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extends under the entire building, and is one of the most extensive and massive in structure extant. A portion of it was fitted up in 1877 as a chapel for the early morning service. In the crypt, Observe. -Grave of Sir Christopher Wren (d. 1723, aged ninety-one). Grave of Lord Nelson (d. 1805). The sarcophagus which contains Nelson's coffin was made at the expense of Cardinal Wolsey, for the burial of Henry VIII. in the tomb-house at Windsor; and the coffin which contains the body (made of part of the mainmast of the ship L'Orient), was a present to Nelson after the battle of the Nile, from his friend Ben Hallowell, captain of the Swiftsure. "I send it," says Hallowell, "that when you are tired of this life you may be buried in one of your own trophies." Nelson appreciated the present, and for some time had it placed upright, with the lid on, against the bulk-head of his cabin, behind the chair on which he sat at dinner. In a neighbouring alcove the sarcophagus which contains the remains of Wellington. The sarcophagus, grand in its simplicity, was wrought with infinite patience from a matchless block of Cornish porphyry. Grave of Sir John Collingwood (d. 1810), commander of the larboard division at the battle of Trafalgar. Graves of the following celebrated English painters Sir Joshua Reynolds (d. 1792); Sir Thomas Lawrence (d. 1830); James Barry (d. 1806); John Opie (d. 1807); Benjamin West (d. 1820); Henry Fuseli (d. 1825); Joseph Mallord William Turner (d. 1851). Graves of the following eminent engineersRobert Mylne, who built Blackfriars Bridge (d. 1811); John Rennie, who built Waterloo Bridge (d. 1821). Monuments from Old St. Paul's, preserved in the crypt of the present building-Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's School; Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of the great Francis Bacon; and Sir Christopher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor.

Ascent. The ascent to the ball is by 616 steps, of which the first 260 are easy, and well lighted. Here the Whispering Gallery will give the visitor breath; but the rest of the ascent is a somewhat fatiguing task. Clock Room.-In the south-western tower is the clock, and the great bell on which it strikes. The length of the minute hand of the clock is 8 feet, and its weight 75 lbs. ; the length of the hour hand is 5 feet 5 inches, and its weight 44 lbs. The diameter of the bell is about 10 feet, and its weight is generally stated at 44 tons. It is inscribed, "Richard Phelps made me, 1716," and is never used except for the striking of the hour, and for tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the royal family, the Bishops of London, the Deans of St. Paul's, and should he die in his mayoralty, the Lord Mayor. The larger part of the metal of which it is made formed "Great Tom of Westminster," once in the Clock Tower at Westminster. It had long been a matter of regret and complaint that the Cathedral should be without a peal of bells, and in 1877 several of the City Companies, in conjunction with the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, determined to provide it with a complete peal of twelve bells. They were cast by Messrs. Taylor



of Loughborough, weighed together about 11 tons, and cost £6000. The 1st and 2d bells were presented by the Drapers' Company; the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts and the Turners' Company; the 7th by the Salters'; the 8th by the Merchant Taylors'; the 9th by the Fishmongers'; the 10th by the Clothworkers'; the 11th by the Grocers' Company; and the 12th and largest by the Corporation. Each bell is inscribed with the motto of the donors, and with the arms of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. They are hung in the northwest campanile, and ring out a full sweet peal. A new bell (Great Paul), weighing 17 tons, cast by Messrs. Taylor of Loughborough, was safely hauled into its place in the south-west campanile in May 1882.

The Library is not very valuable. The Whispering Gallery is so called because the slightest whisper is transmitted from one side of the gallery to the other with great rapidity and distinctness. The Stone Gallery is an outer gallery, and affords a fine view of London on a clear day. The Inner Golden Gallery is at the apex of the cupola and base of the lantern. The Outer Golden Gallery is at the apex of the dome. Here a noble view of London may be obtained if the ascent is made early in the morning, and on a clear day. The Ball and Cross stand on a cone between the cupola and dome. The construction is very interesting, and will well repay attention. The ball is 6 feet 2 inches in diameter, and will contain eight persons, "without," it is said, "particular inconvenience." This, however, may well be doubted. The weight of the ball is stated to be 5600 lbs., and that of the cross (to which there is no entrance), 3360 lbs.

The unadorned condition of the interior of St. Paul's, so different from the intention of the architect, who wished to line the cupola with mosaics by the best artists of Italy, and to place in compartments below "bas-reliefs and suchlike decorations," and complained that through insufficient funds "his wings were clipt, and the Church was deprived of its ornaments," had frequently forced itself on those interested in the worthy appearance of the fabric and its adequate employment as a great central church for public worship. Nothing practical was done, however, till the beginning of 1858, when the Bishop of London addressed a letter to the Dean and Chapter urging upon them "the advisability of instituting a series of special evening services for the benefit of those large masses of the people whom it might be impossible to attract in any other way." To this Dean Milman promptly replied, expressing for himself and the Chapter their "earnest, unanimous, and sincere desire to co-operate to the utmost of their power" in the proposed object, but showing that "the scantiness of the funds at their disposal" rendered them unable to accomplish it without extraneous help. But he further avowed the desire that "instead of the dull, cold, unedifying, unseemly appearance of the interior, the Cathedral should be made within worthy of its exterior grandeur and beauty." An appeal was made to the public, and sufficient funds obtained to fit the space under the dome for

public service, to provide a magnificent organ for these special services and ceremonials, and to warm the cathedral throughout, with the result that "immense congregations of earnest and devout worshippers throng to the Cathedral, throughout even the wildest, coldest, nights of the winter months." 1 On these improvements about £10,000 were expended. A like sum was spent on ornamental alterations and decorations, but with a less satisfactory result. In 1871 an "iconographic scheme" by Burges was laid before the Executive Committee, and made public, for the complete and systematic decoration of the interior; but it proposed to overlay every part with a profusion of seraphim and cherubim with wings and bodies "fiery red" or celestial blue, princedoms, thrones and powers, archangels in armour, and angels "dressed as deacons," saints and confessors. The designs are in the Chapter House. This, in common with some other schemes of decoration, did not meet with general approval. Nothing more was formally done till June 1877, when the Executive Committee met and passed a resolution

That it is desirable, with the funds now in hand, about £40,000, to carry into effect as far as possible the wishes of Sir Christopher Wren, by decorating the dome of St. Paul's with mosaic, in a similar style to the dome of St. Peter's at Rome.

A sub-committee was appointed to devise the best means of giving effect to this resolution: but little has since been done.

The elaborate reredos, which cost £37,000, and took eighteen months to erect, was unveiled on January 25, 1888.

The space within the railings on the north and east sides of the cathedral has been planted and laid out as a public garden, and from it some picturesque views of portions of the fabric may be obtained. When the ground was being dug over for the formation of the garden, Mr. F. C. Penrose, the architect to the Dean and Chapter, seized the opportunity to institute a careful search for any traces of the old cathedral. He came upon walls and buttresses of the cloisters and chapter-house, and was able to make out the general direction of the main structure, the central line of which, though not due east and west, inclined much less to the north-east than that of the present cathedral. He also discovered the foundations of the famous St. Paul's Cross, the site of which and the outline of its base he has marked by a stone pavement at the north-east angle of the cathedral. In the public procession to St. Paul's on occasion of the general thanksgiving for peace, Thursday, July 7, 1814, the Duke of Wellington carried the sword of state before the Prince Regent. The next public procession to St. Paul's was when the Duke of Wellington was himself carried to his grave, November 18, 1852. The latest was on February 27, 1872, when the Queen attended in state to join in the general public thanksgiving for the recovery of the Prince of Wales.

Services.-On Sundays, Good Friday, Ascension Day, and Christmas Day: Holy Communion (north-west chapel) 8; Morning Service, 1 Dean Milman's Annals of St. Paul's, p. 497.

with Holy Communion, choral, 10.30; Evening Service, 3.15 and 7. On week days, except Good Friday, Ascension Day, and Christmas Day: Holy Communion (north-west chapel) 8; Morning Prayer (crypt chapel) 8; Morning Prayer, choral, 10; Short Service (northwest chapel) 1.15. Evening Prayer, choral, 4; Short Service (northwest chapel) 8. Unless otherwise stated the services are held in the choir, the entire area of the cathedral being available for worshippers. On St. Paul's Day, January 25, a selection from Mendelssohn's oratorio of St. Paul is performed with a full orchestra and a largely augmented choir, and on Tuesday in Holy Week Bach's Passion Music is given in like manner. During Lent the mid-day service is held in the choir, when a course of sermons, each course lasting a week, are given by eminent preachers. The services are always well-attended, about 800 persons being generally present at the daily evensong. Under Sir John Stainer, who was organist for several years, the services attained a high degree of musical excellence. On the Fridays in Lent the service is sung without the organ, and is well worth hearing. The annual meeting of the children of the Charity Schools of London has been discontinued since 1867, in consequence of the interruption to the service, rendered necessary by the erection of a huge gallery round the dome area. Haydn said that the most powerful impression he ever received from music was from their singing of the "Old Hundredth."

Paul's Bake-House Court, on the west side of Godliman Street, PAUL'S CHAIN, was so called from the bakehouse "employed in baking of bread for the Church of Paul's." 1

On the west side of the street now called Godliman Street stood the bakehouse : it was a large building, and its place is still identified by Paul's Bakehouse Yard. The brewery probably adjoined it. There was a mill for grinding the corn, worked by horses. There were four servants in the bakehouse, three in the brewery, and two at the mill, besides a clerk of the receipts. The brewery and the bakehouse were under the charge of an officer, the Custos Bracini.-Domesday of St. Paul's, 1222 ed. Archdeacon Hale (Camden Society, 1858, p. 48).

Here was the office of the Registrar of the High Court of Admiralty, now transferred to the Royal Courts of Justice, Somerset House. The brewhouse attached to the Cathedral was converted into the Paul's Head Tavern.2

Paul's Chain, south side of ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD to CARTER LANE, a street so called from a chain or barrier drawn across the carriage-way of St. Paul's Churchyard, to preserve silence in the Cathedral during the hours of public worship. Stow (p. 137) refers to the "south chain of Paul's." The north chain is a barrier of wood. Edward Cocker ("according to Cocker") taught the arts of writing and arithmetic, "in an extraordinary manner," at "his dwelling on the south side of St. Paul's Church, over against Paul's Chain;" and here, in 1660, he wrote The Pen's Transcendancy, an interesting illustration of his extraordinary skill in the art of writing well.

2 Ibid., p. 137.

1 Stow, p. 137.

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So [they] going downe by Paules chaine, left the gentlemen going up toward Fleet Street.-R. Greene, Cony-catching.

The Faculties Office for granting Licenses (by Act of Parliament) to eat flesh in any part of England, is still kept at St. Paul's Chain, near St. Paul's Churchyard.— The Kingdom's Intelligencer, No. 8, February 23, 1663.

Paul's (St.) Churchyard, the irregular area, lined with houses, encircling St. Paul's Cathedral and burial-ground, of which the side. towards the Thames is commonly called the bow, and the side towards Paternoster Row the string. The original statue of Queen Anne, before the west front of the church, was the work (1712) of Francis Bird, a poor sculptor, whose best work is his monument to Dr. Busby, in Westminster Abbey. It was the subject of an indifferent copy of verses, by a poet who could write better things, Sir Samuel Garth, author of the Dispensary. A couplet will suffice as a specimen of the whole :


With grace divine great Anna's seen to rise
An awful form that glads a Nation's eyes.

In the area of St. Paul's Church is a noble statue erected of the late Queen in marble, though I cannot say it's extremely like Her Majesty, yet it is very masterly done, with her Crown on her head, her sceptre and globe in her hands, and adorned with her Royal Robes and ensigns of the garter. Round her Pedestal are four fine figures, also in marble, representing Great Britain, France, Ireland, and America. —Macky, A Journey through England, 8vo, 1722, vol. i. p. 280.

The old statue, which was worn out, has been replaced by a copy in
Sicilian marble by Messrs. Mowlem, Burt, and Freeman.
This was
unveiled in December 1886.

At the east end of the Cathedral was St. Paul's School, and on the string or northern side is the Chapter-house of the Cathedral. Paul's Churchyard was one of the places examined for lodgings for the retinue of Charles V. previous to his coming to London in 1522, and we learn from the return the kind of houses occupied by one or two noted residents :


Maister Lylly, scole maister: i hall, iiij chambers, iiij feather beddes, i kitchin, and other necessaries.

Poloderus [Polydore Vergil] in Paules Churche Yarde: hall, parlour, iiij chambers, iiij beddes with all necessaries.

Before the Fire, which destroyed the old Cathedral, St. Paul's Churchyard was chiefly inhabited by stationers, whose shops were then, and till the year 1760, distinguished by signs. The Cronycle of England, folio, 1515, was printed by Julian Notary, "dwellynge in powles chyrche yarde besyde ye weste dore by my lordes palyes." His sign was The Three Kinges. At the sign of the White Greyhound, in St. Paul's Churchyard, the first editions of Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis and Rape of Lucrece were published by John Harrison; at the Flower de Luce and the Crown appeared the first edition of the Merry Wives of Windsor; at the Green Dragon the first edition of the Merchant of Venice; at the Fox the first edition of Richard II.; at the Angel the first edition of Richard III.; at the Spread Eagle the first edition of Troilus and Cressida; at the Gun the first edition of

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