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ministers of state, Knights of the Garter, etc. The last Master of the Wardrobe was Ralph, Duke of Montague, died 1709. [See Swan Alley.]

Warner Street, Cold BATH FIELDS. Henry Carey (natural son of Savile, Marquis of Halifax, the famous “Trimmer," and great-grandfather of Edmund Kean), author of Chrononhotonthologos, and the ever popular ballad of “Sally in our Alley," died by his own hand in this street on October 4, 1743.

Warren Street, FITZROY SQUARE, Tottenham Court Road to Cleveland Street. Dr. William Kitchener, author of the Cook's Oracle, lived and died at No. 43 in this street, and here were held what he called his “ Committee of Taste” dinners. The hour was five minutes past five, and no guest arriving late was admitted. The last of these pleasant meetings was held on February 20, 1827, and six days later Kitchener was dead. He was buried in the family vault at St. Clement Danes. It was for his weekly conversazione that the directions "come at seven, go at eleven” were prepared. For some time this was a favourite locality with artists. Leslie settled here when he first came to London at the end of 1811.

I was solitary, and began to feel that even in London it was possible to be unhappy. I did not, however, feel this in its full force until I was settled in lodgings, consisting of two desolate-looking rooms up two pair of stairs in Warren Street, Fitzroy Square.-C. R. Leslie, R.A., Autobiographical Recollections, vol. i. p. 29.

Charles Turner, one of the best of the great school of mezzotint engravers, lived for many years at No. 50. Abraham Raimbach, the line engraver, was living at No. 10 whilst engaged on Wilkie's Village Politicians; James Boaden, author of the Life of Mrs. Siddons and other theatrical biographies, at No. 60; Frederick Reynolds, the dramatist, at No. 48; the Rev. F. W. Robertson of Brighton was born at No. 70, February 3, 1816.

Warwick Crescent, PADDINGTON. Robert Browning lived at No. 19 from the time of his return out of Italy after the death of his wife in 1861, until the summer of 1887, when he removed to 29 De Vere Gardens. Much of his poetry was therefore written in Warwick Crescent, notably “The Ring and the Book.” A memorial tablet was placed upon the front of the house by the Society of Arts in August 1890.

Warwick House, CHARING Cross, stood at the end of Warwick Street, an impasse running out of Cockspur Street, parallel to Pall Mall, and terminating in a stable yard. This was the site of Warwick House, the birthplace (1608) and residence of Sir Philip Warwick, the well-known royalist memoir writer (d. 1683). The mansion, however, is best known as the residence of the Princess Charlotte of Wales. At that time (1815) "the entrance of Warwick House was secured by bars of iron in the inside ; and the Princess goes through the Court of Carlton House.” 1

1 Miss Knight, vol. ii. p. 55. VOL. III

2 G

Warwick House, in which Princess Charlotte and I, with an excellent family of old servants, were now the only residents, was an old moderate-sized dwelling, at that time (January 1813] miserably out of repair, and almost falling to ruins. It was situated at the extremity of a narrow lane with a small court-yard and gates, at which two sentinels were placed. On the ground floor was a hall, dining-room, library, comptroller's room, and two very small rooms, with a good staircase, and two back staircases much the reverse. Above was what was called the waiting-room, of very moderate dimensions, where Princess Charlotte took her lessons in the morning; a good drawing-room, her Royal Highness's bedroom and dressing-room, or closet off it for a maid ; my sitting-room adjoining, and my bedroom, both small, the latter particularly so. Yet for a private family it was far from being uncomfortable, though anything rather than royal. The drawing-room and Princess Charlotte's bedroom, with bay windows, looked on a small garden with a wall, and a road which divided it from the gardens of Carlton House, to which there was a door of communication. Nothing could more perfectly resemble a convent than this resi. dence, but it was a seat of happiness to Princess Charlotte compared with the Lower Lodge at Windsor.Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight, vol. i. p. 200.

It was from Warwick House that the Princess, "wearied out by a series of acts, all proceeding from the spirit of petty tyranny, and each more vexatious than another," made her escape in a hackney coach, July 16, 1814, to the house of her mother in Connaught Place; but was induced, chiefly by the arguments and persuasion of Mr. (afterwards Lord) Brougham, and the entreaties of the Duke of Sussex and of her mother, to submit to her father and return to Warwick House, which she did in a royal carriage that had been sent for, accompanied by the Duke of York and her governess, between four and five o'clock in the morning.

Warwick House, in HOLBORN (north side), where is now Warwick Court, a short distance west of Gray's Inn Gateway, and leading into Gray's Inn. The Earl of Warwick was living in Warwick House in 1646, but it must have passed into other hands not long after.

Dame Shusan, lady to the Rt. Honble. Robert Lord Rich, Earl of Warwick, died in Warwick House in Holborn, the 16th January 1645-1646, and was buried at St. Lawrence Church, near Guildhall, the 24th of the same.—Parish Register of St. Andrew's, Holborn.

March 3, 1659-1660.-After dinner I to Warwick House in Holborn, to my Lord [the Earl of Sandwich), where he dined with my Lord of Manchester, Sir Dudley North, my Lord Fiennes, and my Lord Barkly.—Pepys.

As we came by Warwick House, observing all shut up there, he [William Lord Russell] asked if my Lord Clare was out of town. I told him he could not think any windows would be open there on this occasion.—Bp. Burnet's Journal (William Lord Russell on his way to execution in Lincoln's-Inn-fields). 2

The Earl of Clare was living in Warwick House in 1688. Warwick House had given place to Warwick Court in 1708.

Warwick Lane, NEWGATE STREET to PATERNOSTER Row; originally (1311) Eldedeneslane, i.e. Old Dean's Lane.

Then is Eldenese Lane, which stretcheth north to the high street of Newgate Market; the same is now called Warwick Lane, of an ancient house there built by an Earl of Warwick, and was since called Warwick Inn. It is in record called a messuage in Eldenese Lane, in the parish of St. Sepulchre, the 28th of Henry VI. Cicille, Duchess of Warwick, possessed it. -Stow, p. 128.

1 Lord Brougham.

2 London Gazette, No. 2359.

I read that in the 36th of Henry VI. that the greater estates of the realm being called up to London Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick (the King-maker), came with six hundred men all in red jackets, embroidered with ragged staves before and behind, and was lodged in Warwick Lane ; in whose house there was often. times six oxen eaten at a breakfast, and every tavern was full of his meat ; for he that had any acquaintance in that house, might have there so much of sodden and roast meat as he could prick and carry up on a long dagger. --Stow, p. 33.

On the house at the corner of Newgate Street is a stone with the effigy in low relief of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and the date, 1668. Just beyond, on the west side, was the College of Physicians—the old College, with its "gilded pill” on the top, designed by Wren. (See Physicians, Royal College of.] On the east side was the Bell Inn.

He (Archbishop Leighton) used often to say that if he were to choose a place to die in, it should be an Inn; it looking like a pilgrim's going home, to whom this world was all as an Inn, and who was weary of the noise and confusion in it. He added that the officious tenderness and care of friends was an entanglement to a dying man ; and that the unconcerned attendance of those that could be procured in such a place would give less disturbance. And he obtained what he desired ; for he died (1684) at the Bell Inn in Warwick Lane. --Burnet's Own Times, ed. 1823, vol. ii. p. 426. The Inn has gone, but Old Bell Inn Yard, now a railway booking-office waggon yard, is there to mark the site. On the west side was an equally famous inn, the Oxford Arms.

These are to give notice that Edward Bartlet, Oxford Carrier, hath removed his Inn in London, from the Swan at Holborn Bridge to the Oxford Armes in Warwick Lane, where he did Inn before the Fire. His coaches and waggons going forth on their usual days, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Frydays. He hath also a Hearse, with all things convenient to carry a Corps to any part of England. -London Gazette for March 1672-1673, No. 762.

“At the Oxford Arms in Warwick Lane" lived John Roberts, the bookseller, from whose shop issued the majority of the squibs and libels on Pope, and the publisher, 1744, of Johnson's Life of Savage. The Oxford Arms Inn, with its quaint galleries, chambers, and carved fireplaces, was sold in 1875 and pulled down in 1876, but its memory survives in Oxford Arms Passage.

Warwick Street, CocksPUR STREET, Charing Cross, was built circ. 1675. The street, which had no thoroughfare, was so called from the house of Sir Philip Warwick, author of the Memoirs which bear his name.

Over against St. Alban's Street is Stone Cutters Alley, paved with free-stone, which leads into Warwick Street, and likewise to the back gate of the King's garden, for the conveniency of Mr. George London, her late Majesty's principal gardener, there inhabiting in a neat and pleasant house. ---Strype, B. vi. p. 81.

This George London was a landscape-gardener of great celebrity before the time of Kent or "Capability" Brown. In conjunction with Wise he introduced what Walpole calls “verdant sculpture” among us, stocking our gardens with giants, animals, monsters, coats of arms, and mottoes, in yew, box, and holly. At the end of this street stood Warwick House, inhabited for a time by the Princess Charlotte. (See Warwick House, Charing Cross.] At No. 4 Little Warwick Street lived General Conway, the cousin and correspondent of Horace Walpole.?

1 It is mentioned by Ogilby of that date,

Warwick Street, GOLDEN SQUARE. Roman Catholic Chapel, formerly the chapel of the Bavarian Embassy, now called the Church of the Assumption. This chapel was gutted in the riots of 1780. Hogarth collectors greatly value a shop bill executed by him for a tobacconist in this street. On the top is a label with the words, “La Croix's, the Corner of Warwick Street, near Swallow Street, St. James's.” Here, when John (afterwards Lord) Campbell came to London to push his fortune (1798) he had his first London lodgings —first at No. 35, then at No. 18.2

Water Gate (The), at the TOWER.

One other water-gate there is by the bulwark of the Tower, and this is the last and farthest water-gate eastward on the river of Thames, so far as the city of Lon. don extendeth within the walls.—Stow, p. 17; see also Strype, Appendix, p. 68.

Water Gruel Row, HACKNEY. Here lived William Caslon, the celebrated typefounder (b. 1692, d. 1766).

Water Lane, BLACKFRIARS, from Broadway to Queen Victoria Street. On the east side is Apothecaries Hall; and from it run Playhouse Lane and Printing-house Yard.

Water Lane, FLEET STREET, changed November 5, 1844, into Whitefriars Street, by consent of the Commissioners of the Sewers and at the request of the freeholders of the lane. Thomas Tompion, the famous watchmaker, kept shop at the corner of Water Lane, died here in 1713, and was buried in the centre of the nave of Westminster Abbey.

Well, let me tell you (said Goldsmith), when my tailor brought home my bloomcoloured coat, he said, “Sir, I have a favour to beg of you. When anybody asks you who made your clothes, be pleased to mention John Filby, at the Harrow in Water Lane." Johnson : Why, Sir, that was because he knew the strange colour would attract crowds to gaze at it, and then they might hear of him, and see how well he could make a coat even of so absurd a colour.-Boswell, ed. Croker, p. 203. ; Filby also supplied him with “a pair of bloom-coloured breeches," for which he charged him £1:4:6.

Water Lane, GREAT TOWER STREET, formerly called Spurrier Lane.

The next is Sporiar Lane, of old time so called, but since and later time named Water Lane, because it runneth down to the water-gate by the Custom House in Thames Street. --Stow, p. 51.

Here was the house of Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, a great merchant of the time of James I. and Charles I. ; and uncle of the M. Rawdon whose life has been published by the Camden Society (1863). In

1 See Walpole's Letters, vol. iii. p. 343; vol. vii. p. 391.

? Life, by Hon. Mrs. Hardcastle, vol. i. pp. 39, 41

this lane was the Old Trinity House, burned down in the Great Fire, and again in 1718, and each time rebuilt. The site is marked by the site of merchants' offices (No. 5), called “The Old Trinity House.”

Waterloo Bridge, a bridge over the Thames, between Wellington Street, Strand, and the Waterloo Road (at first called the Strand Bridge), the noblest stone bridge in the world, was built by a public company pursuant to an Act passed in 1809. The first stone was laid October II, 1811, and the bridge publicly opened by the Prince Regent on the second anniversary of the battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1817. The engineer was John Rennie, son of a farmer at Phantassie, in East Lothian—the engineer of many of our celebrated docks and of the breakwater at Plymouth. He died in 1821, and is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral by the side of Sir C. Wren. Ralph Dodd, C.E., stated (Gentleman's Magazine, 1817, vol. i. p. 482), that the design was approved by the proprietors before Rennie had anything to do with the work.

Canova, when he was asked during his visit to England what struck him most forcibly, is said to have replied that the trumpery Chinese Bridge, then in St. James's Park, should be the production of the Government, whilst that of Waterloo was the work of a Private Company.- Quarterly Review, No. 112, p. 309.

Speak ye, too, Works of Peace

For ye too have a voice,
Which shall be heard by ages! The proud Bridge
Through whose broad arches, worthy of their name

And place, his rising and his refluent tide
Majestic Thames, the royal river, rolls.

Southey, Ode on Visit of George IV. to Scotland. This celebrated bridge, “a colossal monument worthy of Sesostris and the Cæsars ” (M. Dupin), consists of nine equal elliptical arches, each of 120 feet span and a rise of 24 feet 6 inches, supported on piers 20 feet wide at the springing of the arches. The entire length is 2456 feet, the bridge and abutments being 1380 feet, the approach from the Strand, 310 feet, and the causeway on the Surrey side, as far as supported by the land-arches, 766 feet. The bridge is therefore on a level with the Strand, and one uniform level throughout.

The total cost of the bridge was £565,000. ... The approaches, besides the land and buildings, cost a further sum of £112,000; so that the total cost of the bridge and approaches was £677,000, and the land and buildings and contingences, £373,000, making a total of £1,050,000.-—-Autob. of Sir John Rennie, F.R.S., p. 35.

As a commercial speculation the bridge was so far from successful that in January 1872 two shares, of £100 each, were sold by auction for £10. Under powers conveyed by the Metropolitan Bridges Act, 1877, the Metropolitan Board of Works purchased the bridge and all the bridge company's rights for £475,000, and on October 5, 1878, opened the bridge to the public free of toll.

Waterloo Place, Pall Mall. The second-loor window of No. 11, looking into Charles Street, marks the bedroom and sitting-room

i City Press, January 6, 1872.

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