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1771 it is stated that most of the artists of the reign of George II. and the early years of George III. were trained in this academy. It continued, in fact, to be the usual place of study for artists till the establishment of the Royal Academy in 1768. Michael Moser, keeper and treasurer of the St. Martin's Lane Academy, was appointed first keeper of the Royal Academy, and he persuaded his fellow-members to dissolve their private school and present the “anatomical figures, busts, statues, lamps,” and other apparatus to the Royal Academy, to the schools of which they would have free access.

Peter's (St.), EATON SQUARE: The church was built 1824-1826, from the designs of Henry Hakewell, architect, and cost £21,515 ; it was nearly burnt down in 1837, and was rebuilt by Mr. Gerrard. The altar-piece, “ Christ crowned with Thorns,” by W. Hilton, R.A., was bought by the Royal Academy out of the Chantrey bequest, and is now deposited in the South Kensington Museum. It was purchased of the artist for 1000 guineas by the Directors of the Royal Institution, and presented by them to St. Peter's Church in 1828. On February 26, 1877, a faculty was obtained for its removal. In 1872 a new chancel and transepts in the Byzantine style were added to the nave from the designs of Mr. (now Sir) Arthur Blomfield, and they were consecrated on St. Peter's eve,. 1873. Two years later the whole of the interior of the nave was remodelled under the direction of the same architect. Here was buried Admiral Sir Edward Codrington (d. 1851).

Peter's Hill, DOCTORS' COMMONS, extended from Knightrider Street to Upper Thames Street, but the southern end was cut off by the formation of Queen Victoria Street, and Peter's Hill now possesses no houses of its own, those which appear to belong to it being parts of the large and deep buildings in Queen Victoria and Knightrider Streets.

Touching lanes ascending out of Thames Street to Knightriders' Street, the first is Peter's Hill, wherein I find no matter of note, more than certain almshouses lately founded on the west side thereof by David Smith, embroiderer, for six poor widows, whereof each to have twenty shillings by the year.–Stow, p. 137.

Here the Master of the Revels had his office from 1611 till the time of the Civil War, and the consequent closing of the public theatres. [See St. Peter's at Paul's Wharf.]

Peter (St.) Le Poor, OLD BROAD STREET, a church in Broad Street Ward, of which Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1761), was rector from 1704 to 1720. In 1709 the House of Commons voteď an address to Queen Anne, “that she would be graciously pleased to confer some dignity in the Church upon him [Hoadly) for his eminent services both to the Church and State.” This unusual appeal had no effect, but Mrs. Howland, a rich widow, presented him to the rectory of Streatham, “to show that she was neither afraid nor ashamed to give him that mark of regard at that

critical time.” Promotion came with the next reign, but he continued to hold both these livings after he was Bishop of Bangor.

Next unto Pawlet House is the parish church of St. Peter the Poor, so called for a difference from other of that name, sometime peradventure a poor parish, but at this present there be many fair houses, possessed by rich merchants and other.Stow, p. 67. The church (existing in 1540), described by Stow, escaped the fire of 1666, but projected so far into the street that in 1788, when extensive repairs had become necessary, an Act of Parliament was obtained for taking it down and rebuilding it farther back, taking in the site of a court behind. The present church (a very poor one indeed) was designed by Jesse Gibson, and consecrated November 19, 1792, by Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London. It serves as well for the parish of St. Benet Fink, and the tablets were removed here when that church was pulled down in 1845. Here were buried the Rev. Edmund Gunter (d. 1626), one of the earliest and ablest of English mathematicians, and the Rev. Henry Gellibrand (d. 1636), Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College.

Peter Street, CLARE MARKET. Denzell Street was originally so called, and there is extant a token of “ John Gray at Mother Shipton Peter Street in New Market, 1667."

Peter Street (Great), WESTMINSTER, between Wood Street and Rochester Row. On the front of a house facing Leg Court was recently the following inscription : “ This is Saint Peter Street. 1624. R. [a heart] W.”

Peter's (St.) Ad Vincula, a chapel within the precinct and liberty of the Tower, at the north end of the Tower Green, the north-west angle of the Inner Ward. Prior to 1862 the chapel was singularly mean and unsightly, the result of successive alterations and additions made for the accommodation of the soldiers of the garrison. An ugly brick and plaster porch and wooden staircase leading to the soldiers' gallery disfigured the exterior; a flat ceiling, projecting galleries and tall pews the interior. All that testified to the antiquity of the church were the Early English columns in the nave, a Decorated window in the north aisle, and a five-light Perpendicular window at the east end. In 1862 the exterior porch and staircase were removed, the galleries and the plaster ceiling cleared away, and the original timber roof opened to view and some other improvements made ; but all this only served to show that more was required, and in 1876-1877 the whole was thoroughly restored and renovated under the direction of Anthony Salvin, architect (d. 1863), and John Taylor, architect to Government Office of Works. The interest attaching to the chapel lies, however, less in the fabric than in the persons who have been interred within it.

'I cannot refrain from expressing my disgustness of a meeting-house in a manufacturing at the barbarous stupidity which has transformed town.-Macaulay, Hist. of England, note to this most interesting little church into the like- chap. v.

In truth, there is no sadder spot on earth than this little cemetery. Death is there associated, not, as in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, with genius and

virtue, with public veneration and with imperishable renown; not, as in our humblest . churches and churchyards, with everything that is most endearing in social and

domestic charities; but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny, with the savage triumph of implacable enemies, with the inconstancy, the ingratitude, the cowardice of friends, with all the miseries of fallen greatness and of blighted fame. -Macaulay's History of England, chap. v.

Eminent Persons interred in.—Queen Anne Boleyn (beheaded 1536).1

Her body was thrown into a common chest of elm-tree, that was made to put arrows in, and was buried in the chapel within the Tower before twelve o'clock.Bishop Burnet. Queen Katherine Howard (beheaded 1542). Sir Thomas More (beheaded 1535).

His head was put upon London Bridge; his body was buried in the chapel of St. Peter in the Tower, in the belíry, or as some say, as one entereth into the vestry, near unto the body of the holy martyr Bishop Fisher.-Cresacre More's Life of Sir Thomas More, p. 288. Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (beheaded 1540). Gerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy of Ireland (d. 1534). Margaret, Countess of Salisbury (beheaded 1541). Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley, the Lord Admiral (beheaded 1549), by order of his brother, the Protector Somerset. The Protector Somerset (beheaded 1552). John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland (beheaded 1553).

There lyeth before the High Altar, in St. Peter's Church, two Dukes between two Queenes, to wit, the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, between Queen Anne and Queen Katherine, all four beheaded.–Stow, by Howes, p. 615. Lady Jane Grey and her husband, the Lord Guilford Dudley (beheaded 1553-1554). Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (beheaded 1600). Sir Thomas Overbury, poisoned in the Tower, and buried, according to the register, September 15, 1613. Sir Walter Raleigh (beheaded 1618). Sir John Eliot died a prisoner in the Tower, November 27, 1632 ; his son petitioned. the King (Charles I.) that he would permit his father's body to be conveyed to Cornwall for interment, but the King's answer at the foot of the petition was, “Let Sir John Eliot's body be buried in the church of that parish where he died.” Okey, the regicide (executed 1662). Sir Jonas Moore, mathematician (d. 1679). Duke of Monmouth (beheaded 1685), buried beneath the communion table. John Rotier (d. 1703), the eminent medallist, the rival of Simon, and father of James and Norbert Rotier, also medallists of great merit.3 Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino (beheaded

1 In Mr. Doyne Bell's Notices o, Historic 2 Ludlow, vol. iii. p. 103. Persons buried in the Chapel of St. Peter ad 3 When the second Lord Clarendon was a Vincula is an interesting account of the dis- prisoner in the Tower, Rotier requested an intercovery of the supposed remains of Anne Boleyn view with him, but the authorities refused because during the restorations of 1877.

he was a Jesuit.--Clarendon's Diary.

the Protece Lord Admfbeheaded if Ireland (4540). Gera

beheaded.), Thomas 1534). emad, ninth

pe teren Queen'Ammit, the Dukesh Altar, ir

1746), Simon, Lord Lovat (beheaded April 9, 1747); their coffin-plates are kept in the vestry, and a stone with a cross on it marks the spot where they were buried. Colonel Gurwood, editor of the Wellington Despatches (d. 1845). Field - Marshal Lord Combermere (d. 1865). Field-Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, G.C.B., Constable of the Tower (d. 1871). Observe.—Altar-tomb, with effigies of Sir Richard Cholmondeley (Lieutenant of the Tower, temp. Henry VII.) and his wife. Monument, with kneeling figures, to Sir Richard Blount, Lieutenant of the Tower (d. 1564), and his son, Sir Michael Blount, his successor in the office. Monument in chancel to Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower (d. 1630), the father of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson. Inscribed stone, against south wall, over the remains of Talbot Edwards (d. 1674), Keeper of the Regalia in the Tower when Blood stole the crown. Here, in the lieutenancy of Alderman Pennington (the regicide Lord Mayor of London), one Kem, Vicar of Low Leyton, in Essex, preached in a gown over a buff coat and scarf. Archbishop Laud, who was a prisoner in the Tower at the time, records the circumstance, with

becoming horror, in the History of his Troubles. v Peter's (St.), WALWORTH ROAD, a church semi-classic in style,

designed by Sir John Soane, of which the first stone was laid June 2, 1823, by Archbishop Sutton, and the church consecrated by him February 24, 1825. It cost nearly £20,000. There is a good peal

of eight bells. " Peter's (St.), WESTMINSTER. [See Westminster Abbey.) ✓ Peterborough Court, FLEET STREET, on the north side, the first

passage west from Shoe Lane, derives its name from the Bishops of Peterborough, who, in early times, had their town house here, and whose interest in it did not expire till 1863, when the Ecclesiastical Commissioners sold the reversion of the property to the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph, whose printing office occupies the whole of the Court. Here was a printing office of some note a century and a half before. “Andrew Hind, living in Peterborough Court, near Fleet Street," was declared by a committee of the House of Lords in 1711 to be the real printer of Swift's “false and scandalous ” lines, beginning

An Orator dismal of Nottinghamshire.1 Peterborough House, MILLBANK. [See Millbank.] " Petre House, ALDERSGATE STREET. [See Aldersgate Street.]


Petticoat Lane, formerly called Hog Lane, is near unto “ Whitechapel Bars," and runs northward towards St. Mary Spittle. In ancient times, on both sides of this lane, were hedge rows and elm trees, with pleasant fields to walk in. Insomuch that some gentlemen of the Court and city built their houses here for air. Here was an House on the west side, a good way in the lane, which, when I was a boy, was commonly called the Spanish Ambassador's House, who in King James I.'s

Stanhope's Queen Anne, p. 552.

reign dwelt here: and he (I think) meae famous Gondomar. And a little way off this on the east side of the way, down a paved alley (now called Strype's Court, from my father who inhabited here), was a fair large house, with a good garden before it, built and inhabited by Hans Jacobson, the said King James's Jeweller, wherein I was born. But after French Protestants, that in the said King's reign, and before, fled their country for their religion, many planted themselves here, viz., in that part of the lane nearest Spittlefields, to follow their trades, being generally Broad Weavers of Silk, it soon became a contiguous row of buildings on both sides of the way.—Strype, B. ii. p. 28.

This Hog Lane stretcheth north toward St. Mary Spittle without Bishopgate, and within these forty years had on both sides fair hedge rows of elm trees, with bridges and easy stiles to pass over into the pleasant fields, very commodious for citizens therein to walk, shoot, and otherwise to recreate and refresh their dull spirits in the sweet and wholesome air, which is now within a few years made a continual building throughout of garden houses and small cottages; and the fields on either side be turned into garden plots, tenter-yards, bowling alleys, and such like.Stow, p. 48. Gherardt Van Strype (the ancestor of the ecclesiastical antiquary) was a member of the Dutch Church in London in 1567.1 (See Ink Horn Court.] Ben Jonson makes Iniquity say :

We will survey the suburbs, and make forth our sallies
Down Petticoat Lane and up the Smock-Alleys,
To Shoreditch, Whitechapel, and so to St. Kathern's,
To drink with the Dutch there, and take forth their patterns.

The Devil is an Ass, Act i. Sc. I. As the weavers receded from Petticoat Lane it was occupied by Jews; and for a long series of years its inhabitants have been Jews of the least respectable class, and the houses and shops receptacles for second-hand clothes and stolen goods. It is perhaps not so bad as it was a few years ago, but it is still one of the most disreputable quarters of the Metropolis. On a Saturday—the Sabbath-quiet as a City lane on a Sunday; on Sunday morning and on the afternoon of every other day it is noisy and crowded with clamorous buyers and sellers of old clothes, old jewellery, and old wares of all kinds.

Petty Burgundy, TOOLEY STREET, SOUTHWARK. This place appears in the map of. 1542—reproduced in Rendle's Old Southwarkas The Berghené. According to G. R. Corner, the Southwark antiquary, it took the name from alien inhabitants (as in the cases of Petty France, Petty Wales, etc.), so many of whom lived in St. Olave's parish. A special burial-ground for Flemings and others in this very locality implies as much. Corner considers that the Duke of Burgundy or his representatives resided here, temp. Edward IV. When the Greenwich railway was constructed extensive brick vaults of handsome and solid construction and of ancient date were discovered, the substructure of some important mansion on this spot. In forming a new churchyard, 1582, certain godly-disposed parishioners who assisted at the work are noted as living in the “Borgyney.” It is likely that this was a petty manor, a

1 Strype, B. v. p. 300.

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