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mens: male, stamens twenty to fifty ; fe- andria Monogynia class and order. Natu. male, style scarcely any; stigma trifid; ral order of Ensatæ. Junci, Jussieu. berry dry, subbilocular; seeds two, three- Essential character: corolla three-pe. sided. There are two species, viz. X. talled, equal, crenate; glumes, two-valved suaveolens and X orbiculatum.
in a head; capsule superior. There are XYRIS, in botany, a genus of the Tri. four species.
V Or y, the twenty-third letter of our top-sails are stowed, then the top-sail
I, alphabet:its sound is formed by ex. sheets will top them. pressing the breath with a sudden expan. Yar) arm, is that half of the yard that sion of the lips from that configura ion by is on either side of the mast, when it lies which we express the vowel u. It is a athwart the ship. consonant in the beginning of words, and Yards also denote places belonging to placed before all vowels, as in yard, yield, the navy, where the ships of war, &c. are young, &c. but before no consonant. At laid up in barbour. There are, belongthe end of words it is a vowel, and is sub. ing to his Majesty's navy, six great yards, stituted for the sound of i, as in try, descry, viz. Chatham, Deptford, Woolwich, Ports&c. In the middle of words it is not used mouth, Sheerness, and Plymouth; these so frequently as i is, unless in words de. yards are fitted with several docks,wharfs, rived from the Greek, as in chyle, empy. launches, and graving places, for the real, &c. though it is admitted into the building, repairing, and cleaning of his middle of some pure English words, as in Majesty's ships; and therein are lodged dying, flying, &c. Y is also a numeral, great quantities of timber, masts, planks, signifying 150, or according to Baronius, anchors, and other materials: there are 159; and with a dash a-top, as Y, it signi. also convenient store houses in each fied 150,000.
yard, in which are laid up vast quantities YACHT, or Yatch, a vessel with one of cables, rigging, sails, blocks, and all deck, carrying from four to twelve guns. other sorts of stores, needful for the
YARD, a measure of length used in royal navy. England and Spain, chiefly to measure YARE, among sailors, implies ready or cloth, stuffs, &c. See MEASURE
quick; as, be yare at the helm ; that is, YARD land, is taken to signify a certain be quick, ready, and expeditious at the quantity of land, in some counties being helm. It is sometimes also uses for bright fifteen acres, and in others twenty, in by seamen : as, to keep his arms yare; some twenty-four, and in others thirty and that is, to keep them clean and bright. forty acres
YARN, wool or fax spun into thread, YARDS of a ship, are those long pieces of which they weave cloth. of timber which are made a little taper. YFAR, the time that the sun takes to ing at each end, and are fitted each go through the twelve signs of the zodi. athwart its proper mast, with the sails ac. See CaroNOLOGY. made fast to them, so as to be hoisted up, Year and Day, is a time that deteror lowered down, as occasion serves. mines a right in many cases; and in They have their names from the masts to some works an usurpation, and in others which they belong.
a prescription ; as in case of an estray, if There are several sea terms relating to the owner, proclamation being made, the management of the yards; as, square challenge it not within the time, it is for. the yards; that is, see that they hang
feited. right across the ship, and no yard.arm So is the year and day given in case of traversed more than another : top the appeal ; in case of descent after entry or yards; that is, make them stand even. To claim; if no claim upon a fine or writ or top the main and fore yards, the clew. right at the common law; so of a villain lines are the most proper; but when the remaining in ancient demesne ; of a man sore bruised or wounded; of protections; in the lessee, but only gives him a right essoigns in respect to the King's service; of entry on the tenement, which right is of a wreck, and divers other cases. called his interest in the term ; but when
YEARs, estate for Tenant for a term of he has actually so entered, and thereby years is, where a man letteth lands or te- accepted the grant, the estate is then, and nements to another for a certain term of not before, vested in him ; and he is posyears, agreed upon between the lessor sessed not properly of the land, but of and lessee ; and when the lessee entereth the term of years, the possession or sei. by force of the lease, then he is tenant sin of the land remaining still in him who for term of years.
has the freehold. If tenements be let to a man for term "YELLOW earth, named by Werner, of half a year, or for a quarter of a year, gelberde, is of a yellow ochre colour, of or any less time, this lessee is respected various degrees of intensity. It is mas. as tenant for years, and is styled so in sive, soft, and friable : il adheres strongly some legal proceedings, a year being the to the tongue, and feels greasy. It ocshortest term which the law in this case curs in beds with iron-stone in Upper takes notice of.
Saxony, and is employed as a yellow pigGenerally, every estate which must ex ment. pire at a period certain and prefixed, by YELLOW, Naples, a fine pigment, so what ever words created, is an estate for called from the city in which it was long years, and therefore this estate is fre- prepared. It has the appearance of an quently called a term, because its duration earth, is very friable, heavy, porous, and or continuance is bounded, limited, and not altered by exposure to the air. The determined. For every such estate must preparation is kept a secret, but by anahave a certain beginning and certain end. lysis it is found to be a metallic oxide. A If no day of commencement be named in similar pigment may be produced by the creation of this estate, it begins from mixing twelve parts of ceruss, three of the making or delivery of the lease. A diaphoretic antimony, and of alum and lease for so many years as such an one sal ammoniac one part each; heat them shall live is void from the beginning, for for some time to a temperature below it is neither certain, nor can it ever be re. redness, and afterwards in a red heat for duced to a certainty, during the continu. three hours longer, after which the mass ance of the lease. And the same doc- will have acquired a beautiful yellow trine holds, if a parson make a lease of colour. his glebe for so many years as he shall YEOMAN, is defined to be one that continue parson of stich a church, for this hath fee land of 40s. a year; who was is still more uncertain. But a lease for thereby, heretofore, qualified to serve on twenty or more years, if the parson shall juries, and can yet vote for knights of the so long live, or if he shall so long con- shire and do any other act, where the law tinue parson, is good ; for there is a cer. requires one that is probus et legalis homo. tain period fixed, beyond which it cannot Below yeomen are ranked tradesmen, arlast, though it may determine sooner, on tificers, and labourers. the parson's death, or his ceasing to be YEST, Yeast, or Barm, a head, or scum parson there.
rising upon beer or ale, while working or An estate for years, though never so fermenting in the vat. See BREWING, many, is inferior to an estate for life. For FERMENTATION, &c. an estate for life, though it be not only for It is used for a leaven or ferment in the the life of another person, is a freehold; baking of bread, as serving to swell or but an estate, though it be for a thousand puff it up very considerably in a little years, is only a chattel, and reckoned time, and to make it much lighter, softer, part of the personal estate. For no estate and more delicate. When there is too of freebold can commence in futuro, be much of it, it renders the bread bitter. cause it cannot be created at common See Baking and BREAD. law without livery of seisin, or corporal Yeast consists of gluten, sugar, and possession of the land; and corporal pos- mucilage, with some alcohol, and a porsession cannot be given of an estate now tion of malic, acetic, and carbonic acids ; which is not to commence now, but here. but the essential parts of yeast are gluten after. And because no livery of seisin is mixed with a vegetable acid ; and there. necessary for a lease for years, such a les- fore dried yeast, which must have lost see is not said to be seised, or to have some of its component parts, is fit for fertrue legal seisin of the lands. Nor, in- mentation equally with that which is fresh deed, doth the bare lease vest any estate and new,
YEW. See Taxus.
ness, and even elegance. It makes no YTTRIA. See Ittria.
nest, but lays eight or ten eggs on the YUCCA, in botany, Adam's needle, a ge. bare wood in hollow trees. In England nus of the Hexandria Monogynia class it is a bird of passage, generally appear. and order. Natural order of Coronariæ. ing about ten days before the cuckow. Lilia, Jussieu. Essential character: co. Its food consists chiefly of ants, which, rolla bell-shaped, spreading; style none; during incubation, the male may be obcapsule three-celled. There are four served carrying to the female. The young, species.
on experiencing any annoyance, utter a YUNX, the wry-neck, in natural history, hissing noise which excites the idea of a genus of birds of the order Picæ. Ge. some venomous reptile, and has fre. neric character; bill somewhat round, quently proved their security from deslightly incurvated and weak; nostrils struction. At the end of summer the bare and rather concave; tongue long, wry-neck is extremely plump and fat, slender, and armed at the point ; tail of and is considered by some as little infeten flexible feathers; feet formed for rior to the ortolan for the table. It is climbing; toes two before and two be. never seen in flocks, and in pairs only hind. There is only one species.
during the spring and summer, after Y. torquilla, or the wry-neck, is allied which each individual has its solitary in some respects to the woodpecker, and haunt in that country, and withdraws unin others to the cuckow. It is about the accompanied in its flight in its winter mi. size of a lark, and its colours, though not gration. glaring, are mingled with extreme neat
V Or z, the twenty-fourth and last let. ZAFFER. See COBALT. 21ter, and the nineteenth consonant ZAMIA, in botany, a genus of the Ap. of our alphabet ; the sound of which is pendix Palmæ class and order. Natural formed by a motion of the tongue from order of Palmæ. Filices, Jussieu. Essenthe palate downwards, and upwards to it tial character; male, ament strobile-shapagain, with a shutting and opening of the ed ; scales covered with pollen underteeth at the same time. This letter has neath; female, ament strobile-shaped, been reputed a double consonant, having with scales at each margin; berry solitathe sounds då ; but some think with very ry. There are five species. little reason; and, as if we thought other. ZANNICHELLIA, in botany, so named wise, we often double it, as in puzzle, in honour of Giov. Jeronymo Zannichelli, muzzle, &c. Among the ancients, Z a genus of the Monacia Monandria class was a numeral letter signifying two and order. Natural order of Inundata. thousand, and with a dash added a-top, Naiades, Jussieu. Essential character: Z signified two thousand times two thou- male, calix none; corolla none: female, sand or four millions. In abbreviations, calyx one-leafed; corolla none; germs this letter formerly stood as a mark for four or more; seeds as many, pedicelled; several sorts of weights: sometimes it stigmas peltate. There is only one spe. signified an ounce and a half, and, very cies, viz. Z, palustris, horned pondweed, frequently, it stood for balf an ounce; a native of Europe. sometimes for the eighth part of an ZANONIA, in botany, so named in me ounce, or a drachm troy weight; and it mory of Giacomo Zanoni, prefect of the has, in earlier times, been used to ex. botanic garden at Bologna, a genus of the press the third part of one ounce, or Dioecia Pentandria class and order. Na eight scruples. ZZ were used by some tural order of Cucurbitaceæ, Jussieu. of the ancient physicians to express Essential character: calyx three-leaved : myrrhi, and at present they are often used corolla five-parted: female, styles three ; to signify zinziber, or ginger,
berry three-celled, inferior ; seeds two in
each cell. There is but one species, viz. in the isle of Cyprus. He was founder 2. indica, a native of Malabar.
of the Stoics, a sect which had its name ZEA, in botany, a genus of the Monoe from that of a portico at Athens, where cia Triandria class and order. Natural Zeno was accustomed to deliver his dis. order of Gramina or Grasses. Essential courses. The father of our philosopher character: males in distinct spikes ; ca. 'was a merchant, but readily seconded his lyx glume two-flowered, awnless; corolla son's inclinations, and devoted him to the glume two-flowered, awnless : female, ca- pursuits of literature. In the way of bu. lyx glume one-Howered, two-valved; co. siness he had frequent occasion to visit rolla glume four-valved; style one, fili. Athens, where he purchased for his son form, pendulous; seeds solitary, im- several of the most renowned works of mersed in an oblong receptacle. There the celebrated Socratic philosophers. is but one species, viz. Z. mays, Indian These Zeno read with avidity, and detercorn, or maize, and several varieties. The mined to visit the city where so much Indians in New England, and many other wisdom was found. Upon bis first arriparts of America, had no other vegetable val in Athens, accidently going into the but maize, or Indian corn, for making shop of a bookseller, he took up the their bread. They call it weachin, and commentaries of Xenophon, with the pein the United States of America there is rusal of which he was so much delighted, much of the bread of the country made that he asked the bookseller where he of this grain, not of the European corn. might meet with such men. Crates, the In Italy, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, cynic philosopher, was at that moment maize constitutes a great part of the food passing by; the bookseller pointed to of the poor inhabitants. The ear of the him, and said, follow that man. He im. maize yields a much greater quantity of mediately became his disciple, but was grain than any of our corn-ears. There soon dissatisfied with his doctrine, and are commonly about eight rows of grain joined himself to other pbilosophers, in the ear, ofien more, if the ground is whose instructions were more accordant good. Each of these rows contains at to his way of thinking. Zeno staid long least thirty grains, and each of these gives with no master; he studied under all the much more flour than a grain of any of most celebrated teachers, with a view of our corn. The grains are usually either collecting materials from various quarwbite or yellowish ; but sometimes they ters for a new system of his own. To are red, bluish, greenish, or olive.co. this Polemo alluded, when he saw Zeno loured, and sometimes striped and varie coming into his school; “I am no strangated. This sort of grain, though so es. ger,” said he, “to your Phenician arts. sentially necessary to the natives of the i perceive that your design is to creep place, is yet liable to many accidents. It slily into my garden, and steal away the does not ripen till the end of September; fruit." From this period Zeno avowed so that the rains often fall heavy upon it his intention of becoming the founder of while on the stalk, and birds in general a new sect. The place which he chose peck it when it is soft and unripe. Nature for his school was the painted porch, the has, to defend it from these accidents, co. most famous in Athens. Zeno excelled vered it with a thick husk, which keeps in that kind of subtle reasoning which off slight rains very well ; but the birds, was in his time very popular. Hence, his if not frightened away, often eat through followers were very numerous, and from it, and devour a great quantity of the the highest ranks in society. Among grain.
these was Antigonus Gonates, king of ZEBRA. See Equus,
Macedon, who earnestly solicited him to ZENITH, in astronomy, the vertical go to his court. He possessed so large a point ; or a point in the heavens directly share of esteem among the Athenians, over our heads. The zenith is called the that, on account of his integrity, they pole of the horizon, because it is ninety deposited the keys of their citadel in his degrees distant from every point of that hands: they also honoured him with a circle. See Pole and Horizon.
golden crown and a statue of brass. He ZENITH-distance, is the complement of lived to the age of 98, and at last, in conthe meridian altitude of any heavenly ob sequence of an accident, voluntarily put ject; or it is the remainder, when the an end to his life. As he was walking in meridian altitude is subtracted from nine- his school, he fell down and broke his ty degrees.
finger, by which, it is said, he was so ZENO, in biography, a Greek philoso. much affected, that, striking the earth, pher of considerable eminence, was born he exclaimed, “Why am I thus imporVOL. XU.
tuned? I obey thy summons," and imme. pounds. It is found in the Northerni, diately went and strangled himself. In Mediterranean, and Atlantic Seas, is exmorals, the principal difference between tremely voracious, and subsists on in. the Cynics and the Stoics was, that the sects, smaller fishes, and ova. It is in the former disdained the cultivation of na. highest estimation for the table in Eng. ture, the latter affected to rise above it. land, but was little used before the mid. In physics, Zeno received his doctrine dle of the last century. See Pisces, Plate from Pythagoras and Heraclitus, through VI. fig. 6. the channel of the Platonic school. See Z. insidiator, or the insidious dory, in. ACADEMICS, Cynics, &c.
habits the fresh waters of India, and is ZEOLITE, in mineralogy, a species of distinguished by its mouth being more the flint genus, divided into five sub-spe. lengthened than that of any other species. cies, viz, the mealy, fibrous, radiated, fo. The lower lip is said to be at pleasure liated, and cubic zeolite, distinguished contracted into a tube, through which from each other by fracture, hardness, this fish darts the fluid it takes in at the and lustre. The mealy is yellow, or red- gills at various insects near the surface, dish-white, is found in Iceland, Ferro thus embarrassing their wings, and sus. islands, and Sweden, and in some parts of pending their flight, under which circumScotland, particularly in the isle of Skye; stances they easily become its prey. it consists of
ZIERIA, in botany, so named in me.
mory of John Zier, a genus of the TetranSilica . . . . . . 50
dria Monogynia class and order. Natural Alumina . . . . 20
order of Ruiacex, Jussieu. Essential chaLime . . . ... .
racter: calyx four-parted; petals four; Water . . . .
stamina smooth, placed on glands; styles
simple; stigma four-lobed; capsules four, 100
united; seeds arilled. This is one of the twenty new genera from the South Seas,
the characters of which are given by Dr. The other sub-species vary in their J. E. Smith. It is distinguished by having proportions of the same substances. The each of the stamens inserted into a large cubic intumesces like borax before the gland, and consists of shrubs with oppo. blow-pipe, and melts readily into cellular site, ternate leaves, and white flowers. glass, and during fusion emits a phospho. ZINC, in chemistry, and mineralogy, a ric light. With acid it forms a jelly. It metal unknown to the ancients, though occurs in rocks of the newest foetz trap, they were acquainted with calamine, one (see Rock,) as amygdaloid, basalt, wacce, of its ores, and the effect which this had in porphyry, slate and greenstone. All the converting copper into brass. Zinc has different sub-species of zeolite are found usually been ranked among those metals, in Scotland, and in the neighbouring which, from their imperfect ductility and islands. They are also met with in great malleability, were long donominated semiperfection and beauty in Iceland, the metals. It was known, that by uniform Ferro islands, and in several parts of Swe- pressure zinc might be extended into thin den; and in many parts of Germany, and plates; and more lately it has been disin the East Indies.
covered, that, at a certain temperature, it ZEUS, the dory, in natural history, a has so much melleability and ductility, genus of fishes of the order Thoracici. that it can be lamellated, and drawn into Generic character: head compressed, wire. For this invention a patent has sloping down; upper lip arched by a been obtained by Messrs. Hobson and transverse membrane; tongue in most Sylvester, to the latter of whom this work species subulate; body compressed, has been indebted for certain articles broad, somewhat rhomboid, thin, and of See PREFACE. a bright colour, gill-membrane with se. The temperature at which zinc pos. ven perpendicular rays, the lowest trans- sesses these properties is between 2100 verse; rays of the first dorsal fin fila. and 300° of Fahrenheit, and by keeping mentous. There are eight species, of it in an oven at this heat, it may readily which the following are the principal. be extended. By annealing, it retains this
2. faber, or the common dory of Eu tenacity so as to be easily bent. At a higher rope, has a large oval dusky spot on each temperature it is brittle, so as to fall to side of the body, and is generally about pieces under the hammer. Zinc is of a thirteen inches long, though ofien far white colour, with a shade of blue ; in a longer, and even weighing ten or twelve fresh fracture it is possessed of consider