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building, all of Portland stone, with fourteen windows on each side, and one great window at the upper end, and five doors of stone with frontispiece and cartoozes; the inside brought up with brick, finished over with two orders of columns and pilasters, part of stone and part of brick, with their architectural frieze and cornice, with a gallery upon the two sides, and the lower end borne upon great cartoozes of timber carved, with rails and ballasters of timber, and the floor laid with spruce deals; a strong timber roof covered with lead, and under it a ceiling divided into a fret made of great cornices enriched with carving ; with painting, glazing, etc.; for performance thereof a great quantity of stone hath been digged at Portland quarry, in the county of Dorset, and Huddlestone quarry, in the county of York.” As surveyor-general Inigo Jones had for salary 8s. 4d. per day, with an allowance of £46 a year for house rent, besides a clerk and incidental expenses. The master mason was Nicholas Stone. His pay was 45. rod. the day. The masons' wages were from 12d. to 25. 6d. the man per diem; the carpenters were paid at the same rate ; while the bricklayers received from 14d. to 25. 2d. the day.

The ceiling of the Banqueting House is lined with pictures on canvas, representing the apotheosis of James I., painted abroad by Rubens in 1635. Sir Godfrey Kneller had heard that Rubens was assisted by Jordaens in the execution. The sum he received was £3000. In 1785 G. B. Cipriani, R.A., received £2000 for cleaning and “restoring” these paintings. His repaintings were removed by Seguier, and the painting again cleaned and restored by Rigaud. The figures in these works are of colossal dimensions. Smith, who examined them closely when Seguier's scaffold was erected for cleaning them in 1832, says that “the children are more than 9 feet, and the full-grown figures from 20 to 25 feet in height.” Within, and over the principal entrance, is a bust, in bronze, of James I., by Le Sour, it is said. The Banqueting House was converted into a chapel in the reign of George I. (about 1724). It has never been consecrated. Here, on every MaundyThursday (the day before Good Friday), is the Royal Maundy distributed to as many poor and aged men and women as the Sovereign may be years of age. James Wyatt added the staircase on the north side in 1798. Sir John Soane restored the building in 1829-1830. The services at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, are Sunday morning at 11, afternoon at 3. The Boyle Lectures are given here in May and June in the afternoon. The old chapel of the palace was situated near the river.

During several years of the reign of Henry VIII. Whitehall was the scene of many of those splendid jousts and revels in which he delighted till age and sickness had soured his temper. Here too passed before him those mighty musters of the citizens and train-bands which contemporary annalists describe with so much enjoyment. It was in Whitehall that at midnight, on January 25, 1533, the unfortunate Anne

1 Walpole, by Dallaway, vol. ii. p. 58.

Boleyn was married to the wife-slaying monarch. Edward VI. held a Parliament here, and here listened to the preaching of Latimer. At the outset of the reign of Mary, Whitehall was attacked by a party of Wyatt's followers; and a few days after the Queen had the satisfaction of seeing the misguided rabble kneel in the mire in front of Whitehall, with halters round their necks, and crave her mercy, which she, looking over the gate, graciously accorded, whereat they set up a mighty shout of “God save Queen Mary." Mary spent many solitary days here, and here her ecclesiastical adviser, Bishop Gardiner, died, November 15, 1556. Elizabeth restored to Whitehall its former splendour and festivity. She built a new Banqueting House and gave magnificent feasts; held tourneys and jousts, where knights like Sir Harry Lee, Sir Christopher Hatton (afterwards Chancellor), Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Fulke Greville, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Robert Devereux kept the barriers against all comers; and saw grave tragedies and courtly masques, and sometimes baitings of bulls and bears and the performances of mimes and tumblers. Of the serious matters of state transacted here it is needless to speak.

These courtly amusements her successor continued. Several of Ben Jonson's masques were written for performance before their Majesties at Whitehall, Inigo Jones contriving the properties and machinery. Even the mighty intellect of Bacon bent itself to the preparation of a masque to be performed at Whitehall by the members of the Inns of Court. Sometimes the masques followed weddings, as after the marriage of Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, to the Lady Susan Vere, December 27, 1600; of the abandoned Countess of Essex to the King's worthless favourite, Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, December 26, 1613; and, most splendid of all, that of the King's only daughter, Elizabeth, to Frederick Prince Palatine, afterwards the luckless King of Bohemia. For a few years Charles I. kept Whitehall brilliant with masques and plays, the King and Queen taking part, and lawyers as well as courtiers assisting.

February 27, 1634.-On Monday after Candlemas Day the Gentlemen of the Inns of Court performed their Masque at Court. They were sixteen in number, who rode through the streets in four chariots, and two others to carry their pages and musicians, attended by an hundred gentlemen on great horses, as well clad as ever I saw any. They far exceeded in bravery any masque that had formerly been presented by those Societies, and performed the dancing part with much applause. In their company there was one Mr. Read of Grays Inn, whom all the women, and some men, cried up for as handsome as the Duke of Buckingham. They were well used at Court by the King and Queen, no disgust given them, only this one Accident fell, Mr. May of Grays Inn, a fine poet, he who translated Lucan, came athwart my Lord Chamberlain in the Banqueting House, and he broke his staff over his shoulders, not knowing who he was, the King present, who knew him, for he calls him his Poet, and told the Chamberlain of it, who sent for him the next morning, and fairly excused himself to him, and gave him fifty pounds in pieces. - Garrard to Lord Deputy Wentworth (Strafford Letters), vol. i. p. 207.

November 9, 1637.-Here are to be two masques this winter ; one at Christmas, which the King with the young nobless do make; the other at Shrovetide, which the Queen and her ladies do present to the King. A great room is now in building only

for this use, betwixt the Guard Chamber and Banquetting House, of fir, only weather boarded and slightly covered. At the marriage of the Queen of Bohemia I saw one set up there, but not of that vastness that this is, which will cost too much money to be pulled down, and yet down it must when the masques are over.—Garrard to Wentworth (ibid.), vol. ii. p. 130.

A few weeks later (November 16) Garrard tells Wentworth that the King is busy practising his part, and that “most of the young lords, who are good dancers, attend his Majesty in this business."

The event which is most closely associated in the popular mind with Whitehall is the execution of King Charles I., which took place on January 30, 1649, on a scaffold erected in front of the Banqueting House, towards the Park. The warrant directs that he should be executed “in the open street before Whitehall.” Lord Leicester tells us in his Journal that he was “beheaded at Whitehall Gate.” Dugdale, in his Diary, that he was "beheaded at the gate of Whitehall ;” and a broadside of the time, preserved in the British Museum, that "the King was beheaded at Whitehall Gate.” 2 There cannot, therefore, be a doubt that the scaffold was erected in front of the building facing the present Horse Guards. Another point has excited some discussion. It appears from Herbert's account of the King's last moments, that "the King was led all along the galleries and Banqueting House, and there was a passage broken through the wall, by which the King passed unto the scaffold.” On the other hand, Ludlow relates in his Memoirs that the King “was conducted to the scaffold out of the window of the Banqueting House."3 The following memorandum of Vertue's on the copy of Terasson's large engraving of the Banqueting House is preserved in the library of the Society of Antiquaries : “It is, according to the truest reports, said that out of this window K. Charles went upon the scaffold to be beheaded, the window-frame being taken out purposely to make the passage on to the scaffold, which is equal to the landing-place of the Hall within side." The window marked by Vertue belonged to a small building abutting from the north side of the present Banqueting House, and he was certainly in error. It is almost certain that Charles went out of an opening made in the centre blank window of the front, next the park. It must be remembered that all the windows were then blank. As late as 1761 the centre window only was glazed.

On Tuesday, March 31, 1657, the Speaker, at the head of the whole House of Parliament, “repaired to the Banqueting House at Whitehall, to present unto his Highness the Lord Protecter the humble Petition and Advice" of the House. “H. H. attended by the Lord President of the Council and other Officers of State came thither” to receive them; listened to the address of the Speaker, accepted the petition, and promised an early reply. The humble petition and i Strafford Letters, vol. ij. 140.

scaffold was erected " before the Great Gate at ? So also in his History of the Troubles in Whitehall." England, fol. 1681, p. 373, Dugdale says the 3 Memoirs, Vevey ed., vol. i. p. 283.

4 Journal of Parliament.

advice was a proffer of the crown; the reply came in writing on April 3, gratefully declining the proffered gift.

The residence of the second Charles at Whitehall is marked by gifts to harlots, advertisements of lost and stolen dogs, and a variety of unseemly scenes. Charles built a new playhouse at Whitehall, to which Pepys went, and saw there “the King and Queen, Duke and Duchess, and all the great ladies of the Court, which, indeed, was a fine sight," but, “above all, my Lady Castlemaine." It is a curious illustration of the extent of the panic caused by the Great Fire of London that Pepys notes (under September 6, 1666) that he went "to Sir W. Coventry at St. James's, who lay without curtains having removed all his goods; as the King at Whitehall and everybody had donė, and was doing." Evelyn records a scene he witnessed at Whitehall when James II. was king, the sequel to which affords a remarkable exemplification of the punishment inflicted for striking in the King's Court.

July 9, 1685.- Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall, a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire, standing very near his Majesty's bedchamber door in the lobby, came Col. Culpepper and in a rude manner looking my lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appear : my Lord at first took little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord asked Culpepper whether he meant him ; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it again, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpepper struck him a box on the ear, which my Lord return'd and felld him. They were soon parted, Culpepper was seiz'd, and his Majesty, who was all the while in his bed. chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea, as he deserv’d. My Lord of Devonshire had nothing said to him.Evelyn.

But the earl escaped only for the moment. Culpepper, it was intimated, should not be again admitted to the presence-chamber. But after a while he was there, as little abashed as ever. The two again met in the drawing-room at Whitehall. There had been disputes in the interval between their respective adherents, and threats had passed on both sides. They at once withdrew from the royal presence. At the door the old quarrel was renewed, and the earl struck Culpepper in the face with a cane. The earl was in disfavour at Court on account of his politics, and a criminal information was filed against him in the King's Bench. He pleaded privilege of peerage, but this was disallowed. He then pleaded guilty ; and Jeffreys sentenced him to a fine of £30,000 and to imprisonment till payment should be made. It was at Whitehall that Monmouth after his capture was brought, “his arms bound behind him with a silken cord,” into the presence of his uncle, James II., in order that the mean-spirited monarch might enjoy the abject submission of the nephew whom he had already resolved no submission should save from the scaffold. A little later Whitehall witnessed his own craven terrors and final flight from his crown and country (December

1 Macaulay, ch. vii.

18, 1668). “On the morning of Wednesday the 13th of February (1669), the court of Whitehall and all the neighbouring streets were filled with gazers." The Lords and Commons in Convention had agreed to offer the crown to William of Orange and the Princess Mary. The formal tender was that day made in the Banqueting House, which had been duly prepared for the great ceremony. With this solemnity the glory of Whitehall passed away. Thenceforth no monarch resided in it, and it was not again the scene of courtly ceremonials. A large part of the Palace, as we have seen, was destroyed by fire in January 1697, and not rebuilt. The ground was assigned to private uses, and in August 1759 the fine old gatehouse, known as Holbein's Gate, was demolished to make way for the present Parliament Street; and with it may be said to have disappeared the last vestige, except the Banqueting House, of Royal Whitehall.

Of Holbein's Gate there is an interesting view, by Vertue, in the Vetusta Monumenta, a second in Wilkinson's Londina Illustrata, a third in Smith's Westminster, and a fourth by Wale in Dodsley's London. William, Duke of Cumberland (the hero of Culloden), had every brick removed to Windsor Great Park, and talked of re-erecting it at the end of the Long Walk, with additions at the sides, from designs by Thomas Sandby. Nothing, however, was done. Sandby's design may be seen in Smith's work. There were eight medallions on this gate (four on each side) made of baked clay, and glazed like delft-ware. Three of these (then and still at Hatfield Priory, Hatfield Peverell, in Essex) are engraved in Smith's Westminster, and represent, it is said, Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Bishop Fisher. Two (worked into keepers' lodges at Windsor) are now, by Mr. Jesse's exertions, at Hampton Court, where they are made to do duty as two of the Roman Emperors. That they were of Italian workmanship, and like the medallions at Hampton Court, probably the work of John de Maiano, has been pretty well determined by Sir Henry Ellis. When Strype drew up his additions to Stow's London, “the uppermost room, in Holbein's Gateway, was used as the State Paper Office.” 2

The lead statue of James II., behind Whitehall, was the work of Grinling Gibbons, and was set up December 31, 1686, at the charge of Tobias Rustat,3 The King, it is said, is pointing to the spot where his father was executed; but this vulgar error has been exposed long ago, though it is still repeated. Nothing can illustrate better the mild character of the Revolution of 1688 than the fact that the statue of the abdicated and exiled King was allowed to stand in the innermost courtyard of what was once his own Palace.

Whitehall Gardens. [See Privy Gardens.]

Whitehall Stairs, the stairs leading from the Thames to Whitehall Palace. Here Vanbrugh has laid a scene in The Relapse, or Virtue in Danger. [See Whitehall.] 1 Ellis's Letters, 3d S., vol. i. p. 249. 2 Strype, B. vi. p. 5. 3 Bramston, p. 253. VOL. III

2 L

ted; but this viNothing cand fact that the statuse

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