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east end of the choir was appropriated as a meeting-house for the congregation of Dr. Burgess; and the rest of the church was made into a cavalry barrack, the horses being stabled within the sacred edifice.

The Saints in Pauls were the last weeke teaching their Horses to ride up the great Steps that lead into the Quire, where (as they derided) they might perhaps learne to Chaunt an Antheme; but one of them fell, and broke both his Leg and the Neck of his Rider, which hath spoiled his Chanting, for he was buried on Saturday night last. A just Judgement of God on such a prophane and Sacrilegious wretch.— Mercurius Elencticus, from Tuesday, January 2, till Tuesday, January 9, 1648.

With the restoration of monarchy came the resolve to restore the ruined cathedral. Much was done in the way of discussion, but no real progress was made till Wren was called in, and he after a careful survey proposed such extensive alterations in the fabric-including the formation of a spacious central rotunda, "a very proper place for a large auditory," to be covered with "a cupola, and then end in a lantern," that the debates were renewed and continued till the Great Fire put an end to the discussion by the destruction of the building. The fire broke out on September 2, 1666. On the 7th Pepys "saw all the town burned;" and had "a miserable sight of Paul's church, with all the roofs fallen, and the body of the choir fallen into St. Faith's." With the church perished all the monuments. The tower and as much of the walls as withstood the fire were removed by Wren to make way for the cathedral which "rose, phoenix-like," out of the ashes of the old. The architectural arrangement of this celebrated church has been preserved to us by the joint labours of Dugdale and Hollar. Hollar's drawings were made in September 1641, and Dugdale's book, for which they were engraved, was first published in 1658. These engravings and descriptions, and all other available sources of information, have been carefully collated, and the results presented in a clear and compact form and illustrated with many excellent engravings in Mr. William Longman's History of the Three Cathedrals Dedicated to St. Paul (1873), while the general history of the cathedrals is treated with a masterly hand in the Annals of St. Paul's Cathedral, by the late Dean of St. Paul's, the Rev. Henry Hart Milman, D.D. In these two volumes will be found ample and trustworthy information on all matters relating to the old and the present cathedrals. Dr. Sparrow Simpson's volumes on Old St. Paul's may be consulted with advantage. There is an incident connected with Old St. Paul's, remarkable in itself, but made still more so by the many celebrated writers who allude to it. In the year 1600 "a middlesized bay English gelding," the property of Bankes, a servant to the Earl of Essex, and a vintner in Cheapside, ascended to the top of St. Paul's, to the delight, it is said by Dekker, of a "number of asses," who brayed below. Bankes had taught his horse, which went by the name of Marocco, to count and perform a variety of feats. "Certainly," says Walter Raleigh in his History, "if Bankes had

lived in elder times he would have shamed all the enchanters of the world; for whosoever was most famous among them could never master or instruct any beast as he did his horse." When the novelty had somewhat lessened in London, Bankes took his wonderful beast first to Paris and afterwards to Rome. He had better have stayed at home, for both he and his horse (which was shod with silver) were burnt for witchcraft.1 Shakespeare alludes to "the dancing horse;" "2 and in a tract called "Maroccus Extaticus," 4to, 1595, there is a rude woodcut of the unfortunate juggler and his famous gelding.

Paul's (St.) Cathedral. After the almost entire destruction of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in the Great Fire of 1666, Dr. Christopher Wren was called upon to survey and report upon its condition. There was a strong desire on the part of the authorities to restore the old building, but Wren pronounced the remaining walls unsafe, and recommended their removal with a view to the construction of a new cathedral. A committee was appointed, who decided against Wren's advice to attempt to patch up the old walls, and with the result he had predicted. Writing to Wren, April 25, 1668, Dean Sancroft says: "What you whispered in my ear at your last coming hither is come to pass. Our work at the west end of St. Paul's is fallen about our ears." On July 25 a royal warrant was issued for taking down the walls, removing the tower and choir, and clearing the ground to the foundation of the east end, with a view to the construction of a new choir for temporary use, and which might ultimately form part of a new cathedral. At Dean Sancroft's request Wren prepared a design for a cathedral, "a plan handsome and noble," which was approved by the King but objected to by the Chapter as "not sufficiently of a cathedral form." This is the design of which the model exists in the South Kensington Museum. In plan it is a Greek cross, with a spacious circular auditory at the intersection of the arms, surmounted by a dome, and at the west end a stately portico. This form Wren conceived would combine the most convenient for the Protestant ritual and service with grandeur of architectural effect; but the clergy insisted that the form should be that of a Latin cross, and that there should be both nave and aisles, and also a lofty spire. Wren therefore produced another design, in which the nave was lengthened and a curious spire placed upon the dome. This was accepted, and on May 14, 1675, a royal warrant was issued appointing Wren the architect, and authorising him to begin the work, "with the east end or quire," according to the design, "because we found it very artificial, proper, and useful." Happily, however, a clause gave the architect "liberty in the prosecution of his work to make some variations rather ornamental than essential, as from time to time he should see proper," and Wren went beyond his license in his "variations," for he produced what was in fact an entirely different and infinitely superior design. The ground was already begun to be

1 Ben Jonson's Epigrams, No. cxxxiii.

2 Love's Labour's Lost.

cleared, and the first stone of the new building was laid, June 21, 1675. Divine service was performed for the first time, December 2, 1697, on the day of thanksgiving for the peace of Ryswick. The King was present; the civic authorities attended in full state; and Bishop Burnet preached the sermon. The last stone was laid in 1710, thirtyfive years after the first. It is frequently stated that the whole cathedral was begun and completed under one architect, Sir Christopher Wren; one master mason, Mr. Thomas Strong; and while one bishop, Dr. Henry Compton, presided over the diocese; but the latter part of the statement is not correct. Dr. Hinchman was bishop when the first stone was laid, and died the same year. Dr. Compton succeeded and was alive at the completion. Thomas Strong, mason, laid the foundation stone, June 21, 1675, and, dying 1681, was succeeded by his brother Edward, who continued and completed the work. The total cost of the building was £747,661: 10s., which, with the exception of £68,341 in subscriptions, arrears of impropriations, and small sums coming under the head of royal gifts, fines, and forfeitures, and the sale of old materials, was defrayed by a tax on every chaldron of coal brought into the port of London, and the cathedral, it is said, deserves to wear, as it does, a smoky coat in consequence.


Exterior. The general form or ground-plan is that of a Latin cross, with lateral projections at the west end of the nave, which give width and importance to the west front. Length from east to west, including the portico, 500 feet; breadth of the nave, 118 feet; across the transepts, 250 feet; at west end, including the Morning Chapel and that which contains the Wellington Monument, 190 feet; campanile towers at the west end, each 222 feet in height; and the height of the whole structure, from the pavement in the street to top of the cross, 404 feet. The outer diameter of the dome is 145 feet, the inner 108 The outer dome is of wood, covered with lead, and does not support the lantern on the top, which rests on a cone of brick raised between the inner cupola and outer dome. The course of balustrade at the top was forced on Wren by the Commissioners for the building. "I never designed a balustrade," he says; "ladies think nothing well without an edging." The heavy railing was also erected in opposition to his opinion. The sculpture on the entablature (the Conversion of St. Paul), the statues on the pediment (St. Paul, with St. Peter and St. James on either side), and the unfortunate statue of Queen Anne, in front of the building, with the four figures at the angles, were all by F. Bird. The statue of Queen Anne was taken away and a copy set up in 1886. The phoenix over the south door was the work of Cibber. The heavy iron railing, of more than 2500 palisades, against which Wren protested, was cast at Lamberhurst, in Kent, at a cost of £11,20206, and encloses upwards of 2 acres of ground. It is a good example of cast-iron work, but its removal from the west end of the cathedral in 1873 has shown the soundness of Wren's objection to its erection. Owing to the undue proximity of houses no good near

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view of the cathedral as a whole is to be had. The best distant view is from the Thames, just below Blackfriars Bridge. An excellent view of it, on the whole the best obtainable, was from the bridge itself, but this was destroyed by the erection of the ugly railway viaduct, and the lofty river-side granaries and warehouses. Observe. From Ludgate Hill the magnificent effect of the west front, with the dome rising above it; the double portico and grand flanking campaniles at the west end; the beautiful semicircular porticoes, north and south; the use of two orders of architecture (Composite above, Corinthian below); the exquisite outline of the dome and lantern; and the general breadth and harmony of the whole building. The circular columns at the base of the stone gallery are, it is said, too tall for the length of the pilasters in the body of the building, but they are certainly not too tall for the place they occupy. The acute observer will not fail to notice that the north and south walls are carried up exteriorly to the height of the nave roof, but on entering the cathedral it will be immediately seen that the height of the aisles bears about the same proportion to the height of the nave as is usual in Gothic edifices. On ascending the clock tower and looking towards the dome the spectator will see that the upper portion of the wall is a mere screen to hide the flying buttresses constructed to resist the thrust of the nave roof. These buttresses are also apparent in the corridor leading to the clock and bells.

Interior. The cupola, with the paintings upon it, is of brick, two bricks thick, with stone bandings at every rise of 5 feet, and a girdle of Portland stone at the base, containing a double chain of iron strongly linked together at every 10 feet, and weighing 95 cwts. 3 qrs. 23 lbs. Wren had the inside all painted one colour to get rid of the diversity of coloured stones. The paint has now been cleaned off, and the colours are painfully apparent. A defect of the interior was forced on the architect by the Duke of York, afterwards James II.

The side oratories at St. Paul's were added to Sir Christopher Wren's original design, by order of the Duke of York [afterwards James II.], who was willing to have them ready for the popish service, when there should be occasion. It narrowed the building, and broke in very much upon the beauty of the design. Sir Christopher insisted so strongly on the prejudice they would be of, that he actually shed some tears in speaking of it; but it was all in vain. The Duke absolutely insisted upon their being inserted and he was obliged to comply.—Mr. Harding, in Spence's Anecdotes, ed. Singer, p. 256.

The paintings, eight in number (by Sir James Thornhill), represent the principal events in the life of St. Paul. They were never worth much, and the little interest that attached to them as Thornhill's works was destroyed when they were repainted in 1853. Wren was opposed from the first to painting the cupola with these heavy masses of monochrome. It was his wish to have decorated the cupola with the more durable ornament of mosaic work, but in this he was overruled. Observe. In the choir the beautiful foliage, carved by Grinling Gibbons, and the inscription to Wren, originally over the entrance

to the choir, but now on the inner porch of the north transept, ending with the line, "Si monumentum requiris, circumspice." It was first set up by Robert Mylne, architect to the Cathedral. The organ (1694) was constructed by Bernard Schmydt, the successful candidate against Harris at the Temple. It originally stood on the screen at the entrance to the choir, but is now divided and placed on each side over the stalls. The rails of the golden gallery were gilt at the expense of the Earl of Lanesborough, the "sober Lanesborough dancing with the gout" of Pope.

The chief monuments in the Cathedral are as follows:-Statue of John Howard, the philanthropist, by Bacon, R.A. (cost 1300 guineas, and was the first monument erected in St. Paul's); statue of Dr. Johnson, by Bacon, R.A.; statue of Sir Joshua Reynolds, by Flaxman, R.A.; Turner, our greatest landscape painter, by Baily, R.A.; kneeling figure of Bishop Heber, by Chantrey, R.A.; monument to Nelson, by Flaxman, R.A. (the hero's lost arm concealed by the Union Jack of England); monument to Lord Cornwallis, opposite, by Rossi, R.A. (the Indian river-gods much admired); monument to Sir Ralph Abercrombie, by Sir R. Westmacott, R.A.; General Sir Charles Napier, the conqueror of Scinde, and not far from him his brother Sir William, the author of the History of the Peninsular War; Sir Henry Lawrence, of Lucknow fame; Lord Melbourne the minister, and his brother the diplomatist, by Baron Marochetti; and Hallam the historian; monument to Sir John Moore, who fell at Corunna (Marshal Soult stood before this monument and wept); statue of Lord Heathfield, the gallant defender of Gibraltar ; monuments to Howe and Rodney, two of our great naval heroes; monument to Nelson's favourite, the brave and pious Lord Collingwood; statue of Earl St. Vincent, the hero of the battle of Cape St. Vincent; Lord Duncan, the victor of Camperdown, and Captain Burges, who fell in that fight; Captain Mosse and "the gallant good Riou," who fell at Copenhagen, and many other of our naval heroes; monuments to Picton and Ponsonby, who fell at Waterloo; statues of Sir William Jones, the Oriental scholar; Sir Astley Cooper, the surgeon ; Dr. Babington, the physician; and Lord Lyons. The monument to the Duke of Wellington, by A. Stevens, in the chapel at the west end of the south aisle, a most elaborate renaissance structure, was more than twenty years in hand, partly owing to the ill-health and mental idiosyncrasy of the artist, but also largely to the complex and difficult character of the work. It is a remarkable and beautiful production, but is seen with difficulty and at a great disadvantage in its present very unsuitable position. There are fine tombs with recumbent effigies of Bishops Blomfield and Jackson, Dean Milman and General Gordon. The monument of Dr. Donne, saved from the old cathedral-an effigy of the form of Donne, wrapped in his sepulchral shroud, has been (1873) removed from the crypt and placed in an alcove in the south-east aisle.

The crypt of St. Paul's, unlike the crypts of most other cathedrals,

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