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close to London,—at Brompton—a little house, which is almost in the country; it is good enough for us and not expensive. I shall be able to go into London easily every day.”1 Here, on March 31, 1848, his mother, Madame Guizot, died at the age of eighty-four. In the same house afterwards lived a politician of a very different school, Mr. Ledru Rollin. At No. 10, where he had resided many years, Robert Keeley, the comedian, died February 3, 1869, in his seventy-fifth year. He made his first appearance on the stage in 1818 as Leporello in Giovanni in London.

Pelham Street, BRICK LANE, SPITALFIELDS. Milton's granddaughter, Mrs. Foster, kept a chandler's shop in this street. (See Cock Lane, Shoreditch.]

Pembridge Square, BAYSWATER. Field-Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, " the Moltke of England,” died at No. 25, October 7, 1871, aged ninety. He was buried in the church of St. Peter ad Vincula, within the precinct of the Tower, of which he was Constable.

Penitentiary, MILLBANK. [See Millbank Prison.]

Penny Fields, POPLAR, between the West India Road and the High Street, of which latter it is the extension westwards. Since the construction of the West India Docks the fields have existed in name only.

Penny Post (The). A London footpost, with seven sorting houses, between four and five hundred receiving houses, and with four deliveries a day, established 1680, by Robert Murray, a clerk in the Excise, and William Dockwra, a sub-searcher in the Customs.

The Penny Post was set up on our Lady-Day (being Friday), Ao Dni 1680; a most ingenious and useful project, invented by Mr. Robert Murray first, and then Mr. Dockwra joined with him. The Duke of York seized on it in 1682. Mr. Murray was a citizen of London, a millener, of the company of Clothworkers ; his father a Scotchman, his mother English ; born in the Strand, December 12, 1633. -Aubrey's MS. (Malone's Inquiry, p. 387).

Murray and Dockwra were to have entered into partnership, but both laying claim to the idea, they quarrelled and set up rival offices. Robert Murray, “the inventor and first proposer," as he called himself, received letters at Mr. Hall's Coffee-house, in Wood Street; and “Mr. Dockwra and the rest of the undertakers at the Penny Post House in Lime Street”- Dockwra's own house, formerly the mansion house of Sir Robert Abdy. Roger North assigns the merit of the invention to Dockwra, “who put it,” he says, “in complete order, and used it to the satisfaction of all London, for a considerable time.” The Duke of York (afterwards James II.), to whom the profits of the post-office had been assigned by the King, exhibited an information against him, for infraction of his monopoly, and the courts decided in the Duke's favour. Dockwra was afterwards appointed Comptroller, but was 1 Madame de Witts's M. Guizot in Private Life, p. 254, Eng. trans.

2 Granger, vol. v. p. 235, ed. 1824.

dismissed by the Lords of the Treasury for mismanagement in 1698. He died, September 25, 1716, aged near 100 years. See his “Case,” in Harl. MS. 5954, and further particulars in Delaune's Present State of London, 12mo, 1681. Dockwra was the first to stamp letters with the hour at which they left his office for delivery. An additional penny was put on in 1801. (See Post Office.]

Penny's Gate is the name given (in an excellent map in Lockie's Topography of London, 1813) to the entrance from St. James's Park to the Green Park. Pennyrich Street.

Then Offering, he, with his dish and his tree,

That in every great house keepeth,
Is by my son, young Little-worth, done,
And in Penny-rich Street he sleepeth.

Ben Jonson, Christmas his Masque, 1616. Pentecost Lane, on the north side of NEWGATE STREET, subsequently corrupted into “Pincock Lane.” Stow describes it as “containing divers slaughter-houses for the butchers," and Hatton (1708) as “leading to the Bagnio," I now Roman Bath Street.

Pentonville is the name given to a populous district in the parish of St. James's, Clerkenwell, which arose about the year 17.73, after the formation of the New Road (now Pentonville Road) which passed through certain fields belonging to Henry Penton, Esq. The first buildings were erected at Penton Villa by the New Road and in Queen's Row, Pentonville Hill, in 1773, and Dr. de Valangin, the eccentric physician, built a mansion called Hermes House, which has given its name to Hermes Street, Pentonville Road. The name of Pentonville, which, till the last twenty years, was strictly applicable to the houses built upon the property of Mr. Penton lying within the parish of Clerkenwell, has since been extended to buildings in the adjoining parish of Islington, so that it is difficult to say what is the extent of Pentonville. What was known as the Model Prison, which stands in the Caledonian Road, Islington, is styled the Pentonville Prison, although half a mile removed from the district to which the name properly belongs.

Pentonville proper belonged to Geoffrey de Mandeville, a Norman knight, afterwards passed to the Foliots, and by Gilbert Foliot was conveyed in the reign of Henry II. to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, at Clerkenwell. It is described by Gerard, the herbalist, as the great field called the Mantells, at the back of Islington, Mandeville being corrupted into Mantell. In St. James's Chapel, on the north side of the New Road, R. P. Bonington, one of the most promising of English landscape painters is buried; he died in 1828, in his twentyseventh year. Joseph Grimaldi, clown (d. 1837). Here also were

i Stow, p. 118; Hatton, p. 64. ? See Maps and Plans published in the year 1755 in relation to the New Road.

interred the two Storers, father and son (d. 1853 and 1837), the engravers of the Cathedrals of Great Britain and of many arttiquarian and topographical views.

Pentonville Prison was built from the designs of Major R. Jebb, and cost over £84,000, but has since been enlarged and altered at a cost of £5903, making a total cost of £90,071:155. The first stone was laid April 10, 1840, and the building completed in 1842. It is constructed on the radiating principle, so as to permit thorough inspection, and contains accommodation for 520 prisoners. Here prisoners condemned to penal servitude undergo the first part of their sentence. The treatment is designed to “enforce strict separation, with industrial employment and moral training." The system of imprisonment at home in place of transportation, of which this forms a part, was introduced by the Penal Servitude Act of 1853, and the amending Act of 1857. The Report of the Directors of Convict Prisons for the year 1887-1888 contains a memorandum on separate confinement by the Medical Inspector, in which extracts are made from successive reports of

Pentonville Prison. ✓ Pepper Alley Stairs, SOUTHWARK, leading from Pepper Alley to the Thames, the first landing-place west of Old London Bridge. The site is covered by the present bridge.

January 11, 1559.—The same night about 8 of the clock the Queen's Grace took her barge at Whyt Hall, and mony mo barges, and rowed along by the bank side, by my Lord of Winchester's Place, and so to Peper Alley, and so crossed over to London side with drums and trumpets playing hard beside, and so to Whyt hall again to her palace.—Machyn's Diary, p. 200.

July 2, 1763.- We set out this morning from Whitehall Stairs in a common wherry, landed at Pepper Alley Stairs [this was to avoid shooting the bridge) and at the other side of the bridge embarked in the Admiralty barge. . . . We got back to Greenwich to dine. We had the smallest fish I ever saw, called white-bait. Mrs. Harris to her Son (the Earl of Malmesbury), Letters of the first Earl of Malmesbury, vol. i. p. 92.

Though Dr. Johnson owed his very life to air and exercise, yet he ever persisted in the notion that neither of them had anything to do with health. “People live as long,” said he, “in Pepper Alley as on Salisbury Plain ; and they live so much happier than an inhabitant of the first would if he turned cottager, starve his understanding for want of conversation, and perish in a state of mental inferiority. -Pioszi Anecdotes, P. 207.

Percy Chapel, CHARLOTTE STREET, RATHBONE PLACE. This Episcopal Chapel, well known in its day, was built about 1790 for the Rev. Henry Mathew, the friend of Flaxman and Blake, and well known in the artistic and social circles of his time. It was pulled down in 1867 and its site “secularized.” William Wilberforce worshipped in this chapel for some years while his daughters were at school in Bedford Square. Robert Montgomery, "the epic poet,” was for several years, from 1843, the minister. It was situated opposite Windmill Street.

Percy Street, RATHBONE PLACE. At his son's house (No. 6) in this street died, in 1805, aged seventy-six, William Buchan, M.D., author

of Domestic Medicine, of which the first edition appeared in 1769. Samuel Rose, the friend of Cowper, lived at No. 23, and here on the way back from Hayley's at Eartham the author of The Task visited him on September 19, 1792 ; Mrs. Unwin was with him. In a letter to Hayley Cowper says, “exactly at ten we reached Mr. Rose's door; we drank a dish of chocolate with him, and proceeded, Mr. Rose riding with us, as far as St. Albans.” Edward Williams, the Welsh Bard, had been asked to meet him, but, says Southey, “Cowper's spirits, as might have been expected, failed him when he felt himself in London; he sate at the corner of the fire place in total silence, and manifested no other interest in the conversation than occasionally raising his eyes towards the speaker.” He never saw London again. Henry Bone, R.A., the celebrated enamel painter (d. 1834), lived for some years in a house on the south side.

Pest House Field, CARNABY STREET, CARNABY MARKET, thirtysix small houses and a cemetery, founded by William, first Earl of Craven, after the Great Plague of 1665. There is a Craven Pest House Charity administered by trustees connected with the parishes of St. Clement's Danes, St. James's, Westminster, St. George's, Hanover Square, St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and St. Paul's, Covent Garden. The income, which in 1888 was £849:17:4, is divided, after payment of expenses, between King's College and Charing Cross Hospitals. [See Carnaby Street.]

Pest House Row, immediately west of St. Luke's Hospital, OLD STREET, now Bath STREET ; the old footway to Islington.

The Pest House beyond Bunhill Fields in the way to Islington.-Defoe's Plague Ycar, ed. Brayley, p. 63.

In Pest House Row, till the year 1737, stood the City Pest House (consisting of divers tenements), which was erected as a Lazaretto, for the reception of distressed and miserable objects, that were infected by the dreadful Plague in the year 1665:-Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 776.

Peter's (St.) at Paul's Wharf, a church in the ward of Queenhithe, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. The buryingground at the bottom of Peter's Hill, in Thames Street, still remains.

March 25, 1649.—I heard the Common Prayer (a rare thing in these days) in St. Peter's, at Paul's Wharf, London.—Evelyn.

Peter's (St.) at the Cross in Cheap, a church in the ward of Farringdon Within, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. The open plot of ground, with a tree in it, at the corner of Wood Street, Cheapside, is part of the old churchyard. In this tree a pair of rooks built a nest in 1836, and two nests were built in 1845.7 The church of the parish is St. Matthew's, Friday Street. Thomas Goodrich, afterwards Bishop of Ely (1534) and Lord Chancellor (1552), was rector of St. Peter's at the Cross.

1 Harting's Birds of Middlesex, p. 99.

Peter's (St.), CORNHILL, at the east end, south side, a parish church in Cornhill Ward, destroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt from the designs of Sir C. Wren, and the interior of the church has been considered as among the best of his works.

There remaineth in this church a table whereon it is written, I know not by what authority, but of a late hand, that King Lucius founded the same church to be an archbishop's see metropolitan and chief church of his kingdom, and that it so endured the space of four hundred years, unto the coming of Augustin the Monk. Stow, p. 73. The tablet was formerly suspended in the church; but is now preserved in the vestry-room. There is an engraving of it in Wilkinson's Londina. Bishop Beveridge was rector, 1672-1704. The roodscreen dividing the chancel from the nave was set up by his express direction, and is mentioned by him in the sermon preached at the opening of the church, November 27, 1681. Allhallows the Great is the only other City church possessing a rood-screen. There is a touching inscription to the memory of seven children, the “whole offspring of James and Mary Woodmason," burnt to death on the night of January 18, 1782. The living is in the gift of the Corporation of London. There is extant a letter, dated 1609, from James I. to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, requesting them to present his chaplain, Mr. Theophilus Field (brother of Nat. Field), to the living of St. Peter's, Cornhill. Field got the living and afterwards rose to be Bishop of Hereford. The entry of the burial (February 16, 1722) of Sir Thomas Abney, Lord Mayor in 1700, one of the founders of the Bank of England and M.P. for the City of London, is to be found in the register. The church was extensively repaired, cleansed and redecorated in 1889, under the direction of Mr. Ernest Flint, architect.

Peter's Court, St. Martin's Lane, west side, between Nos. 110 and 111. In 1710 the goods of Mrs. Selby, sword cutler, were advertised to be sold “at the Dancing School in Peter's Court, against Tom's Coffee-house in S. Martin's Lane.” This dancing school was afterwards the first studio of Roubiliac the sculptor. On his quitting it, it was converted into a drawing academy-the precursor of the Royal Academy of Arts. Hogarth may tell the story of its foundation :

Sir James [Thornhill] dying (1734) I became possessed of his neglected apparatus ; and thinking that an academy, if conducted on moderate principles would be useful, I proposed that a number of artists should enter into a subscription for the hire of a place large enough to admit of thirty or forty persons drawing after a naked figure. This proposition having been agreed to, a room was taken in [Peter's Court) St. Martin's Lane. I lent to the society the furniture that had belonged to Sir James's Academy, and attributing the failure of the previous academies to the leading members having assumed a superiority which their fellow-students could not brook, I proposed that every member should contribute an equal sum towards the support of the establishment, and have an equal right to vote on every question relative to its affairs. By these regulations the Academy has now existed nearly thirty years, and is, for every useful purpose, equal to that in France, or any other.-Hogarth, in Supp. Vol. to Ireland's Hogarth.

In a pamphlet published by the Incorporated Society of Artists in

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