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place of punishment, cage and pillory being shown in the map referred to (Old Southwark, p. 271).

Petty Calais, WESTMINSTER, was the place where the woolstaplers of Westminster dwelt. “A certain great messuage or tenement, commonly called Pety Caleys,” is mentioned in an Act of interchange between Henry VIII. and the Abbot of Westminster. It adjoined a piece of land called Rosamundys.

Petty France, in BISHOPSGATE Ward, immediately without the City wall, and so called of Frenchmen dwelling there.1 In “the new Church-yard in Petty France, given by the City, and consecrated June

4, 1617," John Lilburne (Free-born John) was interred in 1657 in the · presence of 4000 persons. Petty France was rebuilt in 1730, and called New Broad Street.

Petty France, in WESTMINSTER, now YORK STREET (from the London residence, during the early part of the last century, of the Archbishops of York). .

From the entry into Totehill field the street [Tothill Street) is called Petty France, in which, and upon St. Hermit's Hill, on the south side thereof, Cornelius Van Dun (a Brabander born, yeoman of the Guard to King Henry VIII., King Edward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth) built twenty houses for poor women to dwell rent free ; and near hereunto was a chapel of Mary Magdalen, now wholly ruinated. -Stow, p. 176.

He [Milton soon after took a pretty Garden-house in Petty France in Westminster, next door to the Lord Scudamore's, and opening into St. James's Park; here he remained no less than eight years, namely, from the year 1652 till within a few weeks of King Charles the 2d's Restoration. In this house, his first wise dying in . childbed, he married a second, who, after a year's time, died in childbed also, Philips's Life of Milton, 12mo, 1694, p. xxxiii.

Milton left his house in Petty France the first week in May 1660, and was for the next three months in "abscondance," at a friend's in Bartholomew Close. On the parapet of No. 19 William Hazlitt, who rented the house in 1811, placed a stone tablet with the inscription, “Sacred to Milton, Prince of Poets.” L'.-Gen. The horse I rais'd in Petty France

Shall try their chance,
And scow'r the meadows overgrown with grass.

The Rehearsal, Act iv. January 6, 1709.-Walked to Westminster, and from thence to Petty France, to wait on his Grace my Lord Archbishop of York (John Sharp). —Thoresby's Diary, vol. ii. p. 17.

At a Tallow-Chandler's in Petty France, half-way under the blind arch : Ask for the Historian.-Instructions to a Porter how to find Mr. Curll's Authors (Pope and Swift's Miscellanies, vol. iv. p. 32).

The Bishop of Norwich was living here in 1708.3 Aaron Hill had a house here, with a garden reaching to the park, and a grotto in it, described in his Letters at some length. John Cleland, son of the Spectator's Will Honeycomb, died in this street, aged eighty-two, in 1789.

1 Stow, p. 62. 2 Burton's Diary, vol. iii. p. 507. 3 Hatton, p. 628.

He wrote a book of such pernicious tendency that when summoned before the Privy Council to answer for it, and pleading poverty, the President of the Council gave him an annuity of £100, on his engaging to write nothing more of the same description.

Petty Wales, the east end of THAMES STREET, by the Tower.

On the north side as well as on the south of this Thames Street, are many fair houses large for stowage, built for merchants; but towards the east end thereof, namely, over-against Galley-Key, Wool-Key and the Custom House, there have been of old time some large buildings of stone, the ruins whereof do yet remain, but the first builders and owners of them are worn out of memory, wherefore the common people affirm Julius Cæsar to be the builder thereof, as also of the Tower itself. Some are of another opinion, and that a more likely, that this great stone building was sometime the lodging appointed for the Princes of Wales, when they repaired to this City, and that therefore the street in that part is called Petty Wales, which name remaineth there most commonly until this day, even as where Kings of Scotland were used to be lodged betwixt Charing Cross and Whitehall, it is likewise called Scotland (Yard), and where the Earls of Britons were lodged without Aldersgate, the street is called Britain Street, etc. [Little Britain). --Stow, p. 52.

Pewterers' Hall, No. 15 LIME STREET. In the court-room is a portrait of William Smallwood, who was master of the Company in the second year of Henry VII., and gave them their hall, with a garden and six tenements adjoining. Smallwood's Hall was burnt in the Great Fire. It was replaced in 1678 by a hall which was destroyed by fire in 1840, and the present convenient but unpretending building then erected. The Pewterers' is the sixteenth in rotation of the City Companies, and was first incorporated in 1474.

Sneak. What, is Peter Primmer a candidate?
Heeltap. He is, Master Sneak.

Sneak. Lord, I know him, mun, as well as my mother : why I used to go to his Lectures to Pewterers' Hall, 'long with Deputy Firkin.-Foote's Mayor of Garratt, 1764.

Macklin, the actor, delivered his lectures on Elocution in this hall -whence Churchill's lines :

No more in Pewterers' Hall was heard
The proper force of every word,
Those seats were desolate become,
· And hapless Elocution dumb.

Churchill, The Ghost, B. iii. • Philip's (St.) Chapel, REGENT STREET, near Waterloo Place. Built from the designs of J. S. Repton, at the cost of about £15,000. The first stone was laid May 15, 1819, and the chapel consecrated July 4, 1820 (St. Philip and St. James's day). The tower is an imitation of the well-known (so called) lantern of Demosthenes at Athens. : Philip Lane, LONDON WALL,to ADDLE STREET. Felipeslane, London Wall, occurs in the City records as early as 1291 ; again, as Phelippeslane in 1306, and often later.—(Riley, Memorials, xi.) Edward, twelfth and last Lord Zouch, was living in Philip Lane from 1609 to 1615. In the Calendar of State Papers, 1603-1610, pp. 207-209, are two letters

from him to Cecil, dated Philip Lane, while he held the office of President of Wales; and a long correspondence afterwards, similarly dated, when he was Warden of the Cinque Ports, a busy post when, as in May 1616, pirate vessels were “captured between Broadstairs and Margate.”—(Cal. State Pap., 1611-1618, p. 369.) On April 18, 1619, John Hayward, the owner of the house, offers to sell it to Lord Zouch, and if he will not buy it requests him to relinquish it.—(Cal. State Pap., 1619-1623, p. 37.) Sion College formerly stood at the corner of Philip Lane and London Wall.

Philpot Lane, FENCHURCH STREET, to EASTCHEAP, “So called," says Stow, “ of Sir John Philpot that dwelt there, and was owner thereof.” 1 He was mayor in 1378. Here lived Peter Thellusson (d. 1797), whose ambition to found a colossal fortune proved a fortune to the lawyers. In 1623, when the fleet was fitting out to bring Prince Charles and the Infanta from Spain, the Commissioners of the Navy dated their numerous letters from Philpot Lane.

This Carol plays, and has been in his days

A chirping boy and a kill-pot :
Kit cobbler it is, I'm a father of his,
And he dwells in the lane called Fill-pot.

Ben Jonson, Christmas his Masque. Phenix Alley, LONG ACRE now HANOVER Court, the passage next west of Bow Street, built circ. 1637, in which year it is mentioned for the first time in the Rate-books of St. Martin's. John Taylor, the Water Poet, kept a tavern in this alley. One of his last works (his Journey into Wales, 1652) he describes as “performed by John Taylor, dwelling at the sign of the Poet's Head, in Phenix Alley, near the middle of Long Aker, or Covent Garden.” He supplied his own portrait and inscription :

There's many a head stands for a sign,

Then, gentle Reader, why not mine? His first sign was a “Mourning Crown," but this was too marked to be allowed. He came in 1652, and dying here in 1653, was buried, December 5, in the churchyard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. It should be noted, however, that Mr. Collier quotes a book called Sportive Wit the Muses Merriment, 8vo, 1656, which contains an “Epitaph on John Taylor, who was born in the City of Gloucester, died in Phoenix Alley in the 75 yere of his age : you may find him, if the worms have not devoured him, in Covent Garden Church-yard." 2 His widow, it appears from the Rate-books of St. Martin's, continued in the house, under the name of "widow Taylor," five years after his death. In 1658 “Wid[ow] Taylor” is scored out, and “Mons. Lero" written at the side. The rate they paid was 25. 2d. a year.

Phænix Street, Seven Dials.

When William Wood obtained in 1723 his patent for coining halt-pence for Ireland (which created so much dissatisfaction in that country and caused Swift to i Stow, p. 77.

2 Memoir of Taylor, note. VOL. III

nacted his charter and the to. Henry VIII., and

write his Drapier's Letters) he built a suitable factory "in Phænix Street Seven Dials, and began the work of coining there on Monday the twenty-first of January

1723."Freeholders' Journal for January 23, 1723. ✓ Phønix Theatre. [See Cockpit Theatre.] ti Physic Garden, CHELSEA. [See Botanic Garden.] Physicians, Royal College of, in Pall Mall East, corner of

TRAFALGAR SQUARE, was designed by Sir R. Smirke, cost £30,000, and was opened (June 25, 1825) with a Latin oration by Sir Henry Halford. The College was founded by Linacre, physician to Henry VIII., and incorporated in 1518. By this charter and the Confirmatory Act 14 Henry VIII., it was enacted that no person, graduates of Oxford and Cambridge excepted, should practice medicine without licence from the College. This continued to be the law till 1858, when, by the Medical Act of that year, licence to practice medicine in any part of the United Kingdom was conferred on all those whose course of study and examination by either of the Universities or other special corporation entitled them to registration on the General Medical Register created by that Act.

The members, at its first institution, met in the founder's house in Knightrider Street on the site of No. 5, still (by Linacre's bequest) in the possession of the College. Here they continued till 1560, when it was taken down to make room for the new Probate Court. They then moved to Amen Corner (where Harvey read his lectures on the discovery of the circulation of the blood); from thence (1674), after the Great Fire, to Warwick Lane (this building was pulled down 1866), and from Warwick Lane to the present college. Observe.--In the gallery above the library seven preparations by Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, and a very large number by Dr. Matthew Baillie. The engraved portrait of Harvey, by Jansen; head of Sir Thomas Browne, author of Religio Medici ; Sir Theodore Mayerne, physician to James I.; Sir Edmund King, the physician who bled King Charles II. in a fit, on his own responsibility ; head of Dr. Sydenham, by Mary Beale ; Dr. Radcliffe, by Kneller ; Sir Hans Sloane, by Richardson ; Sir Samuel Garth, by Kneller; Dr. Freind; Dr. Mead ; Dr. Warren, by Gainsborough; William Hunter ; Dr. Heberden. Busts. —George IV., by Chantrey (one of his finest); Dr. Mead, by Roubiliac ; Dr. Sydenham, by Wilton (from the picture); Harvey, by Scheemakers (from the picture); Dr. Baillie, by Chantrey (from a model by Nollekens); Dr. Babington, by Behnes. Dr. Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, successively, carried by Drs. Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, Pitcairn, and Matthew Baillie (presented to the College by Mrs. Baillie); and a clever picture, by Zoffany, of Hunter delivering a lecture on anatomy before the members of the Royal Academy-all portraits. The long vacant niches were in 1876 filled with statues from the chisel of Mr. Henry Weekes, R.A.; in the centre (over the doorway) that of Linacre, the founder and first president; on one side Harvey, on the other Sydenham. Mode of Admission.Order from a

fellow. Almost every physician of eminence in London is a fellow.1 VIPiazza (The), in COVENT GARDEN, an open arcade on the north

and east sides of Covent Garden Market place; built by Inigo Jones, circ. 1633-1634, and very fashionable when first erected, and much admired. The northern side was called the Great Piazza, the eastern side the Little Piazza. It occurs for the first time in the Rate-books of St. Martin's under the year 1634; and the leases of the two houses at the south end, next Great Russell Street (exhibited at the Society of Antiquaries in 1853), granted to Sir Edmund Verney, were dated 1634. That half of the east side of the Piazza south of Russell Street, on which the Hummums stands, was destroyed by fire in March 1769, and rebuilt without the arcade. It was again rebuilt in 1888; the northern half of the east side (including the Bedford Hotel) was pulled down in 1889 for an enlargement of the market into Bow Street. The western half of the north side (west of James Street) was pulled down about 1880, and rebuilt by Messrs. Cubitt.

Piazza--a Market place or chief street; such is that in Covent Garden, which the vulgar corruptly call the P. H., or I know not what.-Blount's Glossographia, 12mo, 1656.

But who should I meet at the corner of the Piazza, but Joseph Taylor ;2 he tells me, there's a new play at the Friars to-day, and I have bespoke a box for Mr. Wild and his bride.-The Parson's Wedding, by T. Killigrew, fol. 1663. “In the arcade,” says Walpole, “there is nothing very remarkable; the pilasters are as errant and homely stripes as any plasterer would make." This is true now, though hardly true in Walpole's time, when the arcade remained as Inigo had built it, with stone pilasters on a red brick frontage. The pilasters, as we now see them, are lost in a mass of compo and white paint; the red bricks have been stuccoed over, and the pitched roofs of red tile replaced with flat slate. The rebuilt portion to the west of James Street exhibits the red bricks.

Cockayne. Ay, Marry Sir! This is something like! These appear like buildings ! Here's architecture exprest indeed! It is a most sightly situation, and fit for gentry and nobility.

Rookesbill. When it is all finished doubtless it will be handsome.

Cockayne. It will be glorious ; and yond magnificent peece the Piazza will excel that at Venice, by hearsay (I ne'er travelled).—Brome's Covent Garden Weeded, 1659.

· Walking thence together to the Piazza they parted there ; Eugenius and Lisideius to some pleasant appointment they had made, and Crites and Neander to their several lodgings.-Dryden, Essay on Dramatick Poesy, 4to, 1668.

Puh, this is nothing; why I knew the Hectors, and before them the Muns and the Tityre Tu's; they were brave fellows indeed ; in those days a man could not go from the Rose Tavern to the Piazza once, but he must venture his life twice, my dear Sir Willy.-The Scowrers, by T. Shadwell, 4to, 1691.

London is really dangerous at this time; the pickpockets, formerly content with mere filching, make no scruple to knock people down with bludgeons in Fleet Street and the Strand, and that at no later hour than eight o'clock at night : but in the

1 See the Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, by W. Munk, M.D., Fellow of the College, etc.; and Quarterly Review, October 1879.

2 An actor in Shakespeare's plays as originally brought out, and one of the best.

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