« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
affairs of the General Government according to trines in support of John Q., who was then Presi-
“Now; sir, the only difference between the gentleman terests and peculiar opinions of the people of New from Ohio and myself is this--and it is vital : that gentleYork? That he has not betrayed ihe confidence
man and myself differ fundamentally and totally, and did
ditfer when we first took our seats in Congress; he as a reposed in him by the whole American people by
Delegate from the Territory northwest of the Ohio river, I providing mainly for that State, with which his as a member of the other House from the State of Virginia. own personal fortune and that of his kindred is He was an open, zealous, frank supporter of the sedition-law identified? This I understand to be the complaint,
Admninistration, and I was as zealous, frank, and open an
opponent of the black cockade and sedition-iaw Adminisand I must say it is just such a one as I should
tration. We differ fundamentally and totally; we never have expected, rot from the personal, but from can agree about measures or about men.” In reply to this the political character of the Senator. And as for charge what is the answer of General Harrison? Does he
deny it? So far from it he admits that “ It is very probable the word “traitor," which the Senator has seen
he (Mr. Randolph) might have heard me express sentiments fit to apply to the President of the United States, favorable to the then Administration-I certainly felt them." I wonder that the utterance of it does not palsy his tongue.
Extracts from the letter of General Duncan, Mr. TALLMADGE then endeavored to throw
Governor of Illinois, now a political friend of the blame of the indications of respect toward the
General Harrison, relative to the affair at Lower President in the State of New York, at the time
Sandusky, dated March 25, 1836: referred to, being confined to one party, upon the
“ About the 20th of July, 1813, General Harrison, then at President himself, ascribing it to his addressing
Lower Sandusky, hearing that the British army had crossed
Lake Erie to Fori Meigs, being about five thousand strong, himself, on his arrival at the Battery, to his immediately changed bis headquarters to Seneca, seven or “ Democratic” fellow-citizens.
eight miles up the Sandusky river, where he assembled his
forces then on the march from the interior, leaving Major Mr. STRANGE. I am glad the Senator from
Croghan with about one hundred and fifty men to defend New York has introduced this topic, as it affords Fort Stephenson, with an understanding at the time that me an opportunity to bear my testimony to the
the Fort, then in a weak and wretched condition, was to great unfairness with which the President has
be abandoned should the eneiny advance with artillery, but
if not, to be defended to the last extremity. been treated on this subject, and altogether for “ About this time General Harrison received information political effect. Almost as soon as it was known that the enemy had raised the siege at Fort Meigs, and had ihat the President intended to visit New York,
started in the direction of Sandusky and Cainp Seneca. On
receiving this intelligence, he determined to retreat from there were murmurings in the Whig ranks that
his position, and immediately sent an express to Fort there would be no enthusiasm in his reception; Stephenson, which arrived about sunrise, ordering Major that it would be cold, and confined to a few office Croghan to burn the fort, with all the munitions and stores, holders and devoted partisans. His response, at
and retreat without delay to headquarters, giving also some the Battery, to the address made him was seized
precautionary instructions about the route, &c.
« On receiving this order, Croghan instanily placed it in upon as a pretext to execute what had been long the hands of the officers, who were all present, and required predetermined. It was said he had avowed himself them to consider and express an opinion of the propriety the President of a party by responding to his
of obeying or disobeying it. The board was formed, and “ Democratic" fellow-citizens. Had any other
on puttiug thic question, beginning, as usual, with the young
est officer, it was ascertained that a majority of us were for class of citizens addressed him, and thus entitled destroying the order. Croghan returned to the room, aud themselves to a response? Did not the orator
being intormed of our directions, remarked, 'I am glad of who addressed him speak in behalf of his “ Dem
it; I had resolved to disobey at all hazards,' and immeocratic fellow-citizens?” Was the President to
diately dispatched an express to General Harrison, giving
him that information. Immediately on the arrival of this deny to the orator the character he had assumed? xepress, General Harrison dispatched Lieutenant Colonel And, if allowing him the character, could he do Ball with his squadron of dragoons, with orders to arrest otherwise than respond to it? Suppose an ora
Croghan, bring him to headquarters, which was done, and
sent another officer to take command. By this time, in tor had addressed him in behalf of his masonic
consequence of his not arriving agreeably to his expectafellow-citizens, could the President do otherwise tions and orders, the general abandoned all idea of a rethan respond to his masonic fellow-citizens? If treat, although his munitions and stores were piled up his Whig fellow-citizens really designed to show
ready to be set on fire as soon as Croghan should reach
Seneca; and it is not doubted that if Croghan had arrived respect to the President, would they not have se according to orders, General Harrison would have retreated lecied an orator to address him, or have united instantly, leaving the whole frontier, our fleet at Erie, and with the Democracy in the selection of a common
the stores at Cleveland--the destruction which was the spokesman? Not having done either of these,
object of the invasion and movements down the lake-at
the mercy of the enemy. could they reasonably expect a response addressed “ McAffee, the historian of the late war, and Dawson, the to them from one to whom they had said noth- biographer of General Harrison, have studiously kept out ing. The expectation would have been unrea
of view that the object of the invasion was the destrucsonable. It was never entertained; and an event
tion of our ships under Commodore Perry at Presque Isle,
and boats and stores at Cleveland. These were looked upon which every one must have foreseen has been with solicitude by the British) were reconnoitered, and on spoken of with affected amazement, and perverted
one or two occasions were attempted to be destroyed by to the injury of one who does honor to his State
landing the force on board their fieet. They have also failed
to account for the movement of the whole British forces and country, for party purposes.
down the lake, in the direction of Cleveland and Erie, Note.-When the foregoing reply to Mr. Tall
before their defeat at Sandusky, which was attacked to sat
isfy their Indian allies, who demanded the scalps and plunMADGE was made, the speaker was under the im
der of the place. They had kept out of view the fact that pression that public entertainments had been given General Harrison had determined to retreat to the interior, in New York, to the President, by his political
after burning all the supplies which he had collected-thai friends. He was confirmed in that opinion by the
he ordered Major Croghan to abandon and burn Fort Ste
phenson--that his refusal to obey and failure to arrive at Senator from New York, (Mr. TallmaDGE,] who, headquarters prevented this retreat and consequent destrucbeing from that State, was supposed to be cogni tion of our fleet, millions' worth of public stores, and expozant of events transpiring there. He has since
sure of five hundred miles of frontier to the combined enlearned, from an unquestionable source, that the
« Both have stated that General Harrison never doubted President positively declined the invitations given that Major Croghan would be able to repulse an enemy of him to partake of public dinners. That he never near two thousand, and which they say he understood to accepted an invitation to a public dinner in his
be five thousand, with one hundred and thirty men-his life, although he has been constrained frequently
effective force on the day of battle—one six-pounder, with
ammunition for only seven shots, and about forty rounds for to participate in entertainments which, from the small-arms; when the fact was notorious that General numerous attendance, assumed the appearance of
Harrison was heard to say during the siege, when the firing a public dinner.
could be heard in his camp, speaking of Croghan, "the
ing for a moment, nor did any one with him, that the gar-
rison would be cut off.
“ With great respect, your obedient servant, Containing some evidences of General Harrison's
" JOSEPH DUNCAN. heroic and political merits. The other incidents “ Colonel Preston, Military Committee, Senate.” referred to in the foregoing speech connected with Upon the subject of his resignation there is the his life being well known matters of history. following testimony from General Armstrong, In reference to his general political opinions I
late Secretary of War, supported by General Harbelieve the following to be authentic:
rison's own letters: John Randolph, of Roanoke, who despised both
Messrs. Gales & SEATON: Having recently seen, in an the Adamises, on the floor of the
Senate of the
article published in the National Intelligencer, and entitled
a biography of General Harrison, a gross misrepresentation United States, in 1826, thus witheringly retorted of my feelings and conduct toward that officer in the camon General Harrison for his black cockade doc paign of 1813, (evidently intended to throw upon me the
odium of having made necessary the general's resignation,) I have thought it incumbent upon inc to disabuse the publie og this lead, and show that everything asserted by the biographer, imputing to me hostility to the general in any form, or from any motive, is downright fiction, arising either from a total ignorance of facts or an utter disregard to truth. The passage thus characterized is in the following words :
“The war having been thusgloriously terminated within the generai's own district, he repaired to Erie, and there tendered his services to the army operating in that quarter. Unfortunately, the Secretary of War was there, who felt some old griefs unredressed, and being, moreover, envious of the laurels so dearly but justly worn by the general, and unwilling to see another added to the wreath, ordered hiin to repair to Ohio, where he had no further duty to perforin, having already brought the war to a close in that quarter. The order was obeyed; he returned to his family, and immediately resigned his commission, declaring that he could not honestly eat the bread of Government when he was denied the privilege of rendering service in return."
To refute this compound of falsehood and calumny, it will but be necessary to exhibit the official letters which passed between the General and myself at that period, and on the occasion referred to: General Harrison to the Secretary of War, Buffalo, Oc
tober 24. “ Before this reaches you you will no doubt be informed of the loss of your messenger, Captain Brown, with the dispatches intrusted to him. Not, therefore, having received your directions, and being entirely ignorant of the state of our military operations in this quarter, I was much at a loss to know how to proceed; but believing that General Cass, with his brigade, would be able to secure Detroit and our adjacent conquests, after having concluded an armistice with the greater part of the hostile tribes, I concluded that I could not do better than to move down the lake with the remaining part of the troops, which I shall bring immediately to Fort George, where I shall await your orders." Secretary of War to General Harrison, Wilna, October
30, 1813. "I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 5th and 24th instant. The dispatcl hy Cap lain Brown, and which, with him, was lost in Lake Eric, suggested, as an ulterior movement, your coining down to the Niagara river, and putting yourself on the right and rear of De Rottenburg's position before Fort George; while General McClure, with his brigade of militia, volunteers, and Indians, menaced it in front. The enemy seems to have been aware of this, or of some similar movement, as he began his retreat on the 9th, and did not stop till he had gained the head of Burlington bay, where, I understand, by report, he yet is. This is his last stronghold on the peninsula; routed from this, he inust surrender, or make good a retreat to Kingston. His force is estimated at twelve or fifteen hundred men-the capture or destruction of whoin would give a glorious finale to your campaign.”
The same to the same, Boonsrille, November 3, 1813. " When I wrote you from Wilna, it was doubtful whether our attack would be made upon Kingston or upon Montreal. Reasons existed for preferring the latter, and have probably determined General Wilkinson to go down the St. Laurence. In this case, the enemy may have at Kingston, besides his fleet and usual garrison, iwelve or fourteen hundred men from the West. llad we not a sufficient corps in the neighborhood they might do mischiet, and even render insecure the winter station of our fieet. To prevent this, it is deemed advisable to draw together at Sackett's Harbor a considerable military force. There are now at that post four or five hundred men of all descriptions -sick, convalescent, and effective. Colonel Scott's detachment (about seven liundred) is on its march thither; and it is barely possible that Colonel Randolph's (not arriving in time to move with the army) may also be there. This does not exceed three hundred and fifty. McArthur's brigade added to these will make a force entirely competent to our object. To bring the brigade down the lake, you must have the aid of the flect, wbich will be readily given by Commodore Chauncey. The officers of the several corps composing your division, as well those at Fort George as those at Detroit, (not necessary to the command of the troops now in the field,) should be immediately detached on the recruiting service. I need not further invoke your attention to a subject so important to the early and successful opening of the next campaign, and to the extent and character of your particular command.” General Harrison to the Secretary of War.-Headquarters,
Newark, November 16, 1813. “ Commodore Chauncey, with the fleet, arrived here yesterday, and informed me that he was ready to receive the troops, and carry them down the lake, and that the season was so far advanced (rendering the navigation dangerous to the smaller vessels) it was desirable they should be embarked as expeditiously as possible.
“As a very small part of the militia and volunteers had arrived, and the situation of Sackett's Harbor appearing to require immediate reinforcement, I did not think proper 10 take upon myself the responsibility of postponing the departure of the troops for the lower part of the lakc, conformably to the directions contained in your letter of the 3d instant. The information I received yesterday from two respectable citizens that were taken near to Fort Meigs in June last, and who made their escape in an open boat from Burlington, confirms me in the propriety of sending them oif. These men staie that the British Iroops were hurrying to Kingston from York as far as possible, the regulars going down in boats, and militia bringing the latter back.
“Our troops are now all embarked, and are under the command of Colonel Smith, who is an officer in whose capacity and bravery the greatest reliance may be placed. I shall set out this evening for the seat of Government, and have the lionor to be, with the highest consideration,' &c.
26th Cong.....1st SESS.
Cumberland Road-Mr. Crary.
HO. OF REPS.
Same to the same.--Headquarters, Cincinnati, May 11, 1813. tain offenses therein named,' and after some time spent are necessary, and appropriations at the present "I have the honor, through you, to request the Presi therein, the Speaker, Alien Trimble, resurned the chair.
time expedient. I am aware that the system has dent to accept my resignation of the appointment of inajor "Mr. Fithian then moved to strike out the eighteenth
If these general in the Ariny, with which he was pleased to honor
been charged with numberless abuses. section of said bill, as follows: Lest the public service should suffer before a suc “Be it further enacted, That when any person shall be exist, they should be corrected. But until they cessor can be nominated, I shall continue to act until the imprisoned, either upon execution or otherwise, for the non
are pointed out, I am disposed to vote the appro31si instant, by winch time I hope to be relieved. payment of a fine or costs, or both, shall be lawful for the
priations, believing them necessary to give pro“Having soine reason to believe that the most malicious sherill of the county to sell out such person as a serrant to insinuations have been made against me it Washington, any person within this state wo will pity the wiole amount
tection to the rich and increasing commerce 64 it was my intention to have requested an inquiry into my
due for the shortest period of service, of which sale public the West. Much of the cry of extravagance is conduct from the commencement of my command. Fur notice shall be given at least ten days, and upon such sale without foundation. The expenditures have ther reflection has, however, determined me to decline the being effected the sheriff shall give the purchaser a certifi
indeed, in the majority of cases, exceeded the application, because, from the proud consciousness of hav. cate thereot, and deliver over the prisoner to bim, from ing palpably done my duiy, I cannot believe that it is ne which tiine the relation between such purchaser and the
estimates; but it is to be recollected that the esticessary, either for the satisfaction of the Government or the prisoner shall be that of master and servant until the time of mates were made when labor and the products of people, that I should pay so much respect to the sugges
service expires ; and for injuries done by either, remedy labor were comparatively at a low price. A work Lions of malice and envy." shall be had in the same manner as is or may be provided
estimated at $100,000 in 1830 cost nearly double The preceding documents established the following facts : by law in the case of master and apprentice. But nothing 1. That the General, when arriving at Erie, was not from herein contained shall be construed to prevent persons from
that amount in 1836, by reason of the great rise in enmity or envy ordered to repair to Ohio, or otherwise pre being discharged from imprisonment according to the pro prices, and the universal demand for labor. Many vented from giving his services to the army then on the
vision of the thirty-seventh section of the act to wbich this of the works have been made more permanent than Niagara, as asserted by his biographier.
is supplementary, it it shall be considered expedient to grant 2. That, on the contrary, he was, without delay, put in such discharge; Provided, That the court, in pronouncing
was originally contemplated. Instead of piers command of the army, and assigned to a service which, upon any person convicted under this act, or the act to which of wood, that must soon decay by the action of had it been performed, would have justly entitled him to this is supplementary, may direct such person or persons to the elements, they have been built of stone, which another wreath ot' laurel.
be detained in prison until the fine be paid, or the person often had to be transported from a distance. But 3. That, by a second order from the Secretary, he brought or persons otherwise disposed of agreeably to the provisdown McArthur's brigade to reënforce the garrison at Sackions of this act.
the greatest cause of the excess of the expendiett's Harbor-an order entirely approved and speedily ex “And the yeas and nays being required, those who voted tures over the estimates, is traceable to the action ecuted by the General.
in the affirmative were: Messrs. Beasly, Brown, Fithian, of this body. During our long sessions, we have 4. That, on the Ilth of May, six months after leaving Gass, Heaton, Jennings, Lucas, Mathews, McLaughlin,
been in the habit of delaying ihe appropriations Sackett's Harbor, he resigued the command of the district, McMilton, Newcom, Robb, Russell, Scofield, Shelby, Spenand quitted the Army, noi, as his biographer asseris, be cer, Stone, Swearington, Thomson, and Womeldorf-20. to so late a period in the season that contracts cause denied the privilege of serving the Government, and
“And those who voted in the negative were: Messrs.
for labor and material could not be made to adtherefore ashamed to eat its bread, but, as he himself says, Baldwin, Cole, Foos, Foster, W'm. H. Harrison, McLean, vantage. It often happened that works were susbecause he had some reason to believe that malicious in Oswall, Pollock, Ruggles, Roberts, Wheeler, and Speaker
pended for six months in the year, awaiting the sinuations to his disadvantage had been made at Washing-12."
iardy and uncertain action of Congress; and were ton.
JOIN ARMSTRONG. February, 1840.
then recommenced in the midst of the summer
CUMBERLAND ROAD. As to the refusal of his country to bestow on
months. This left only about three months for him a mark of Approval. SPEECH OF HON. ISAAC E. CRARY, | of the year, and the other a month of storms and
active operations, two of these the most unhealthy In the centh volume of Niles's Register, page 125, we read the following as a part of the pro
tempests. Under such a system of appropria
tions, there must be waste and extravagance; ceedings in the United States Seriate, to wit:
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
but the fault was with the makers of the laws, and “The Senate resumed the consideration of the joint res
February 14, 1840. olution directing medals to be struck, and, together with the
not with those who executed them. thanks of Congress, presented to Major General Harrison The order of the day being the motion of Mr. The expenditures for harbor improvements on and Governor Shelby, and for other purposes. Alter some CASEY, to refer the memorial of the National Road Lakes Erie and Michigan amount to about discussion, Mr. Lacock moved to auiend the resolution, by
Convention held at Terre Haute, Indiana, lo the $1,500,000, and there has been constructed sixstriking therefrom Major General Harrison., This motion was determined in the affirmative, by the following vote :
Committee of Ways and Means, with instructions teen harbors into which vessels can run with “Yeas-Messrs. Galijard, Gore, Hunter, King, Lacock, to report a bill appropriating $150,000 in each of safety, and two others are nearly completed. Mason, Roberts, Thompson, Tait, Jackson, Turner, and the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Mlinois, to be When, in 1827, the first harbor improvement on Varnum.-12.
expended the Cumberland road, and the sub Lake Erie was authorized, there was upon that “Nays-Messrs. Barber, Barry, Condit, Horsey, Macon, Morrow, Ruggles, Talbot, Wells, and Williams-10."
stitute of Mr. Pickens for said instructions, as lake 4,453 tons of shipping. The steamboat and In the tenth volume of Niles's Register, on the follows:
shipping tonnage on the 30th September, 1838,
And that the memorial be committed to the Committee 414th page, is a letter over General Harrison's
amounted to 36,385 tons. By a statement of the of Ways and Means, with instructions to consider the ex collector at Mackinaw, made in 1838, it appears own signature, dated July 16, 1816, from which
pediency of reporting a bill in favor of the measure. the following is an extract:
that nearly 57,000 tons of shipping entered that And Mr. Marvin's amendment to the original || port between the 14th of April and 25th of Sep“A vote of the Senate of the United States has attached
proposition and substitute for Mr. Pickens's tember of that year. This amount of tonnage is to my name a disgrace, which I ain convinced no time or efforis of mine will ever be able to efface. Their censure amendment, as follows:
employed in the Lake Michigan trade, where a is, indeed, negative; but it is not on that account the less
And that the Committee of Ways and Means be instructed
vessel often runs two hundred miles in a storm severe."
to report bills in accordance with the estimates contained before she can find a harbor. Abolition.
in the reports from the Chief Engineer and the Chief of the The gentleman from New York last upon the In 1822 he wrote, as follows: Topographical Engincers to the Secretary of War, and
floor (Mr. BARNARD) stated that the commerce communicated to Cougress by the President, making apTO THE PUBLIC. propriations for the year 1840, for the continuation of the
on these lakes nowexceeded 100,000 tons inonthly. Fellow-Citizens : Being called suddenly home to at
construction or improvements of harbors and roads, and the Allowing eight months of navigation annually, tend my sick family, I have but a moment to answer a few navigation of rivers, for which appropriations have been of the calumnies which are in circulation concerning me.
and it would for that period, exceed 800,000 tons berelotore made, I am accused of being friendly to slavery. From my earli
- equal to half the tonnage of the Atlantic States. est youth to the present moment I have been the ardent Mr. CRARY said:
Nearly one moiety of the Atlantic tonnage is refriend ot' human liberiy. Al the age of eighteen I BECAME Mr. SPEAKER: I am aware that it has become | gistered and employed in the foreign trade. The A MEMBER OF AN ABOLITION SOCIETY established at Richmond, the object of which was to ameliorate the condition
a common custom to examine nearly all questions | vessels are filled out for distant voyages, and after of the slaves and procure their freedom by every legal geans.
that come before us with reference to constitu- | leaving port are not exposed to the dangers of My veuerable friend Judge Gatch, of Clermont county, was tional considerations. It is not to be supposed, our own coast. On the lakes they were exposed also a member of this society, and has lately given me a cer however, that the most rigid constructionist will || daily and hourly, for they were constantly in tificate that I was one. The obligations which I then came under I have faithfully performed.
call in question the power of the House to give || sight of the shore, and liable to be driven upon it IVM. IIENRY HARRISON. efficiency to the amendment offered by the gentle in every unfavorable gale. In 1833 General Harrison delivered a Fourth of
man from New York, (Mr. Marvin.) The Gen It has been by means of the harbor improveJuly oration at Cheviot, Ohio, in which he made
eral Government has jurisdiction over most of ments on the lakes that the whole of the public the following declaration:
the navigable rivers in ihe country, and especially || domain in the Northwest has been brought into
over those leading into the Mississippi and the market. When this system was commenced, the Should I be asked if there be no way by which the Gen St. Lawrence. The ordinance of 1787, for the State that I have the honor to represent was superal Government can aid the cause of emancipation, I answer it has long been an object near to iny heart to see the
government of the territory northwest of the Ohio, | posed to be a bleak and barren wilderness a whole of the surplus national revenue appropriated to that provides that “the navigable waters leading into country of sand hills, sometimes crowned with a objeet. With the sanction of the States holding slaves, there ihe Mississippi and the St. Lawrence and the few stúnted trees and a scanty vegetation, but appears to me no constitutional objection to its being thus
carrying places between the same shall be comapplied, embracing not only the colonization of those that
generally bare, and thrown by the wind into a may be otherwise freed, but the purchase of the freedom of
mon highways, and forever free, as well to the in thousand fantastic shapes”-a country unfit for others. By a zealous prosecution of a plan formed upon habitants of ihe said territory as to the citizens of cultivation, and so filled up with marshes that this basis, we miglit look forward to a day, not far distant, the United States and those of any other State | enough of good land could not be found to supply when a North American sun would not look down upou a that may be admitted into the Confederacy, with the demands of the soldiers of the war of 1812.
out tar, impost, or duty therefor.” By this clause Such was Michigan, even after the close of tha? Upon the subject of selling out free white men,
of the ordinance these waters are the common war; but its whole aspect has been changed by I have in my possession one of the printed Jour- highways of the whole Union. The United States the expenditure of a few thousand dollars in harnals of the Senate of Ohio for the year 1820, from
have the jurisdiction over them, and have the bor improvements. which the following is a true extract:
right to improve their navigation. This improve More than two hundred thousand people have Extract from the Journal of the Senate of Ohio, Tuesday, ment cannot be made by the States if by such im been induced to make this beautiful peninsula" January 30, 1821.
provement those waters are deprived of their their home, and have been the willing instruments “ The Senate met pursuant to adjournment. character of “common highways.
of causing more than eight million dollars to flow “ The Senate then, according to the order of the day, reBolved itself into a Committee of the Whole upon the bill
The owly question, then, Mr. Speaker, for our into your Treasury since 1834. Nor has the infrom the House entitled "An act for the punishment of cer consideration, is, whether these improvements 11 fuence of these harbors been confined to my own
26TH CONG.... 1st SESS.
Cumberland Road-Mr. Crary.
HO. OF REPS.
State. They have been the means of settling talks of compromise, of concession. Are the gen- | they were not completed when the Treasury docunorthern Ohio, northern Indiana, and northern tlemen from Maine prepared for this?
ment was made out. But they are before us now, Illinois, and they are now filling up Wisconsin Mr. SMITH. No; never!
and with the sanction of the President. What and Jowa with the enterprising and intelligent of Mr. CRARY. No; never! is the reply; and more do gentlemen want? What more would the old States, with the men who carry with them it is such a reply as should come from a Repre- | they have? It seems to me that they ought to be the principles, moral and political, which in sentative of the people of that gallant State. It | satisfied. But no; the President can do nothing spired and animated the pilgrims of the Plymouth is made in the spirit of the country. This House that will satisfy them. If he includes the estiRock.
has declared for the line of the treaty, and we are mates for such works in the annual budget, he These are some of the benefits that have accrued bound to abide by that line. War is, indeed, to is forth with charged with recommending extravto the country from our improvements on the be avoided, but not at the expense of any portion agance, and with wishing to extend executive lakes. The question now before us is whether of that territory which was won by the battles of patronage. If they are omitted in the budget and these works shall go on to completion. By your the Revolution and bequeathed to us as the in sent up by the proper Department, according to past legislation you have induced the settlement heritance of liberty.
the practice of the Departments, then comes the of a lake coast nearly two thousand miles in ex Mr. Speaker, I have ever considered harbor ap cry of opposition to all improvements. Sir, the tent, with all the country adjacent; you have per- propriations as necessary for the defense of the spirit of opposition to this Administration rides suaded thousands upon thousands of your populake frontier. They are necessary to protect our
over the best interests of the country. lation to go into the wilderness and purchase | shipping from being destroyed by the enemy. A I now come to that portion of my remarks which your public domain, with the expectation that breastwork upon the piers, with a few cannon, relate to the original proposition, as well as to the you would continue those improvements. Their and men to use them, will render almost any har amendment. It must be well known to every continuance is demanded by the interests of com bor secure from military incursions. In connec member of the House that the expenditures of merce. Without them we shall have no avenues lion with this subject it may not be improper to Government are in a great degree confined to the by which the products of our industry can find allude to the agreement entered into between the Atlantic States. In those States we expend a market. Without them we shall be isolated, British Government and the United States in 1817, || $5,000,000 annually in creating and supporting a be cut off from all the benefits of the Union, and in regard to the armament of the lakes. By that navy. We expend other millions on fortifications be compelled to bear only ils evils.
agreement neither Government was to employ and custom-houses, and in giving protection to The gentleman from South Carolina (Mr. Pick more than two vessels on the upper lakes, each commerce. In those Slates nearly all our muENS) embraced the opportunity yesterday to pass of one hundred tons burden, and armed with one nitions of war are manufactured, and there are a high compliment to the energy, enterprise, and eighteen-pounder. If my information is correct, paid out and expended the salaries of most of our intelligence of the North west. He looked for this agreement has been violated by the British public officers, civil and military. The great body ward with pride and joy to the addition of new Government, and they are now building two armed of our legislation has been for the immediate beneStates to the Union. I am pleased at this ex
steamers on Lake Erie, ostensibly for the preser fit of these States. Congress seldom looks westpression of his broad and expanded views. I, vation of the peace of the Canadas, but in reality | ward, except when some question in regard to ioo, Mr. Speaker, look forward to the time when to maintain an ascendency upon those waters in the public domain is under consideration. This State after State shall be embraced within the the event of war.
is a natural condition of things. The power of Union, when Representatives shall stand up on Mr. Speaker, I do not understand the President the House rests with the States of the Atlantic, this floor whose homes are on the shores of the to be opposed to appropriations for harbors. but it will not be with them always. Another great Pacific. An opportunity will soon be pre When his message, together with the report from census will show that sented to test his patriotic professions; and when the Treasury Department, was transmitted to this “Westward the star of empire takes its way.” it comes, I feel an assurance that he will not be body, the operations of the 'Topographical bureau
There has been of late much speculation as to found wanting in his deep devotion to the prin- || and Engineer corps, for the year 1839, had not ciples of liberty. Wisconsin will soon be here been laid before the head of the War Department.
the probable effects upon our prosperity of the to take her place in the rank of States, and it will Directions had been given that all our public large indebtedness of the States. It has been said probably be the good fortune of many now here works should be inspected by competent officers, || drain us of our resources. There is no doubt
that the interest on a debt of $200,000,000 will to assist in forming two or three States out of the and the result of their labors was not communipresent Territory of Iowa. caled until the 7th of January. The bureau of
that the payment of $10,000,000 of interest annuThe gentleman from South Carolina objects to Topographical Engineers reported on the 30th of ally, to a foreign Power, will have a sensible efthe appropriations, because they are not necessary December, 1839, and the Chief Engineer on the
fect upon our prosperity. It will create a depende for the common defense. He thinks that all our fu 7th of January, 1840. On the 8th of January
ence upon foreign capitalists and foreign banking ture battles are to be fought upon the Atlantic. In these reports were laid before the President, and
institutions; but this dependence will not be as his opinion, the Canadas are to become free in any on the 9th of the same month he transmitted the
great as that of the West upon the Atlantic States, future contest with Great Britain, and are to be same to Congress " for their action and consider
by reason of the operations of this Government. united with us in the bonds of a common Union. ation." This document contains “a more than
In 1834, the expenditures of the Government This, sir, may all happen, but not immediately. 1) usually detailed statement of the history and prog
were $24,601,982; for the civil list, $4,404,728; If a war comes out of the northeastern boundary ress of the works, together with detailed esti
for the military, $10,064,427; for naval affairs, question, the grand theater for military operations mates of the probable cost of each work, and of
$3,956,260; and for the payment of the public will be upon the lakes. There will be fought our the sums required for each year." It is a docu
debt, $6,176,565. The receipts for the same ycar baliles, and there our arms will be covered with ment that will enable Congress to legislate under
were $21,701,935; of which, $16,214,957 were from defeat and disgrace, or crowned with victory and standingly on all subjects of harbor improvement.
customs, and $4,857,600 from the public lands. with glory. Already is there a force in the Can It tells us that the works under charge of the
The appropriations for that year, according to a adas of some eighteen thousand men, under ex Engineer department will require the sum of
report of ihe Secretary of ihe Treasury, were perienced officers, and ready to invade us at any $1,386,887 for 1840, and under charge of the To
$1,111,000 in the States of Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois. moment. The militia of those provinces are in a pographical bureau the sum of $1,807,424 for state of excellent discipline, and commanded by 1840. There are tables showing the whole amount
.$282,000 officers who have been in regular service. For that will be demanded to complete all the works
125,000 three years the British Government have been in a permanent manner. There is also much valfortifying along our whole frontier. They have uable matter on the subject of the commerce of Army
Indians rebuilt Fort Malden, the key to the commerce of
120,000 the upper lakes. No man can read it without the upper lakes. They have fortified Bois Blanc coming to the conclusion that the $1,500,000 ex
$712,000 island at the mouth of ihe Detroit river. Are all pended on the harbors of these lakes has been the these movements necessary to preserve the peace most profitable expenditure of this Government.
.8163,000 of the Canadas? Must our whole frontier be lined It had been the means of creating a tonnage in Pensions...
48,000 with cannon to keep down the spirit of Canadianships, brigs, schooners, sloops, and steamboats,
10,000 patriotism and love of liberty? No, sir! In the valued at $2,399,600. Since 1830, a commerce at
$21,000 event of war, these fortifications are designed to the single port of Cleveland had been created of cut off our commerce with Lakes Huron and the annual value of upward of $50,000,000. Such Michigan. But this was not all. British troops are was the character of the document sent to us by Special
18,000 stationed at every important point on that frontier, the President, and to which he invites our“
10,000 and British influence is concentrating the Indian | sideration and action.” Does this look like op
10,000 tribes of the North west among the hundred islands | position to this system of improvements? Does of Lake Huron. Were all these fortifications and it indicate a spirit of hostility either to the Cum
$178,000 all these armed men necessary to preserve peace
berland road or to harbors? As the particular among British subjects? It may be, sir, but it friend of the latter, I am glad of such opposition. Computing the population of the Union for that tells a sad story for British misrule in her prov It will do more than has ever yet been done to year at fifteen million, and that of these Siates at inces, and suchi misrule as once justified rebellion induce the country to urge these works to com iwo million two hundred thousand, and there was and revolution. It is, however, to be recollected pletion.
paid into your Treasury by these States for custhat we have a long line of boundary yet to adjust. Those of the Opposition who are friendly to ioms the sum of $2,378,193, being $1,267,193 more On our part it is to be adjusted without compro these improvemenis are doing the President for customis alone than was expended in those mise, without concession. We have declared for great injustice. He has sent to us the best re States. In the same year there was paid into the the boundary of the treaty of 1783. Docs lhe port that ever came from the head of the Execu• Treasury from those States for the sale of public British Government intend to adhere to that tive, and yet they are dissatisfied because the esti- || lands the sum of $1,346,989. Admilling that those boundary? The late message of the Governor of males were not to be found in the annual repori States paid but one half of the amount received New Brunswick shows no such intention. Hell from the Treasury. They are not there, because for public lands within their borders, and they
26TH CONG.... 1st SESS.
Cumberland Road-Mr. Crary.
HO. OF REPS.
paid into your Treasury for customs and lands and promote the general welfare.” Sir, this is provement. This is patriotism of a high order, alone the sum of $3,051,687, being $1,940,587 not spoken in a fault-finding spirit. I am not to anıl if entirely disinterested has my hearty commore than was expended in those States. But be thus understood. But it is to be borne in mind mendation, But in the present instance there the whole expenditure for the Union ainounted to that the West has contributed more than its full seems to be somethiing of self-interest about it. $24,601,982, which would give to those States the share to the funds of the Treasury; and in asking | On a map at the left of your chair, sir, is delinsum of $3,608,290, whereas they received but the that a portion of these funds be returned to them, eated the Tennessee river, Muscle shoals, and the sum of $1,111,000. So much for the receipts and and expended on constitutional objects, they are canal around the north bend of the shoals. Yes, expenditures for the year. 1834, and their opera- || governed by a sense of justice, and a desire for sir, also a certain railroad on the south side of tion upon the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. a more perfect Union."
the river, running from Decatur to Tuscumbia, We come now to the year 1839, when the popu It seems to be my misfortune, Mr. Speaker, to through Courtlund. lation of the Union may be estimated at seventeen come from a State ihat gentlemen are in the habit The gentleman from Alabama, when at home, million, and that of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and of taking for illustration. The gentleman from takes his letters and papers from the post office Michigan, at three million. During the past year Alabama (Mr. HUBBARD] has gone to Michigan at Courtland. This may well account for his there were no special expenditures in either of to find materials for a speech, which materials patriotism. It may also be accounted for on the these States, so that the whole of the appropria could have been furnished from his own State. supposition that his district is particularly intertions resulting immediately to the benefit of these Hereafter he had better look at home before go ested in the railroad improveinent. States could not exceed $1,000,000. The whole | ing abroad to find fault with his neighbors. It has Mr. HUBBARD said that he had opposed apof the appropriations of the Governinent amounted not been my habit to bring up and arraign the in propriations for such purposes long before the to $37,217,812, which if paid equally by all our ternal affairs of my own or any other State. What railroad charter was granted. That so far from population would give to these four States as their ever the condition of politics in my own State, the railroud interest operating in favor of his elecproportion the sum of $6,567,849. In other words, whether power be in the hands of Whigs or Dem- | tion, the contrary was the fact. He received a they paid into your Treasury $6,567,849, and re ocrats, it is my wish at all times to be the defender much larger vote in the counties where the canal ceived from the same $1,000,000. But as this cal of her rights, and to promote her best interests. was run than in those counties along the route of culation may be objected to on account of the The movements of my political opponents at home the railroad; not on account of the railroad or receipts from other sources than lands and cus will never be alluded to by me unless they are a canal, but because there were more Democrats in toms, my remarks will be confined to the two legitimate subject for our consideration. If the the former .counties and more Whigs in the latlatter. For the first three quarters of 1839, the lime of the House is to be devoted to the party dr. Those who sent him here would give up the receipts from customs were $18,323,392, and for contentions of the States, we shall find ourselves donation if you would stop plundering them to the last quarter they may be estimated at not less upon an illimitable ocean, without helm or com carry on works of internal improvement. Yes, than $2,500,000, giving the sum of $20,828,393 for pass.
the State of Alabama could not only afford to surthe year. Of this sum the States of Ohio, Indiana, Mr. Speaker, I will take the liberty to assure render this donation, but give $1,000,000 in the Illinois, and Michigan, must pay $3,675,600. the gentleman from Alabama that all the expendi bargain, if you would not take any more of their There has been collected in these States for public tures in Michigan have been confined to constitu money. lands during three quarters of the year, the sum tional objects. All the roads were made when Mr. CRARY. The patriotism of the people of of $2,234,265; and supposing one half this sum to Michigan was a Territory. Most of them were Alabama is not to be doubted. They have acbe paid by citizens of those States, and there has military roads, and all of them have resulted to cepted the donation, and they have ihus given been taken from their pockets for lands during the great benefit of the United States. The road evidence of a kuowledge of their true interests. three quarters of the year, and for customs during from Detroit to Fort Gratiot was a military road. I should like a similar donation for my own Stale; the whole year the sum of $4,792,732, and directly || That from Detroit to Chicago was of the same but it will not be made this session. Even a cesreturned to them, in the form of appropriations, character; and also that from Detroit to Saginaw'. sion of the lands for a fair consideration, the fathe sum of $1,000,000. Add this heavy balance The latter road ought to be completed to Macki vorite project of the gentleman from South Carto the interest which those States are paying to naw. There is no way of reaching that post at olina (Mr. PICKENS) will find lillle favor with the Europe on State indebtedness, and we have a present but by Lake Huron; and yet it is the House as at preseni constituted. A change must sufficient cause for the derangement of their cur Gibraltar of Lake Michigan; and in the event of come over us before the sun and the moon and rency, for the low price of all the products of labor, war, if well fortified and defended, will give secu the eleven stars will make obeisance.' and for the general pecuniary distress which per rity to the whole of western Michigan, northern arms of our hands must first be made strong, vades that whole section of country. Without a Indiana and Illinois, and eastern Wisconsin. Is and honor and power must first be in our possesnational debt, these States are placed in the situa such a road unconstitutional? If so, all roads sion. tion that the South and West were in 1820, when for military purposes are unconstitutional; for Mr. Speaker, I have thus far confined myself Mr. Crawford, in a report to the House of Rep- there is not a road in the Union of more import to the question. I have now something to say resentatives, on banks and currency, said: ance for protection and defense. There are other about inen. Ever since the Harrisburg conven"In the West and in the South, the complaints of a de
roads in Michigan to which the gentleman has al tion no speech has been delivered on this floor ficient currency have been most distinctly heard. In the luded. Some of them were constructed for mili which has not some reference to the existing polatter, these complaints are of recent date. In both, they tary purposes, and others for the purpose of bring litical relations of the country. This has not proceed in a greater degree from the disbursement of the
ing the public lands into market, and giving them been in order. It is not our province to make public revenue than from any other cuuse. mass of public expenditure is made to the east of this city. the value affixed by law.
Presidents, nor to waste the time of the House The revenue aceruing trom imports, though principally An impression seems to have gone abroad that in making speeches in favor of the candidates of collected in the middle and eastern States, is paid by the large sums of money have been expended in either political party; and yet this has been done, great mass of consumers throughout the United States, That which is paid for the public lands, although in some
Michigan for internal inprovements. The gen and to such an extent that it would be almost out degree drawn from every part of the Union, is principally
tleman from Alabama has alluded to some eight of order not to make a reply. I propose to reply, paid by the citizens of the West and the South. The hundred miles of road in that State, and to numer but not in the way that will be most agreeable to greatest part of the revenue accruing from the public lands, ous harbor improvements, and intimated that all the Opposition. I shall indulge in no vituperaas well as that collected in the contern States upon im
this had been done in a State that was a wilder tion, and make use of no abusive epither. These posts, has been transferred to the middle and eastern States io be expended. The necessity of inaking this transfer
We are not entirely a wilderness, as will weapons belong to my political opponents. arises from the circumstance that the great mass of the
be demonstrated on this floor after the next cen The gentleman from Indiana, (Mr. PROFFIT,] public debt is held in those States, or by 10rrigners, wliose
sus, and as has already been demonstrated by the who occupied the floor yesterday, has brought agents reside in thein; and froin ile establishments of dock yards and naval stations in their principal ports. This
returns to your Treasury from the sales of the before the IIouse the hero of North Bend, not us transfer will continue to be necessary until the public debt
public lands. From that State alone you have he is in his old age, with mental infirmities fast sball be extinguished, and until the other expenditures of put into your Treasury $8,490,163 from 1833 to thickening upon him, but as he was when in comthe Government can, consistently with the public interest, September, 1839, and $10,774,034 since your mand of the northwestern army in the last war. be tnore equally distributed.” lands were first brought into market.
That gentleman has applauded the presidential Notwithstanding this sectional inequality in the We have also, in common with the rest of the candidate of the Opposition for three great exappropriations, I am disposed, Mr. Speaker, to Union, paid our proportion of the revenue de ploits: 1st, the battle of Tippecanoe; 22, being vole liberal supplies for the detenges of the coun rived from the customs. And what have been the first to suggest the armament of the lakes; try, for the support of the Army and Navy, and the returns in the form of expenditures for legiti and, lastly, the battle of the Thames. I have a the public works. Will the Atlantic States be mate objects of improvement! With a peninsular few words to say on each of these subjects. actuated by a similar liberality? When the West coast of seven hundred miles there has been Any one who will put himself to the trouble of brinys forward objects for which expenditures | expended, to 1837, for internal improvement, reading the official account of the battle of Tipare expedient, will those States give to them a $296,713. Let us now examine the account with pecanoe will see that General Harrison performed consideration commensurate to their importance? | Alabama. For internal improvement there is no great act of generalship on that occasion. Unless this is done, the Union will be, to the put down to that State $198,950, and for fortifi From the general's own confessions, the Army West, of little advantage. If that section is to be cations, $1,358,764. Yes, sir, Alabama can have was encamped in an exposed position, affording divested of its circulating medium from year to fortifications to defend her against an assailing "greal facility to the approach of savages,'' and at year, without any adequate return, it does not re foe, but Michigan must depend upon her stalwart night was completely surprised by the Indians, quire the spirit of divination to foresee the con arm alone for protection. Alabama has also re and only escaped destruction by the gallanıry of sequences.' There is glory in belonging to the ceived four hundred thousand acres of the public the brave Keniuckians and a part of the old fourth Union; there is a feeling of pride in its associ lands for the improvement of the Muscle shoals | regiment from Massachusetts. But I will confine ations. But all these may pass away, by the in in the Tennessee river. That land is worth not myself to the official report, that will prove all fliction of burdens grievous to be borne, by for- || less than $700,000. But the gentleman is will that has been asserted. It will also prove that cing one section to become hewers of wood and ing to give up the avails of this land, and all that || General Harrison was the greatest egotist that drawers of water in support of a Government Alabama has received from the General Govern ever wrote in the English language. Other genestablished "to provide for the common defense, Il ment, if we will only put an end to internal im: ll erals have awarded some merit to the God of bat
tles, but not so with General Harrison. It wis to decide the contest immediately. Il moves spoken of by her early writers, and Hubbard tells “1” that did all from the morning that “I com about the width of an eighty-acre lot and then us of one case where a stone breast work was menced my march,"until“Tannounced that I had halis again, not to encamp, but to enable “I”to thrown up in the midst of a fight. Did Colonel no intention of attacking them (the Indians) until hold a parley with three Indians, one of them the Johnson ever encamp, when in the midst of hosI discovered that they would not comply with the particular friend of the Prophet. Well, what does tile Indians, without defending his camp by a demands that I had mude; that I would go on and ihis friend of the Prophet say? Why, that an breastwork? If he had, sir, his gallant little band encamp at the Wabash. “I halted," and "I answer had been sent to General Harrison's de of mounted men would never have covered themresumed my murch.” “I advanced," and "I rose mands, but that the bearers “ have unfortunately selves with glory at the battle of the Thames. In at a quarter after four o'clock."
“I mounted My taken the road on the south side of the Wabash." the Black Hawk war, did General Atkiuson ever horse, I rode to the angle that was attacked, I What was this answer? The official report show
omit the barricade for a single night? Never. reënforced every part of the line, I formed the eth it not. It only says, “I answered that I had When it could not be made of wood, one of earth body of dragoons, 1 meant to pursue the enemy no intention of attacking them until I discovered was thrown up. To General Harrison belongs in their flighi, but,” aye, but," being engaged, || that they would not comply with the demands the honor of encamping an army without breastI did not obscrve it until it was too late.” Yes, which I had made." On a promise from this works in sight of an Indian town, the inhabitants this would-be captain of captains did not observe friend of the Prophet that no hostilities should be
of which “ HAD MANIFESTED NOTHING BUT hosthe figlic of the enemy" until it was too late" || committed till the will of the President of the TILITY. Let the honor be his, and let his politto pursue them.
United States was explained, our hero resumes ical friends write it on all their banners; but the But, Mr. Speaker, I must return to the morning his march, and advances within one hundred and hand-writing should be one of blood-the blood of the Gih of November when this consummate fifty yards of the town. Fifty Indians sally forth of one fourth of a most gallant and chivalrous general was within eleven miles of the scene of his and demand a halı. “I immediately advanced to army. subsequent exploits. A march of six miles is made the front and caused the army to halt.”
But, Mr. Speaker, I have not yet done with this through open prairies, “ with the infantry in two few moments the man (the friend of the Prophet) || camp upon "ury oak land,” and surrounded by columns of files on either side of the road, and the who had been with me before made his appear a "marshy prairie." It appars, from the offimounted riflemen and cavalry in front, in the rear, ance.
I informed him that my object for the pres cial repori, ihat the fires were built within the and on the flunks," when coming to open woods, ent was to procure a good piece of ground to en camp, and were burning at a quarter after four the whole army is formed in order of battle. A camp on, where we could get wood and water. o'clock in the morning. “Our fires afforded a company of mounted riflemen formed the ad- || He informed me that there was a creek to the partial light, which, if it gave us some opportuvanced guard; then came the United States in- | north west, which he thought would suit our pur- | nity of taking our positions, was still inore adfantry flunked by two companies of militia in pose.” “I found the ground for the encampment vantageous to the enemy, affording them the fantry and one of mounted riflemen; then comes not altogether such as I could wish it." It was means of taking a surer aim. Under such cirthe baggage, covered by three companies of militia suited for regular troops opposed to regulars, cumstances need we wonder at the slaughter that infantry; and lastly comes the cavalry. We ought “BUT IT AFFORDED GREAT FACILITY TO THE AP ensued? The fires were, indeed, extinguished now lo expect a fight, for the whole army is " in PROACH OF SAVAGES.
after the battle commenced, but this proved that the order of battle. But we are doomed to dis Here follows a description of the ground from they should not have been built, if it proved anyappointment. The order is given to “break off the official report:
thing. Camp fires were necessary, but in Indian in short columns of companies,” and to move “ It was a piece of dry oak land, rising about ten feet
warfare they should be without the camp, if alslowly and cautiously along, the several corps above the level of a marslıy prairie in front, (toward the
lowed to burn all night. They then gave no changing position "three times in the distance of Indian town,) and nearly twice that height above a similar advantage to the enemy. On the contrary, on At last a creek is approached, when prairie in the rear, through whicli, and near to this bank,
coming within their range, the enemy became the ran a small stream clothed with willow and other brushthe order for battle again passes from column to wood. Toward the left flank this beach of highland
object of “a surer aim." column. widened considerably, but became gradually narrower in
Sir, I pass over the movements of the general Mr. LINCOLN raised a question whether it the opposite direction, and at the distance of one hundred during the battle. I say nothing of his horsebaek was in order to discuss mutiers not before the
and fity yards from the right flank terminaied in an abrupt ride in a camp with a right flank of fourteen rods; House.
nothing of his order 10 Major Daviss to dislodge, Mr. OGLE said no friend of General Harrison
On this ground pointed out by an enemy, and with a party of dismounted dragoons, the enemy feared the discussion.
AFFORDING GREAT FACILITY TO THE APPROACH from some trees in front of four companies of Several MEMBERS expressing a wish for the
OF SAVAGES, were traced the lines of a night en United States infantry. Let others decide whether debate to proceed, Mr. LINCOLN withdrew his campment, with the front and rear lines separated || Indians could be driven from such a position by motion.
from each other about twenty-seven rods on the swords and pistols better than with muskets and Mr. CRARY resumed and said he did not exleft and fourteen rods on the right flank.
bayonets. It is perhaps decided from this fact pect to be allowed to proceed. It was to him a
Mr. UNDERWOOD inquired what authority that the dragoons were driven back with the loss matter of no consequence. He thought, however,
Mr. C. had for saying the ground was pointed of the gallant Major Daviss, and that the enemy he was indulging in no greater latitude of debate out by the enemy.
were immediately dislodged by a company of inthan was yesterday permitted to the gentleman Mr. CRARY referred him to the official report, | fantry. I need not allude to the number of men from Indiana, (Mr. PROFFIT.) When Mr. P. where he would find it under General Harrison's || engaged in battle, nearly one fourth of whom was speaking, Mr. Briggs temporarily occupied own sign-manual.
were killed or wounded. The army, says an offithe Speaker's chair. That gentleman had can But to return to the order of encampment. The cial letter of the 18th December, deducting dravassed not only the merits of General Harrison front line was occupied by one battalion of Uni goons, was but little over seven hundred men. Of for the Presidency, but called up the past polit ted States infantry, Nanked on the right by two these, sixty-two were killed and one hundred ical history of a member of the House, (Mr. || companies of militia, and on the left by one com and twenty-six wounded. The prophet's force Wick,) and yet no one rose and called to order pany; The rear line was composed of the other amounted io four hundred and fifty. Of these from or pronounced the remarks irrelevant to the ques battalion of United States infantry on the left and thirty-six to forty were left on the field. What tion. He was free to admit that such discussion four militia companies on the right. The left official precision! From thirty-six to forty were was unprofitable; but if it was in order to make flank was filled up by two companies of mounted left on the field; but these did not comprise all the the attack, it ought also to be in order to make a riflemen, and the right flank by one company. dead. The Indians were seen to take off not only reply. Were gentlemen prepared to allow of such Two troops of dragoons were encamped in the rear the wounded, but the dead. Indians take their a course of attack and then prevent a reply? If of the lefi flank and one troop in rear of the front dead from the field in the midst of the battle! Such 80 evil, would come out of it of no ordinary mag line. These troops were all in single rank, and stories are often told, but they generally come from nitude.
were defended by iwo captains'guards, consisting | warriors who fight at a respectable distance, and Mr. PROFFIT rose to explain. He appealed of eighty-eight men, and two subalterns' guards, make out their reports of the dead on supposition. to the House whether he said anything disrespect cons of twenty men. But as the report In the present instance the dead may have been ful of his colleague. He did not intend to injure makes no mention either of a picket guard or of taken away, for the report says, several were his feelings.
a common camp guard, it seems that this indis found in the houses, and one of many graves fresh Mr. CRARY said he was aware that the feel pensable requisite of an army, encamped in an dug was opened and found to contain three dead ings of his colleague [Mr. Wick) were not in. enemy's country, was entirely overlooked and bodies." "Could all this have been done in the jured. But this did not justify the attack. Did omitied. This is evident from the fact that in presence of a victorious army? Not in civilized the gentleman know that he would not hurt his the opening of the battle some of the men were warfare. In such a war the conquerors bury the feelings?
stricken down in the very doors of their tents. dead. With these facts before them, the trusty But, Mr. Speaker, to return to General Har We have here, sir, the camp of General Har followers of the prophet might have claimed at least rison, whom we left with his army drawn up in
rison when in an Indian country, and so appre a drawn battle, and in support of their position the order of battle. No enemy, however, ap
hensive of an attack that "the order of encamp have pointed to the dead taken from the field and pears; but, from certain indications of a hostile ment was the order of battle, and each man slept to the fresh graves in which they were buried. feeling, it is determined to encamp for the night. opposite to his post in the line." General Har But the Indian account of this battle has not been “While I was engaged in tracing the lines for rison says his order of march was " similar to given to history. If, however, you and I had the encampment” information was received that that used by General Wayne.” But was the been present, Mr. Speaker, at their next great war the Indians “had answered every attempt to bring order of encampment that of General Wayne or dance, we should have heard the songs of the them to a parley with contempt and insolence." that of any other general winning glory in Indian braves of their nation, and listened to the recital This was not to be borne. A refusal to answer warfare? 'Did General Wayne ever encamp in
of their deeds of renown. by the Indians caused the lines of a camp to be an Indian country without first throwing up a I have done, Mr. Speaker, with the official actraced; but when they answered “with contempi breast work either of wood or of carth? Was not count of the battle of Tippecanoe. It has been and insolence," the camp lines were obliterated, this course pursued by all the curly Indian fighters | converted into a victory. Let it be so recorded the army moves forward, with “every man eager of New England ? Such breastworks are often on the page of history. But for the honor of the