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ORAL AND WRITTEN EXERCISES,
BY FREDERICK EMERSON,
BOYLSTON SCHOOL, BOSTON.
Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 1832, by FREDERICK EMERSON, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.
STEREOTYPED BY LYMAN THURSTON AND CO.
This book is intended for the use of scholars who have been taught in ‘Part First,' or by some other means have learned to add, subtract, and multiply numbers as high as 10, mentally.
The whole Course of Exercises, of which this is the Second Part, has been divided into three parts, more for the sake of economy and convenience, than on account of any natural division of the subject. The work is not intended to be a record of the science, -such as might befit the pages of an encyclopedia, -but, a system of induction, through which the scholar may be led to the discovery of arithmetical truth, and the proper application of arithmetical operations. Rules, and the technical language necessary to their composition, are avoided in the early part of the course - they are not introduced until the learner is supposed prepared, by intellectual improvement from previous lessons, to meet them understandingly.
In the arrangement of the exercises in this volume, I have been governed by the natural order of the science; believing, that any deviation from that order, with a view of rendering the work more immediately practical, would render it in reality less practical, as it would necessarily lead the scholar into a habit of performing operations, without comprehending the principles which justify them. The first six chapters consist of oral exercises, and the last six of correspondent written exercises. The work may therefore be viewed as two entire systems of arithmetic— Oral and Written.
Although Part Second does not complete the series of books, entitled 'The North American Arithmetic,' still it contains the essential principles, and the common application of the science. Scholars, therefore, who shall be properly conducted through this volume, will have acquired a knowledge of arithmetic, adequate to all the purposes of common business. Part Third is designed for those, whose continuance at school shall afford opportunity for prosecuting a more extended course of study.
Examine the arrangement of dots enclosed in the lines below, and find how many there are in each enclosure. Observe, that the figures standing over the several enclosures, represent the number of dots contained therein.
Example 1. Which of these numbers is the greatest, One, or Ten, or One Hundred, or One Thousand ?
2. How many ones are there in a ten ?
3. How many tens are there in a hundred ?
5. Ten ones make what number? Ten tens make what number? Ten hundreds make what number?
6. What figures stand to represent the number ten ? 7. What figures stand to represent one hundred ? 8. What figures stand to represent one thousand ?
SECTION 2. If one hundred scholars were in school, and one scholar more should come in, the number of scholars would then be one hundred and one; and would be expressed in figures thus;—101. Again,
had one hundred books, and you should buy two books more, you would then have one hundred and two books, and their number would be expressed in figures thus ;-102.
In Part First, you learned to read figures expressing all numbers, froin One to One Hundred. You will now see, in the following columns, how the figures stand to express numbers, from One hundred to Two hundred. 100 One hundred,
120 one hund. and twenty, 101 one hund. and one, 121 one hund. & twenty-one, 102 one hund. and two, 122 one hund. & twenty-two, 103 one hund. and three, 123 one hund. & twenty-three. 104 hund, and four, 105 one hund. and five, 130 One hund. and thirty. 106 one hund. and six, 107 one hund. and seven, 140 One hund. and forty. 108 one hund. and eight, 109 one hund. and nine, 150 One hund. and fifty. 110 one hund. and ten, 111 one hund. and eleven, 160 One hund. and sixty. 112 one hund. and twelve, 113 one hund. and thirteen, 170 One hund. and seventy 114 one hund. and fourteen, 115 one hund. and fifteen, 180 One hund. and eighty. 116 one hund. and sixteen, 117 one hund. and seventeen, 190 One hund. and ninety. 118 one hund. and eighteen, 119 one hund. and nineteen, 200 Two hundred.