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BARTHOLOMEW-CLOSE.-Presbyterian, Extinct.

those of his friend, the learned Mr. James Pierce, who was the unfortunate occasion of so much contention, and several of whose writings he revised, and committed to the press.

Not long after the Salters'-Hall controversy, Dr. Avery resigned his connexion with the society in BartholomewClose, and with it quitted the ministry. This event is said to have taken place in the year 1720. What were the inotives that urged him to this step, we shall not take upon us to inquire, having no information that throws any light upon the subject. But we may remark that he did not follow the example of some of his non-subscribing brethren, who turned their backs upon the Dissenters, and entered the establishment. This was strange conduct in gentlemen who had lately protested against subscription to one article, and whose minds must have experienced an extraordinary revolution to be able in so short a time to swallow thirty-nine. As it respects Dr. Avery, though he laid aside the character of a minister, he always continued the active and generous friend to the cause of religion, and of Protestant Dissent. In all public concerns that affected the Dissenting interest, he for many years took the lead. When the appointment of deputies from the three denominations of Protestant Dissenters, in and about London, to manage their civil concerns, took place in 1732, Dr. Avery was chosen their Secretary; and he conducted the correspondence through different parts of England for several years. He also zealously promoted the application to parliament for the repeal of the test-laws in the same year, and exerted himself to the general satisfaction of the body of Dissenters.

After his resignation of the ministerial character, Dr. Avery applied himself to the practice of physic, and resided for many years in Charter-house-square. That he acquired some celebrity in his new profession is evident from his being chosen one of the physicians of Guy's Hospital, and treasurer to that institution. In these stations of public usefulness, Dr. Avery continued till his death, which took place

BARTHOLOMEW-CLOSE.-Presbyterian, Extinct.

on the 23d of July, 1764, when he was considerably advanced in life. Dr. Avery was a hearty friend to the civil and religious liberties of his country, and bore an unshaken attachment to the Hanoverian succession. He was the warm friend to learning and liberality of sentiment, and distinguished himself by an unaffected universal charity and benevolence, which constantly governed his conduct. The respectable Dr. Toulmin, who has been intimately acquainted with the Dissenters for more than half a century, in a letter to the author, observes, "it is to be regretted that there remains no biographical memoir of Dr. Avery, whom I have always heard mentioned, as a gentleman who was an honour to the Dissenters."

The sermon above-mentioned, is the only publication of Dr. Avery that bears his name. It is well known, however, that he was one of the writers in the "Occasional Paper,” published in 1716; but the particular pieces that fell from his pen cannot, we believe, be ascertained. He was also engaged in editing some posthumous works of his learned friend, Mr. James Pierce, of Exeter. These were, A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 4to 1727.-A volume of Sermons, 8vo. 1721.-And, An Essay on giving the Eucharist to Children. We have before us a sermon by Mr. Bowden, of Frome, on the death of George I. with a dedication to Dr. Avery, in which the author expresses his obligations to the Doctor, and commends his zeal in behalf of truth and liberty, and the Hanoverian succession.

EDWARD SANDERCOCK.-This gentleman was a few years assistant to Mr. Munckley, after the withdrawment of Dr. Avery. He preached a short time to a congregation in Spital-square, from which he came to Bartholomew Close about the year 1729, and continued there till 1738, when he accepted a call from a congregation at the Cuckold'sPoint, Lower Rotherhithe. There he preached for a co

BARTHOLOMEW-CLOSE.-Presbtyerian, Extinct.

siderable number of years; and at length retired to York, where he died in the year 1770. A fuller account of him will come more properly under the article last mentioned.

WILLIAM MAY.-A double vacancy having occurred in this society, in consequence of the death of Mr. Munckley, and the removal of Mr. Sandercock, it was filled up by Mr. William May, and Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Caleb Fleming, who were settled joint-ministers of Bartholomew-Close, in the year 1740. At the same time, Mr. May was jointminister with Mr. Denham, of the Presbyterian congregation that lately met in Great Alie-street, Goodman's-fields, but is now dissolved. He continued one of the ministers of the society in Bartholomew-Close till the dissolution of the society, in 1753. He survived this event about two years, dying in 1755. Mr. May was a respectable man, and author of some useful publications; but we reserve a more particular account of him for the article above-mentioned.

CALEB FLEMING, D. D.-Of this gentleman we have already spoken at full length, under the article Pinners'Hall. In this place it will be sufficient to observe, that he was recommended to the society in Bartholomew-Close by Dr. Avery, and ordained there joint-minister with Mr. May, in the year 1740. A remarkable circumstance attending his ordination was, that he delivered no confession of faith; and this was probably the first instance of an omission of the kind that ever occured at a Dissenting ordination. The only declaration that he used was, that "he believed the New-Testament writings to contain a revelation worthy of God to give, and of man to receive; and that it should be his endeavour to recommend these teachings to the people, in the sense in which he could from time to time understand them." The ministers who assisted at his ordination were, Dr. Chandler, Dr. Hunt, Dr. Benson, Mr. Mole, Mr.


Simmons, and Mr. Sandercock.* In the year 1753, Dr. Fleming accepted an invitation to succeed Dr. Foster, at Pinners'-Hall. Upon this occasion he quitted his connexion with the society in Bartholomew-Close, which being greatly reduced, dissolved its church-relation, and most of the members went to Pinners'-Hall. Dr. Fleming survived the dissolution of that church, and died in 1779.

After the dissolution of the old Presbyterian church, we have a blank in the history of Bartholomew-Close meeting, for about ten years. Subsequent to that time it has been occupied by the following ministers, who succeeded each other in regular rotation, and raised separate churches, all of which are now in existence.

JOHN WESLEY.-This celebrated person took Bartholomew-Close meeting in the room of the Bull-and-Mouth, and preached in it for the first time, December 26, 1763. Mr. Wesley occupied the place only a short time, and was succeeded by Mr. Relly.


JAMES RELLY.-Of Mr. Relly a particular account has been given under the article Crosby-square. He preached only a short time in Bartholomew-Close, and upon the expiration of the lease in 1769, removed to the place just mentioned, vacant by the dissolution of the Presbyterian society, under the care of Mr. Richard Jones.

JOHN TOWERS.-A division taking place in the society at Jewin-street, after the death of Mr. Hart, the persons who withdrew, met for some time in a private house in Noble-street, and chusing Mr. John Towers, then a young preacher, who went by the name of The London Appren


• Disney's Life of Sykes, p. 124, note.

3 D


tice, for their minister, they took a lease of the meetinghouse in Bartholomew-Close, where he was ordained to the ministerial office, and preached to them for fifteen years. They entered upon the place on the next Sunday after Mr. Relly left it, and upon the expiration of the lease at Midsummer, 1784, built a new meeting-house in Barbican, to which place we refer for a more particular account of Mr. Towers and his church.

JOHN CARTWRIGHT.-Soon after Mr. Towers left this place, it was taken by Mr. John Cartwright, who occupied it a short time, when he removed to Lant-street, Southwark, where he preached about thirty years, till his death, in the year 1800.

THOMAS CANNON.-Mr. Cartwright was followed by Mr. Thomas Cannon, who was educated under the Countess of Huntingdon's patronage, and preached here several years. A new meeting-house being erected for him in Grub-street, he removed to that place in 1788. After preaching there several years, he removed to Glass-house-yard, Goswellstreet, but has left that place, also, and now resides at Hammersmith, where he carries on the employment of a school-master.

WILLIAM HOLLAND-Mr. Cannon was succeeded at Bartholomew-Close by Mr. William Holland, who had been educated at Homerton academy. While at this place he preached a lecture in Kennington-lane. After preaching here a few years, he removed to a small place in Gee-street, Goswell-street, where he now preaches.

THOMAS DAVIES.-Mr. Holland was followed by Mr. Thomas Davies, a Welchman, who studied under the patronage of the Countess of Huntingdon. Having collected a people, he took the meeting-house in Bunhill-row, where

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