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Paul's (St.), SHADWELL, HIGH STREET, a parish so called, as belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, who are patrons thereof, and separated from Stepney by an Act passed March 17, 1669-1670. The church was consecrated March 12, 1670-1671; taken down in 1817; and the present church designed by James Walters (d. 1821); consecrated April 5, 1821. Of the old church there are views in Wilkinson's Londina. Bishop Butler, as Dean of St. Paul's, nominated his nephew and namesake, Joseph Butler, to the rectory of this parish. He liked it so little that he chose for the text of his first sermon, “ Woe is me that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar." A canonry in St. Paul's and permission to reside in Norfolk. Street, Strand, so far reconciled him to his fate that he managed to hold the rectory fifty-seven years.

Paul's Walk, a vulgar name for the middle aisle of Old St. Paul's. [See St. Paul's Cathedral (Old).]

Paul's Walk is the land's epitome, or you may call it the lesser aisle of Great Britain. . . . The noise in it is like that of bees, a strange humming or buzz, mixed of walking tongues and feet : it is a kind of still roar, or loud whisper. It is the great exchange of all discourse, and no business whatsoever but is here stirring and afoot. . . It is the general mint of all famous lies, which are here, like the legends of popery, first coined and stamped in the church. All inventions are emptied here, and not a few pockets. The best sign of a temple in it is, that it is the thieves' sanctuary. . . . It is the other expence of the day, after plays, tavern, and a bawdy house ; and men have still some oaths left to swear here. ... Some make it a preface to their dinner, and travel for a stomach ; but thriftier men make it their ordinary, and board here very cheap.- Earle's Microcosmography, 8vo, 1628.

When I past Paule's, and travell’d in that Walke

Where all oure Brittaine-sinners sweare and talk.-BP. CORBET. Bishop Pilkington, writing in 1560 of the abuses at St. Paul's, mentions “The south alley for Popery and usury, the north for simony, and the horse-fair in the midst for all kinds of bargains, meetings, brawlings, murders, conspiracies, and the font for ordinary payments of money, as well-known to all men as the beggar knows his bush.” 2 In The Gull's Hornbook, by Dekker, is a chapter entitled, “How a gallant should behave himself in Powle's Walkes;” and Ben Jonson lays the first scene of the third act of Every Man out of his Humour in "the Middle Aisle of St. Paul's.” Weever (Ancient Funeral Monuments, 1631, p. 373) complains of the abuse, and adds, “it could be wished that walking in the middle aisle of Paules might be forborne in the time of divine service.” (See Duke Humphrey's.]

Paul's Wharf.

Paul's Wharf is a large landing place with a common stair upon the river Thames, at the end of a street called Paul's Wharf Hill, which runneth down from Paul's Chain.–Stow, p. 136.

On with your riding suit, and cry Northward Ho! as the boy at Paul's says. -Northward Ho, by Thomas Dekker and John Webster, 4to, 1607.

1 Strype, Circuit Walk, p. 105.

2 Pilkington, Works, p. 210.

Sir Walter Mildmay had his house here in 1570.1 Francis Throgmorton, the Catholic conspirator, whose revelations under the rack had such important consequences in the history of Europe, had a house at Paul's Wharf in 1583-known as the lodging of the young Lord Glenvarloch, and it was there that his papers and himself were seized.?

Paved Alley Chapel, LIME STREET. Paved Alley was situated at the upper end of Lime Street, by Leadenhall Street, and here the chapel with its three capacious galleries was built in 1672. The congregation first met in Anchor Lane, Lower Thames Street, and the pastor was Dr. Thomas Goodwin, chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. In 1755 the East India Company purchased a large piece of ground in the neighbourhood of Paved Alley, and the chapel was pulled down. The congregation divided into two parts--one went to Artillery Street, Finsbury, where Mr. Richardson the pastor resumed his ministry, and the other branch removed to Miles Lane, choosing the Rev. William Porter as minister. The latter congregation removed ten years later to Camomile Street, and afterwards to the Poultry. The City Temple, Holborn Viaduct, is the successor of the Poultry Chapel.

Pavilion (The), CHELSEA, a pleasant residence, surrounded by pretty gardens occupying about 20 acres of land, built by Henry Holland for his own occupation when he planned Hans Town (which see) at the end of the last century. After his death it was purchased by Mr. Peter Denys, after whose death it was inhabited for some years by his widow, Lady Charlotte Denys. The approach to the house was from Hans Place through an avenue of elms. Before the south front was a beautifully planted lawn and an artificial lake; on the west side of the lawn stood an imitation of the ruins of an ancient priory. The house and gardens were cleared away, and Cadogan Square was built on the site in 1882-1883.

Pavilion Road, CHELSEA. In 1870 New Road, Alfred Place, Chapel Row, and Taylor's Cottages were renamed Pavilion Road.

Paymaster-General's Office, WHITEHALL, next the Horse Guards, the office of her Majesty's Paymaster-General for the payment of army, návy, ordnance, civil service, and exchequer bills. The office is managed by the paymaster, the assistant-paymaster, and a staff of clerks. It was originally the office of the Paymaster-General of the Forces, and was not permanently enlarged till 1836.

Peabody Buildings. Mr. George Peabody, an American merchant resident in London, in a letter dated March 12, 1862, addressed to the United States Minister and four gentlemen named by him as trustees, expressed his desire “in pursuance of a long cherished determination, to attest his gratitude and attachment to the people of London, among whom he had spent the last twenty-five years of his

1 Burghley's Diary, in Murden, p. 771.
? Froude, vol. xi. p. 612; and see Fortunes of Nigel, vol. i. p. 44.




life,” by devoting a sum of £150,000 “to ameliorate the condition of the poor and needy of this great metropolis, and to promote their comfort and happiness.” As regarded the expenditure, Mr. Peabody imposed “but three conditions” on the trustees who were to administer the fund, but these were “fundamental principles, from which it was his solemn injunction that those intrusted with the application of the Fund shall never under any circumstances depart.”. These were, “First and foremost, the limitation of its uses absolutely and exclusively to such purposes as may be calculated directly to ameliorate the condition and augment the comfort of the poor, who either by birth or established residence form a recognised portion of the population of London.” Secondly, that there shall be “a rigid exclusion from the management of the Fund of any influences calculated to impart to it a character either sectarian as regards religion, or exclusive in relation to local or party politics.” And thirdly, that "the sole qualification for a participation in the benefits of the Fund shall be an ascertained and continued condition of life, such as brings the individual within the description (in the ordinary sense of the word) of the poor of London; combined with moral character and good conduct as a member of society."

The trustees, of whom Lord Stanley (now Earl of Derby) was elected chairman, acting on the suggestion of Mr. Peabody, to consider whether it might not be found conducive to the realisation of the principles laid down “to apply the fund or a portion of it in the construction of such improved dwellings for the poor as may combine, in the utmost possible degree, the essentials of healthfulness, comfort, social enjoyment, and economy," decided, after careful inquiry, to erect dwellings of the kind recommended, and to "confine their attention in the first instance to that section of the labouring poor who occupy a position above the pauper.” The first plot of ground obtained was in Commercial Street, Spitalfields, and on this was erected a block of dwellings affording accommodation for upwards of 200 persons. Other sites were purchased and buildings erected, which were eagerly sought for by suitable tenants, and so well satisfied was Mr. Peabody with the operations of the trustees that at different times he made additions to his first munificent gift, viz., £100,000 in 1866, £100,000 in 1868, and in 1873 £150,000, making a total of £500,ooo, to which has been added money received for rent and interest £465,182 :7:9, making the total fund on December 31, 1888, £965,182:7:9. In 1888 the trustees expended on land and buildings £13,064: 3:4, making the total expenditure to the end of the year £1,232,283:19:11. The trustees have borrowed £300,000, portion of which amount has been paid back, so that their total indebtedness at the end of the year was £271,333 : 6:8. Besides those already mentioned, the trustees have erected other blocks of dwellings, several of great extent, in Shadwell, Chelsea, Islington, Bermondsey, Westminster, Blackfriars Road, Stamford Street, Southwark Street, Pimlico, Whitechapel, Bedfordbury, Great Wild Street, Orchard Street, Whitecross Street, Clerkenwell and Little Coram Street. The trustees have provided for the artisan and labouring poor of London 11,275 rooms, besides bathrooms, laundries, and warehouses occupied by 20,413 persons. These rooms comprise 5071 separate dwellings, say 76 of four rooms, 1789 of three rooms, 2398 of two rooms, and 808 of one room. The average weekly earnings of the head of each family in residence at the close of 1888 was £1:3:9. The average rent of each dwelling was 45. 9}d. per week, and of each room 25. 2d. The rent in all cases includes the free use of water, laundries, sculleries, and bath-rooms.

A seated Statue of George Peabody, executed in bronze by Storey, the American sculptor, and regarded as an admirable likeness, was erected by public subscription at the back of the Royal Exchange in 1869.

Peckham, SURREY, a hamlet of Camberwell, now a part of the outer fringe of London. The manor of Pecheham is recorded in Domesday as held by the Bishop of Lisieux of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, to whom it had been granted by King William. In the time of the Confessor it was owned by Harold and held by Alfed, and was a part of Patricesy [ = Battersea, though from its proximity it would rather seem that Bermondsey must have been meant]. The manor is mentioned as late as the reign of Elizabeth, but no event of importance is connected with it. As late as the early years of the present century it was a district of market gardens, interspersed with citizens' villas. It is now a populous neighbourhood with many large manufactories of different kinds. In 1881 it contained 71,065 inhabitants. In place of a single chapel of ease there are half a dozen churches, mostly with ecclesiastical districts attached, numerous chapels, and several large schools. Here are the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum, an extensive pile erected in 1827, and comprising upwards of a hundred separate dwellings; and the Girdlers' Company's Almshouses, removed here in 1852 from Pest House Row, St. Luke's. Peckham House, in Camberwell, is one of the oldest and largest lunatic asylums near London. Peckham Rye is a large triangular common, now secured for public use as a recreation ground. To the east of it is the Nunhead Cemetery of the London Cemetery Company. At a boarding school in Meeting House Lane, kept by the Rev. John Milner, minister of the old Presbyterian Chapel close by, Oliver Goldsmith was usher in his early London days, about 1756, and though he did not get on very well there, it was through Milner he was introduced to Griffiths and commenced his literary career. The house, which had long been known as Goldsmith's house, was with the rest of the estate purchased about 1875 by “the Sanitary Dwellings Company,” who have since erected a large number of artisans' dwellings there, which they have named the Goldsmith Residences. Part of the grounds of Goldsmith House have been preserved as a recreation ground. The main Street is named Goldsmith Road.

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Pedlar's Acre, the old name of the southern portion of what is now BELVEDERE ROAD, LAMBETH.

On Lambeth Wall is a spot of ground containing an Acre and nineteen poles, denominated Pedlar’s Acre, which has belonged to the Parish time immemorial ; 'tis said to have been given by a Pedlar, upon condition that his portrait and that of his dog be perpetually preserved in painted glass in one of the windows of the Church [St. Mary's, Lambeth), which the parishioners carefully perform in the south-east window of the middle aisle.—Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 791.

1607.-For mending the windows where the picture of the Pedlar stands.Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Mary's, Lambeth (Lysons, vol. i. p. 314).

It is first entered in the Churchwardens' books of Lambeth parish in 1504, as an ozier bed named the Church Hoppys or Hope. In 1623 it is termed “the Church Oziers.” In 1690 it appears for the first time as Pedlar's Acre.—Nichols's History of Lambeth. [See St. Mary's, Lambeth.]

Peerless Pool, BALDWIN STREET, CITY ROAD, at the back of St. Luke's Hospital. A spacious public bath, formerly a spring that, overflowing its banks, caused a very dangerous pond, and which, from the number of persons who lost their lives, obtained the name of Perilous Pond, a name that seems to have been common to dangerous bathing-places; thus Stow applies the term to the Ducking Pond, Clerkenwell, the site of the Spa Road Tabernacle. The present name of "Peerless Pool” was given by Kemp, the proprietor, in 1743, when the bottom was raised and the pond enclosed. Kemp also formed a bowling green, an open fish-pond 300 feet, and bordered by a bank planted with shrubs and trees, and otherwise endeavoured to make the place attractive as a pleasure-ground. The pond and pool long remained in favour with London anglers and swimmers, but about 1805 the lease was purchased by Mr. Joseph Watts (father of Thomas Watts, the great linguist and librarian, Keeper of the Printed Books in the British Museum), who drained the fish-pond and built over a large part of the grounds. The whole is now covered with streets.

And not far from it (St. Agnes le Clair) is also one other clear water called Perillous pond, because divers youths by swimming therein have been drowned. Stow, p. 7.

Gallipot. Push ! let your boy lead his water-spanial along, and we'll show you the bravest sport at Parlous Pond. -T. Middleton, The Roaring Girl, 4to, 1611. Act 2 Sc. I. Hone, in his Every-Day Book (vol. i. pp. 970, 976), gives views of Peerless Pool and the fish-pond. The pool was 170 feet long and over 100 feet wide. The fish-pond was 320 feet long. There was also a cold bath, "the largest in England,” 40 feet long and 20 wide.

Peerpool Lane, GRAY'S INN LANE. A corruption of Portpoolefrom the manor of Portpoole, or Gray's Inn. [See Gray's Inn.] There is a token dated 1644 with the name Peerpool Lane inscribed upon it.

Pelham Crescent, BROMPTON. M. Guizot resided at No. 2 I after the French Revolution of 1848 till July 1849. His account of the house, “almost in the country," reads rather curiously now. He writes, March 13, 1848, “I shall set to work again. I have found,

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