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“old trusty servant Mr. John Trayleman” had contrived to smuggle some of the best of them over to Holland, where they were purchased by the Archduke Leopold, and are now in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. The house itself was given by Cromwell and his colleagues to General Fairfax, whose daughter and heiress married the second and last Duke of Buckingham of the Villiers family. The young Duke of Buckingham thought the easiest way to regain the estate was to marry the heiress. He came over to England the year before Oliver died, proposed, was accepted, and, September 1657, was married at Nun Appleton, near York. When the Protector was told of the marriage he gave the duke liberty to reside at York House, but not to quit it without permission. Buckingham broke his promise and was sent to the Tower. Lord Fairfax went to remonstrate with Cromwell, lost his temper, and the Protector and his old General parted in anger, never to meet in life again.

November 27, 1655.- I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the former greate Buckingham, but now much ruin'd thro' neglect.-Evelyn.

He Lord Fairfax] lived in York House, where every chamber was adorned with the arms of Villiers and Manners, lions and peacocks. He was descended from the same ancestors, Earls of Rutland. --Brian Fairfax, Memoirs of the Life of the D. of Buckingham.

In 1661 it was occupied by Baron de Batteville, the Spanish ambassador ; in 1663 the Russian ambassador was lodging here.

May 19, 1661 (Lord's Day). ---I walked in the morning towards Westminster, and, seeing many people at York House, I went down and found them at masse, it being the Spanish Ambassador's; and so I got into one of the gallerys, and there heard two masses done, I think not in so much state as I have seen them heretofore. After that, into the garden, and walked an hour or two, but found it not so fine a place as I always took it for by the outside. - Pepys.

June 6, 1663.—To York House, where the Russia Embassader do lie. ... That that pleased me best, was the remains of the noble soul of the late Duke of Buckingham appearing in his house, in every place, in the door cases and the windows. —Pepys.

By a deed, dated January 1, 1672, the duke sold York House and gardens for the sum of £30,000, to Roger Higgs, of St. Margaret's, Westminster, Esq. ; Emery Hill, of Westminster, gentleman; Nicholas Eddyn, of Westminster, woodmonger; and John Green, of Westminster, brewer, by whom the house was pulled down, and the grounds and gardens converted into streets and tenements, bearing the names and titles of the last possessor of the house, George Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, Buckingham Street. The rental, in 1668, of “York House and tenements, in the Strand," was £1359: 1os. There is an engraving of York House in the Londina Illustrata, from a drawing by Hollar, in the Pepysian Library at Cambridge. [See York Watergate.]

York Place, the old name for Whitehall.

1 Walpole, vol. ii. p. 99; Smith, vol. xxxi. etc. ; Sainsbury, Rubens's Papers, p. 65.

Ist Gent.

Sir,
You must no more call it York Place, that is past :
For, since the cardinal fell, that title's lost;
'Tis now the king's, and call'd—Whitehall.
3rd. Gent.

I know it ;
But 'tis so lately alter'd, that the old name

Is fresh about me. —Shakespeare, Henry VIII., Act iv. Sc. 1.
The bitter satirist of Wolsey wrote

Why come ye nat to Court?
To whyche Court ?
To the kinges Courte
Or to Hampton Court ?
Nay, to the Kinges Court :
The kynges courte
Should have the excellence ;
But Hampton Court
Hath the preemynence,
And Yorkes Place,
With my lordes grace,
To whose magnifycence

Is all the conflewence, etc.
Skelton, Why Come ye Nat to Courte? (Skelton's Works, by Dyce, vol. ii. p. 39).

York Place, PORTMAN SQUARE, is the continuation of Baker Street northwards. William Pitt resided at No. 14 during the Addington administration, and here Lord Eldon found him at breakfast when he carried the King's “commands for Mr. Pitt to attend him.”1 No. 8, the house looking down York Street, was the residence of Cardinal Wiseman, and here he died, February 15, 1865. He previously lived in Golden Square.

York Stairs, BUCKINGHAM STREET. [See York Watergate.]

York Street, Covent GARDEN, was so called in compliment to James, Duke of York, afterwards James II. Hatton describes it, 1708, as “a very short, but broad and pleasant street," and Strype, 1720, as “very short, but well built and inhabited.” Beneath the parapet ledge of the house well known as Mr. H. G. Bohn, the bookseller's, now Messrs. George Bell and Sons (Nos. 4 and 5) is a stone inscribed with the name of the street and the year of its erection—"1636.” The vaults of this house are very extensive, and are said to cover part of the burial-ground of the ancient convent from whence Covent Garden derives its name. Eminent Inhabitants.—Dr. Donne's son, in 1640.2 Mrs. Pritchard, the actress, when she advertised her benefit at Drury Lane, in the Public Advertiser of March 13, 1756. At No. 4 De Quincey wrote “bit by bit” his Confessions of an Opium Eater. No. 5 was the residence of Elliston when lessee of Drury Lane Theatre.

York Street, KENSINGTON, so called from “Thomas York, Citizen and Joyner of London," who, in 1687, was in possession of the land in this neighbourhood.3 Thackeray was living at No. 13 in this street 1 Eldon's Life, by Twiss, vol. i. p. 446.

3 Title-deeds in possession of John J. Merriman, 2 Rate-books of St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Esq.

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when Vanity Fair was in course of publication. His writings at that period are full of allusions to the neighbourhood. The house is the one with two bay windows at the south-west end of the street. The shop at the north-east end-an ironmonger's—is frequently spoken of by Cobbett in his Rural Rides, etc.

York Street, St. James's SQUARE TO JERMYN STREET, was so called in compliment to James, Duke of York, afterwards James II. Here is Ormond Yard, and here, on the east side, was the chapel of the Spanish Embassy. The chapel with the arms of Castile on the walls was turned into a house in 1877. Apple-tree Yard, in this street, derives its name from an orchard of apple-trees, for which St. James's Fields were famous in the reign of Charles . I. Ridgway, the publisher of the Rolliad, had his shop at No. 1 York Street, St. James's Square.

York Street, BROADWAY, WESTMINSTER, was so called after John Sharp, Archbishop of York, whose town-house was in 1708 in this street. It was formerly known as Petty France, and was so marked in Rocque's Map. Milton, whilst Latin Secretary to Oliver and Richard Cromwell, 1651-1660, lived at No. 19 in this street, in “a pretty garden-house next door to the Lord Scudamore's, and opening into St. James's Park.”

Here his blindness came on; here was the brief period of his happy second marriage; here he wrote his Defensio Secunda, some of his other pamphlets, and some of the most famous of his Sonnets; and here he began his “ Paradise Lost.”_ David Masson, Letter in The Times, October 22, 1875.

Jeremy Bentham bought the house and added the garden to his own house, leaving nothing but a narrow area at the back, overhung by a cotton willow-tree, said to have been planted by Milton. Near the back attic-window Bentham affixed a stone inscribed with—“SACRED TO MILTON, PRINCE OF POETS.” Among Bentham's tenants in Milton's house was William Hazlitt, the critic, who occupied it from June 1812 to 1819. He made “a large wainscoted room upstairs his study," because he fancied it might have been Milton's. Milton's house was demolished in 1877 to make way for the huge Queen Anne Mansions. It had fallen into a neglected and dilapidated condition.

York Terrace, Queen's Elm, BROMPTON. Thomas Moore was living here in 1811, the year of his marriage. Mrs. Moore described it to Mr. S. C. Hall as a pretty house, the terrace being then isolated, with nursery gardens opposite. Long afterwards the poet went to Brompton “to indulge himself with a sight of that house.” Mr. Hall says “it is now a house in a row. I regret that I cannot indicate the number, but believe it to be No. 5."

York Waterworks. [See York Buildings.]

York Watergate, at the Thames end of BUCKINGHAM STREET, CHARING CROSS, is commonly said from an early date to have been designed by Inigo Jones for George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the “Steenie ” of James I. But Sir Balthazar Gerbier appears to have acted as architect to the Duke at York House, and was probably the responsible architect of the Watergate. Whether he actually designed it is doubtful. It was built by Nicholas Stone, “master mason" of Whitehall and Windsor, who also claims the design. In his Works Book, preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum, is the entry

The Watergate at York House hee dessined and built ; and ye right hand lion hee did, fronting y Thames. Mr. Kearne, a Jarman, his brother by marrying, did ye shee lion.

The Watergate has always been admired for its proportions and suitability to the purpose. Now sunk in a hollow and thrust aside by the Thames Embankment works, it is seen to a great disadvantage. On the street front is the Villiers' motto-Fidei coticula Crux. (See York House.]

Yorkshire Stingo, MARYLEBONE ROAD, on the south side where the road takes a turn south to join the Edgware Road, nearly opposite where is now the Metropolitan Railway Station. There is still a tavern with the sign of the Yorkshire Stingo at 183 Marylebone Road.

The second cast iron bridge [ever constructed] was designed by the celebrated Thomas Paine. It was executed at Rotherham in 1789, was brought to London in 1790, and set up in the bowling green of the Yorkshire Stingo, Lisson Green ; but as Mr. Paine was not able to pay the expense, the arch was taken to pieces and carried back to Rotherham, where some of the parts were applied to the famous bridge afterwards erected at Sunderland. —Cooke's Old London Bridge, p. 7.

From here the first pair of London omnibuses were started, July 4, 1829; they ran to the Bank and back; the fare was one shilling, or sixpence for half the distance. Mr. Shillibeer was the owner.'

Zoological Gardens (The), REGENT'S PARK, belong to the Zoological Society of London, a Society instituted in 1826, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1829, for the advancement of Zoology, and the introduction and exhibition of the Animal Kingdom alive or properly preserved. The principal founders were Sir Humphry Davy and Sir Stamford Raffles. The gardens were first opened in 1828.

Visitors are admitted to the gardens of the Society every week-day from nine in the morning till sunset : on Mondays, at sixpence each; on the following days at one shilling each; children at sixpence. On Sundays the gardens are open only to members and their friends. Every member can introduce two friends personally, or by special order. A military band performs in the gardens on Saturday afternoons at 4 P.M. during the summer.

These gardens contain the largest and most complete collection of living animals in the world, and afford one of the greatest attractions to the sightseer in London. The collection of snakes is the finest ever brought together. The great centres of attraction are the large new lion house, where the carnivora are fed at 4 P.M. ; the great monkey house; the houses of the elephants, hippopotami, giraffes, zebras, and antelopes ; the snake room ; the bear pits and seal ponds; and the aquarium.

The Society's House is at No. 11 Hanover Square. Fellows are elected by ballot, and pay an admission fee of £5 and an annual subscription of £3. The annual income of the Society is about £27,500, of which about five-sixths are derived from payments for admission to the gardens, the rest from the subscriptions of fellows. The annual expenditure on the gardens and museums is about £25,000. The Society has a library for the use of its members; and lectures are delivered at the theatre in the gardens during the season.

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