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which relates to the Indian Civil Service, we think it right to notice the gradual increase which is taking place in universities and colleges of the study of Sanskrit.

In the competitive examination of 1860, about one fourth of the 80 successful candidates had taken up Sanskrit, and some of them showed considerable proficiency in that language, and in the competitive examination about to take place in July next 34 candidates have signified their intention to take up Sanskrit.

Although we have been desirous not to tempt persons into any special study for these competitions, and have accordingly not included the vernacular languages of India as elements of these examinations; yet, believing in the value of the study of Sanskrit as an exercise for the intellectual powers, and as forming a basis for the study of languages as a science, we think that the introduction of this language as one of the subjects of literary education in colleges and universities may be regarded as satisfactory in itself, whilst it certainly will be useful to those who may be looking forward to become candidates for the Civil Service of India.

In closing this account of our proceedings, and our observations with regard to them, we think it right to advert to the strong and increasing conviction in our minds of the superiority of competitive over simple pass examinations for the admission of candidates into the public service, and this, too, in almost all departments and offices.

We have so often set forth the grounds upon which this opinion has been founded, that we should not be justified in again propounding them.

We believe that, whatever might be his preconceived opinions, any person who should be placed on this Commission would soon arrive at the same conclusion.

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It has been well observed by our Secretary, Mr. Maitland, in his evidence before the Select Committee of the House of Commons (Question 65),-" Whenever two or more persons apply for "the same thing there must be competition in some shape or "other. When the public are invited to send in tenders for the

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supply of stores, there will be a competition in the way of prices and in samples; and when architects send in designs "for a building you may even say that there is a competitive examination. And so with the Government appointments which the Committee now have under their consideration: so long as the supply of candidates exceeds the supply of places, "there must be competition of some kind or other. I suppose "that in the last century there may have been competition in "the way of bribery; that I mention only as one of the ways, " and I mention it to put it aside. Next there may be com

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petition in the way of influence, that is to say, A or B may "be selected, not because he is the fitter man for the appoint

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ment, but in order to gratify or to reward some one else.

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"Then there may be competition in the way of testimonials, " which I imagine most persons who have tried it have found very unsatisfactory. Therefore, setting aside these three methods, I cannot help thinking that any person entrusted with the duty of giving appointments, especially if you suppose him to be bound by the old statute, which requires the "appointment of the best and most loyal men and the most sufficient for the place,' would ultimately come to the notion "of having the candidates and ascertaining what they could "do, and deciding accordingly; that is to say, he would be

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landed, according to my notion, in the principle of competitive "examination. The nature of that examination would, of course, "be modified according to the qualifications which are required.'

The question, therefore, seems to be narrowed to this which of these modes of competition is the best? Is it not that which gives due weight to intelligence, which stimulates exertion, which encourages habits of industry, habits which, once acquired, remain after the situation has been gained, and become applicable to the public service,—and which substitutes for importunities or casual preference a just comparison of intellectual, and, when necessary, physical qualities?

All which we humbly submit to Your Majesty's most gracious consideration.

Witness our hands and seals this seventeenth day of May,
One thousand eight hundred and sixty-one.

EDWARD RYAN.

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(L.S.)

JOHN GEORGE SHAW LEFEVRE. (L.S.)

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Note. Whilst writing this Report our attention has been called to a work entitled "Considerations on Representative Government," by Mr. John Mill. In that work, pp. 257-265, he discusses at considerable length the mode of selecting permanent civil servants. His views on this subject with reference to the advantage of competitive examinations, and the important influence of these in encouraging education are in entire unison with our own, and it affords us no small degree of satisfaction to find our opinions supported by a writer so distinguished for his political and philosophical knowledge, and who from his long and successful career in the India House has had most valuable experience in the conduct of official business.

APPENDIX I.

STATISTICAL TABLES, &c.
RELATING TO THE HOME CIVIL SERVICE.

A. Limits of Age prescribed for the various Departments.

B. Subjects of Examination.

C. No. of Nominations, &c. for each Department in the year 1860.

D. No. of Competitions held in 1860.

E. No. of Honorary Certificates granted for each subject.

F. Causes of Rejection.

G. Marks obtained in the Competitions of 1860.

List of Certificated Candidates.

List of Honorary Certificates.

TABLE A.-LIMITS of AGE prescribed for ADMISSION to the various CIVIL DEPARTMENTS.

[Corrected to March 31, 1861. It must be understood that alterations may at any time be made.]

For Instructions as to the Evidence of Age required by the Civil
Service Commissioners, see post, p. 124.

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*Except in the case of persons temporarily employed, who may be nominated if under 30, provided they were under 25 when first either temporarily or otherwise employed under Her Majesty's Government, and have since served continuously.

Except in the case of persons temporarily employed who may be nominated if under 30, provided they were under 25 when first temporarily employed.

Whenever a Transcriber shall be nominated to an Assistantship, the limit of 25 will be extended to 35.

§ For candidates who have been previously in the Public Service the maximum limit shall be considered as extended to five years beyond the ordinary limit, provided the candidate was, when he first entered the Service, under the maximum limit fixed for the situation to which he seeks admittance, and has since served continuously.

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An extra Clerk would not be ineligible on the score of age for an appointment on the Establishment up to the age of 35 years, provided that he had been admitted as an extra clerk before the age of 25, and had since served continuously.

For Temporary Clerks and other Candidates who have previously been in the Public Service the maximum limit shall be extended to 30, provided the candidate was under 25 when he entered the service and has served continuously.

Any candidate presenting himself within one month after attaining the prescribed age, will be eligible for examination.

§ Extra Clerks and Extra Officers, when promoted to the Establishment, to be admitted up to the age of 40 years, provided they were first employed before they reached the age of 25, and they will be entitled to reckon such previous service, provided they have been employed for not less than six months in each year.

No person to be admitted from another Public Department who shall have attained the age of 30 years, nor even when over 25 and under 30, unless the party be appointed direct from such department, and shall have been under 25 when first admitted.

No person to be admitted who shall have attained the age of 35, although he may be removed from another Public Department.

** With power, when a vacancy is filled up by transfer from another department, to extend the maximum to 30, provided the probationer had been appointed to his first office between

17 and 25.

As regards those who have not a home in London or in the immediate vicinity, the age should be between 20 years complete and 24 years complete. #Must be British subjects.

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