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All coarse and drossy goods, groceries, tallow, bread, hay, leather, and all metals, except gold and silver, are weighed by this weight. T. cwt. qr. lb. oz. dr. 89 16 1 27 15 11 200 12 2 1 0 1 1 15 1 2 3 4 5

290 10 2 13 15 15

JNote 3. As it is difficult to ascertain in the mind how many times the number which we carry for, can be taken from a large number, the most expeditious method is to divide the sum of the numbers in those denominations where it is large, by as many of that denomination as are equal to 1 in the next higher, and the quotient will be the number to be added in the next place.

9. What is the weight of 3 hogsheads of sugar, the first weighing 10 cwt. 20 lb.: the 2d., 9 cwt. I qr. 15. oz. ; and the 3d., 11 cwt. 15 lb. 14 dr. 7

Ans. 1 T. 10 cwt. 2 qr. 7 lb. 15 oz. 14 dr.

10. A merchant imports in three ships the following quantities of iron; one hundred and twenty tons, six hundred; fifteen tons, three quarters, twenty-two pounds; and twelve tons, thirteen hundred, 1 quarter, twenty-five pounds, ten ounces and nine drams, What is the weight of the whole 7

Ans. 148 T. 1 qr. 19 lb. 10 oz. 9 dr.

Remark.-The practice of estimating 28 pounds as a quarter of a hundred, was introduced into business that the buyer of coarse articles should have 100. pounds of a quantity free from waste; but as many people have now adopted the more consistent method of making their calculations by the true hundred, we shall insert a table for that purpose.

NEAT WEIGHT,

16 Drams, dr. make 1 Ounce, oz. 16 Ounces 25 1 Pound, lb. 25 Pounds 77 1 Quarter, qx. 4 Quarters 2, 1 Hundred, cwt. 20. Hundreds :- 1 Ton, T.

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JWote 4.--All questions in which the word neat is used, will be operated by the last table.

PROOF.

After adding up the several denominations in the usual way, add them from the top downwards; if the work has been performed correctly, the sums of the several denominations will be the same as before, for we only add the same numbers in a different way.

LONG MEASURE, o 12 Inches, in. make I Foot, ft. 3 Feet - “ 1 Yard, Syd. 54 Yards, or 164 Feet “ 1 Rod, Perch or Pole, r.p. 40 Rods - “ 1 Furlong, jur. 8 Furlongs “ 1 Mile, 777, 3. Miles “ 1 Leagues, leg. This measure respects length only. (13.) leg. m. fur. r. yd. ft. in. rt 2 a 30 4 o' 2- 2 20 1 5 27 5 1 8 25 2 4 6 4 2 9

64 1. 1 25 4 0 7

Explanation.—In this example, we find 15 in the column of yards, and we wish to know how many times we can take 5% from it. To effect this, we multiply the 5 by the under figure in ) 1 the fraction, and add the upper figure to the product. We then multiply the 15 by the same num( 2 ber, and divide one product by the other. The remainder must be divided by the same number by which we multiply. The same method may be pursued when any other fraction occurs; that is, multiplying both numbers by the under figure of the fraction, and dividing the remainder by it. It must be remembered, that the upper figure of the fraction is not to be added to the product, when we multiply the dividend.

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14. A certain field is enclosed by 3 fences of the following lengths, viz.: the first, 2 fur. 11 r. 15 ft. 2 in. ; the second, 1 m. 1 fur. 38 r. 14 ft. ; and the third, 6 fur. 21 r. 12 ft. 5 in. What is the distance round the field 2 Ans. 2 m. 2 fur. 32 r. 8 ft. 7 in. 15. A ship sailed east, 2 leg. 2 m. 7 fur. 13 r. 4 yd. 1 ft. 11 in. ; S. E. 4 leg. 2 m. 33 r. ; south, 9 leg. 1 m. 2 fur. What was the distance sailed 2 Ans. 17 leg. 2 fur. 6 r. 4 yd. 1 ft. 11 in. 16. Estimating the distance from Boston to the city of N. Y., at 244 m. 5 fur. 36 r. ; from the city of N. Y. to the city of Washington, at 240 m. 39 r. ; and from Washington city to Charleston, S. C. at 550 m. 3 fur. ; what is the distance from Boston to Charleston, S. C. ' Ans. 1035 m. 1 fur. 35 r.

SUPERFICIAL, LAND, OR SQUARE MEASURE.

144 Square Inches, in. make 1 Square Foot, ft. 9 Square Feet “ 1 Square Yard, yd.

804 Square Yards, or 2724 Square Feet 7 “ 1 Square Rod, r.

t

40 Square Rods make I Tood, R. 4 Roods. or

160 Square Rods 2 } “ 1 Acre, a.

640 Acres “ 1 Square Mile, m.

this measure is used for measuring land and all other things, which have length and breadth, without any regard to thickness.

JNote 5.—A square inch, foot, or yard, &c. is a square surface which has 4 equal sides, each side being 1 inch, 1 foot, or 1 yard in kength. The number of square inches contained in a square foot, or the number of square feet in a square yard, is sound by multiplying the number of inches, feet, &c. contained in 1 foot, or 1 yard in Long Measure, into themselves.

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19. A gentleman’s farm is divided into wood land, 20 a. 2 R. 6 r. 162 ft. 100 in. ; tillage, 19 a. 1 R. 7 r. 19 ft. 98 in. ; pasturage, 56 a. 3 R. 4 r. 200 ft. 77 in. ; mowing, 21 a.; and garden, 2 R. How much land in the farm 2 Ans. 118 a. 18 r. 109; ft. 131 in. 20. The floors of 4 rooms in a certain house, cover 5 r. 24 in. of land; the remaining room, 1 r. 1 yd. 1 ft. ; and the walls and chimney cover 2 r. and 11 in. How much land does the whole house occupy 7 o Ans. 8 r. 1 yd. 1 ft. 35 in.

Sol ID, OR CUBICK MEASURE.

1728 Solid or Cubick inches make 1 Solid or - Cubick Foot, - ft. 27 Solid Feet . , make 1 Solid Yard, yd. 40 Solid Feet of round timber, or ke 1 Ton. T *50 Solid Feet of hewn timber, ! make I 1 on, 1. 128 Solid Feet make i Cord of wood, C. * A ton of hewn timber contains 10 ft. more than a ton of *

timber, because 10 ft. in the round timber is allowed for the weight of the segments, or slabs. -

This measure is used for measuring all things which have length, breadth, or thickness.

The number of solid inches contained in a solid foot, is found by multiplying the number of inches in a square foot by 12, the number of inches in a foot. The number of cubick feet contained in a cubick yard, is found by a similar method.

21. In 3 piles of wood containing 21 C. 109 ft. 1004 in. ; 17 C. 1719 in. ; and 49 C. 119 ft. 13 in. ; how much wood 7

C. ft. in. 21 1 09 1004 22. A merchant sells 4 17 000 1719 lots of hewn timber, which 49 119 13 measure 97 T. 24 ft.—103 - T. 47 ft. 1001 in., 17 T. 24 in., and 58 T. 1 ft. 1000 in. ; how much timber in the 4 lots 2 Ans. 276 T. 23 ft. 297 in. 23. How much round timber in five lots; No. 1 measuring 1001 T.; No. 2, 812 T. 293 in. ; No. 3, 407 T. 37 ft. 1723 in. ; No. 4, 333 T. 30 ft. 7 in. ; and No. 5, 17 T. 17 ft. 17 in. Ans. 2572 T. 5 ft. 312 in.

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. The year is also divided into 12 Calendar months, WIZ, .

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