will entice many countrymen from their devotion to wondering and quoit silver into the boys' hands, that it may be heard above the first lesson, although it be read in a voice as big as one of the great organs.-Dekker, Gull's Horn-book, pp. 99,


Hither Fleetwood, the Recorder of London, came "to learn some news" to convey by letter to Lord Burghley. Here Ben Jonson has laid a scene in Every Man out of his Humour, and here he found his Captain Bobadil, "a Paul's man," as he is called in the dramatis persona before Every Man in his Humour. The noise was very great, and Inigo Jones's portico was built, says Dugdale,1 "as an ambulatory for such as usually walking in the body of the church disturbed the solemn service in the choir." All this was unseemly enough in a place set apart for public worship, but the nuisance was formerly of a still greater magnitude. From the Reformation to the 1st and 2d of Philip and Mary, the nave was a common thoroughfare for people with vessels of ale and beer, baskets of bread, fish, flesh, and fruit, men leading mules, horses, and other beasts. So great, indeed, would the nuisance appear to have become, that the Mayor and Common Council, on and after August 1, 1554, prohibited the use of the church for such "unreverent" purposes, and inflicted a succession of fines on all who should offend in future.2

The old cathedral suffered more "unreverent " treatment under the Commonwealth. The work of reparation was at once stopped, and the funds which had been subscribed for the purpose, over £17,000, seized and appropriated to other uses. The order for the removal of crucified and superstitious images from churches was followed by a destructive clearance of the interior of St. Paul's, and in 1650 a special order was issued for casting down the statues of James I. and Charles I. from Inigo Jones's portico.

That the statues of King James and the late King, standing now at the west end of Paule's bee throwne downe, and broken to pieces, and the inscription in the stone worke under them be deleted; And that a letter bee written to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to see this putt in execution.-Orders of Council of State, July 31, 1650.

To utilise the now disused cathedral the porch was let for conversion into shops for sempstresses and hucksters and other mean traders; the 2 Strype's Lond., B. iii. p. 169.

1 Ed. 1658, p. 160.

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