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1,080 words, including any schedule, &c. other officer, who shall act in any of the 168. Containing more than 1,080 words, above capacities for any other emolument 11. 108 And further, tor every 1,080 words than the regular emolument of the office; beyond the first 1,080, 11.

when residing within the limits of the Almanack or Calendar for the year, or two-penny post in England, or within the less, 18. If for more years, then for each city or shire of Edinburgh, and if he shall year for which it will serve, 18. Perpe. have been admitted 3 years or upwards, tual Almanack, 10s.

101. Or if not so long admitted, 51. When Calendars or perpetual almanacks, in residing elsewhere, and admitted for bibles or prayer books, excepted.

three years, or upwards, 61. Or if not so Appraisement of estate, real or personal, long adinitted, 3i. in any case whatsoever, except appraise. Conveyance (whether grant, assignment, ment by order of an admiralty court, transfer, renunciation, or of any other deamount not exceeding 501, 2s 6d-Ex. scription whatever) on the sale of any ceeding 507 to 100L, 58.- Exceeding 1001. lands, rents, or other property, real or to 2001., 10s.--Exceeding 2001. to 5001., personal, heritable or moveable, or of any 158. - Exceeding 5001., 11.

right, title, interest, &c. in the same ; for Articles of Apprenticeship and Clerkship. the principal or only deed whereby such Any profession or trade, &c. except at. property shall be granted or conveyed to torneys and others specifically charged, or vested in the purchaser, &c. where the premium does not amount to where the purchase-money (which

I. 8. d. shall be truly expressed therein) shall 301. . . . . . . . . 0 15 0 not amount to 501., 158. 301. and under 501... 1 10 0 50L . . . . 1001. 2 10 0

501. and not to 1501. 1001. . . . . 2001. . 5 0 0


3001. 1 10 2001. . . . . 3001. . . 10 0 0

3001. ...

5002. 3001. ...

5001. ..

7501. 4001... 5001,

7501.... 1,000.. 7 10 500L. 6001.

0 0

1,0001.... 2,0001. 10 6001... . 8001.. 30 0 0 2,0001.... 3,0001. 20 8002. ... 1,0001... 40 00 3,0001... .. 4,0001, 300 1,0001. and upwards . ; . 50 00 4,0001... .. 5,0002 400

5,0001.. . 7,5001. 500 Bond in England, and personal bond in

7,5001. . . .

10,000h. 75 0 Scotland, as security for a definite sum:

10,0001. . . . 15,0001. 1000 1. S.

15,0001. . . . 20,0001. 150 0 Not exceeding 1001. .

1 0

20,0001..., 30,0001. 2000 Exceeding 1001. to 3001. i 10

30,0002... 40,0001. 300 0 3002.. 5001. 2 0 . 40,0001. .. 50,0001. 400 0 5001. 1,0001 3 0 50,0001. or upwards . 500 0 1,0001..

2,0001. 4 0 2,0001. . 3,0001. 50 Grant of the dignity of a Duke, 2001. ; 3,0001.. 4,0001. 6 0 Marquis, 2001.; Earl, 2001.; Viscount, 4,0001.. 5,0001. 7 0 1501.; Baron, 1001. ; and Baronet, 501. 5,0001.. 10,0001, 90 Of a congé d'elire, 201. Of the royal as. 10,0001. . 15,0001, 12 0 sent to the election of Archbishop or Bi

15,0001. - 20,0001. 150 shop, 201. .... 20,0001.. .. 20 0 Grant under the great or privy seal

from the civil list, &c. (not part of annual Where the total amount of the money supplies, or voted by Parliament): secured, or to be ultimately recoverable,

1.8. shall be uncertain, being for money to be Under 1001..

. 1 10 hereafter advanced, or to become due on ... 1001. and not 2501.. 4 account current, 501.

... 250.... 5001. . 10 0 Certificate to be taken out yearly by at. ... 5001. .

7501. 20 tornies, solicitors, or proctors, in Eng ... 7501. ... 1,0001.. 30 0 land; and by writers to the signet, soli

1,0001. or upwards, for citors, agents, attornies, or procurators, in every 1001. thereof . . . 5 0 any of the courts in Scotland ; notaries Of any annuity or pension, public in England and Scotland ; and also Under 1001. per annum. . . 1 10 by every sworn clerk, clerk in court, and ... 1001. and not 2001. . 4 0

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1. 8. lesser page) 12 sheets quarto, or 20 Under 2001. ... 4001.. 10 0 sheets folio. For every sheet contained . . . 4001. . . . 6001. . 200 in one copy, 2s. ... 6001.... 8001.. 30 0 Acts of parliament, proclamations, or. ... 8001.... 1,0001.. 400 ders of council, form of prayer, and acts · . . 1,0001. or upwards . . . 500 of state, ordered to be printed by the But in cases of renewal only, 11. 103. King; printed votes of parliament, school

books, and books of devotion, are exGrant, of any office or employment, by empted. letters patent, deed, or other writing, the Passport, 58. salary, fees, &c. not amounting to

Plate of Gold, wrought in Great Bri.

tain, per oz. and in proportion, 16s. Gold 501. per annum. . . . 1 10 watch cases excepted. 501. and not 1001. - 3 0 Plate of Silver, wrought in Great Bri. 1001. . . .

2001. 5 0 tain, per oz. and so in proportion, 18. 3d. 2001. . . . 3001. 10 0 Except watch cases, chains, and several 3001. .

5001, . 200 small articles. 5001.

7501. 30 0 Playing Carils, per pack, 28. 6d. 7501. ... 1,0001. 40 0 Policy of Assurance, on any life or lives, 1,0001. . : . 1,5001. 50 0 or on any event depending on life or 1,5001.... 2,0001. . 75 0 lives, siim insured not amounting to 5wl. 2,0001.... 3,0001. . 100 0 158 Amounting to 5001. or upwards, 3,0001. per an. or upwards. 1500 12. 10s.

Specification of a patent, 51. And fur. Mortgage, conditional surrender by way ther, for 1,08. words above the first 1080, of mortgage, &c. wadset, conveyance in 11. trust, deteasance, or other deed, intend. Stage Coaches and Carriages carrying ed as a security by way of mortgage, passengers for hire, for every mile such where the same shall be made as a se. carriage shall travel: curity for the payment of any definite If carrying not more than 4 inside passum of money, advanced or lent at the sengers, 2d. time, or previously due and owing, or If 4, and not exceeding 6, 2}d. foreborne to be paid, being payable.

If 6, . . . . . . 8, 33d.

1. 8. If 8, . . . . . . 10, 4d. Not exceeding 501. . . . . 0 15 More than 10,..5d. Exceeding 501. to 1001.. 10 Transfer of Bank or South Sea stock,

1001. . 1501. . 1 10 78. 9d
1501.. 3001., 2 0 Of East India stock, 11. 108.
3001, . 5001.. 30 Of stock of any other corporation, not

5001. . 1,0001.. 4 0 otherwise charged under the head of
1,0001.. 2,0001.. 5 0 mortgage or conveyance, 17. 108.
2,0001.. 3,0001.. 6 0 STRAW hat manufacture, is of very
3,0001.. 4,0001. . 7 0 modern invention : it has, however, of
4,0001.. 5,0001.. 8 0 late years afforded the means of support

5,0001. . 10,0001, . 100 to a large class of our industrious poor, . . . 10,0001. . 15,0001.. 12 0 and of not a few in the middle ranks of . . . 15,0001.. 20,0001 , 15 0 life The manufacture requires but little .. 20,0001. . . . . 200 capital, and the art is quickly required.

Thirty or forty shillings are said to be This ad valorem duty is chargeable only sufficient for the purchase of the maon one part of the mortgage deed, the chines and materials for employing one other being liable as a common deed. It hundred persons some length of tine. is not chargeable on mortgages made The straw used is readily obtained, and, merely for further assurance, in cases when properly sorted, it is cut at the where the ad valorem duty has been paid joints, and the outer covering being reon other deeds.

moved, it is then ranged according to the Newspupers, (for every half sheet dou- different sizes, and made up into bundles ble demy, or sheet of single demy) 3 d. of eight or ten inches in length, and about

Pamphlets, of half a sheet or less, d. a foot in circumference. The bundles are not exceeding a sheet, 1d.

then dipped in water, and shaken a little, Pamphlets exceeding 1 sheet, and not so as not to retain much moisture ; and exceeding 6 sheets, in octavo, (or on a then they are to be placed on their edges

in a box, which is sufficiently close to pre. the North of Europe, into mackerel-sturvent the evaporation of the smoke. In the geon, herring-sturgeon, &c. See Shaw's middle of the box is an earthen vessel, « Zoology" containing sulphur, which is set on fire, SUBSTANCES, simple. To this article and the box covered over for several references have been made, and it having hours. The straws are next to be split, been omitted in the alphabetical order, which operation is performed by a small we must not pass it by bere. In other machine, made chiefly of wood. When cases we are grieved that haste or neglisplit, the straws are denominated splints, gence should have required these addi. and of these each braider has a certain tions and corrections ; in this we have rea. quantity, which they hold under the arm, son for different emotions, having, by the and draw them out as wanted. The rules omission, an opportunity of stating some laid down are these : platters should be facts, and some results, which have not taught to use their second fingers and been made public more than two or three thumbs instead of the fore fingers, which days. are often required to assist in turning the In the language of modern chemistry, splints, and very much facilitate the plat. the term simple substances has a different ting; and they should take care not to signification from that attached to it in anwet the splints too much. Each platter cient pbilosophy. By elements, or simshould have a small linen bag, and a piece ple substances, was formerly understood of pasteboard to roll the plat round. primary principles, which were essentialWhen five yards are worked up, it is ly simple and indistructible, which, by wound about a piece of board, fastened at nodification of form, or by mutual comthe top with yarn, and kept there several bination, formed the different substances days, io form it in a proper shape. Four which compose the material world. Moof these parcels, or a score, is the mea. dern philosophy pursues a different mode surement by which the plat is sold. When of investigation : it analyses substances, the straw it platted, it comes into the band and endeavours to decompose them, or of the person who sews it together into separate them into their constituent parts, the form of hats, bonnets, &c. of various and when it arrives at any which it canshapes and sizes. These are then put on not decompose, and beyond which anawooden blocks, for the purpose of hot lysis cannot be carried, and whose propressing; and, to render them of a more perties can only be changed by causing delicate white, they are again exposed to them to combine with others, then such the fumes of sulphur.

substances are denominated simple. This STURGEON, å species of the Acipen- term does not imply their absolute simser genus is referred to, and being omit. plicity, because new experiments, or new ted in its place, we may briefly observe, agents, may be able to reduce certain that it is a very large fish, of eighteen or bodies that at present have not been detwenty feet long, an inhabitant of the composed into others that are more simnorthern seas, migrating during the early ple. Till very lately the fixed alkalies, summer months into the larger rivers and the boracic, fluoric, and muriatic acids lakes, and returning to the sea again in were reckoned among the simple subautumn after having deposited its spawn. stances: to these may be added the metals, It is a fish of slow motion, and is easily ta. the several earths, sulphur, phosphorus, ken: it is admired for the delicacy and and the diamond. firmness of the flesh From the roe is By the Voltaic battery, in the hands of prepared the substance cailed caviar. In Mr. Davy, Professor of Chemistry at the this country the sturgeon annually ascends Royal Institution, many of these sub. rivers, but in no great quantities, and is stances, which were deemed simple a occasionally taken in salmon nets. In its few months since, have been decomposed. manner of breeding the sturgeon forms for his experiments on the alkalies, we an exception among cartilaginous fishes, refer to the articles Alkali and Potasit being oviparous. The sturgeon was a SIUM: and on Saturday last, Dec. 17th, fish in high repute among the ancients, he announced in his public lecture, that and was brought to table with much he had decomposed sulphur and phosphopomp, and ornamented with flowers, the rus, the component parts of which are slaves who carried it being likewise oxygen and hydrogen, and a metallic adorned with garlands, and accompamed base; that charcoal he had found to conwith music. The flavour of the sturgeon sist of hydrogen and the carbonaceous is said to vary with the food on which it is principle, and that diamond was a comchiefly fed; hence it is distinguished in pound of the carbonaceous principle and

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oxygen; that he had succeeded in ob- and galvanic agents. See Murray's Chetaining the metallic base of ammonia, mistry. which, when combined with mercury, in TELESIE, in mineralogy, a gem so the proportion of only dogth part, ren- named by Haúy, which answers to the dered the mercury solid, and reduced the perfect CORUNDUM and the SAPPHIRE : 10 specific gravity from 13 to 3. The pro- these articles the reader might be refessor likewise informed his audience that ferred without further addition, but hay. he had decomposed the boracic and fiuo- ing directed him already to TELESIE from ric acids, and had enjoyed a glimpse of the article Gem, we shall, in this place, their metallic bases; and that he had fully give Mr. Murray's description. It occurs ascertained, that lime, magnesia, stron. in fragments, and is crystallized, the form tites, and barytes, are compound bodies, of its crystals being the double three. each baving a metallic substance as a sided pyramid, the single six-sided pyra. base. Hence the number of simple sub. mid, and the six-sided prism, variously stances, which, but a year ago, was esti. modified by truncations and acuminations. mated by Dr. Thomson at 38, is in a very Its colours are numerous, blue, green, short space of time considerably reduced. red, of numerous shades, and yellow or Cliemistry, indeed, as a science, will yellowish white, and sometimes more than probably undergo a complete renovation: one colour is present even in the same the discoveries of Mr. Davy promise a crystal. It is more or less transparent; total overthrow to the beautiful, and, as its lustre is resplendent and vitreous; it was formerly deemed, simple, and al- and it often presents a beautiful reflection most perfect system of Lavoisier. The of light, in the form of a star: the fracture English professor assumes electricity as a is conchoidal, or imperfectly foliated: the general agent of decomposition; that dif. hardness is inferior to that of the diaferent bodies are naturally in different mond, but superior to that of every other electrical states; that by altering these fossil, and not yielding to the file : the states their affinities are altered. In justin specific gravity is from 3.9 to 4.1. fication of this theory, he has ascertained TIME, equation of The most usual and that oxygen, and all bodies containing an best measure of time that we have is a excess of oxygen, are naturally negative, clock, regulated by the vibration of a pen. and that all bodies containing an excess dulum. But with whatever accuracy a of inflammable principle are naturally clock may be made, it must be subject to positive. Should subsequent facts con irregularities, as well from the imperfecfirm this theory, it is highly probable that tion of the workmanship, as from the many other of the bodies, hitherto regard. expansion and contraction of the materi. ed as simple, will yield to the powers of als by heat and cold, by which the length his apparatus.

of the pendulum, and consequently the SUBSTANCES, imponderable, in chemistry, time of vibration, will vary. As no clock, are, caloric, light, electricity, and galva. therefore, can be depended upon for nism; perhaps the identity of the two keeping time accurately, it is necessary former may hereafter be discovered : and that we should be able at any time to as. likewise that of the two latter more com- certain how much it is too fast or too slow, pletely demonstrated. The common cha- and at what rate it gains or loses. For racter that they all possess is, that of this purpose it must be compared with not being subject to the attraction of some motion which is uniform, or of gravitation; at least their gravity has which, if it be not uniform, one can find hitherto been incapable of appreciation, the variation. 'The motions of the heahence the term “imponderable." Tbey venly bodies have therefore been consi. possess the greatest subtility, or tenuity; dered as most proper for the purpose. They cannot easily be obtained in a sepa. Now as the earth revolves uniformly rate state of existence; they are observed about its axis, the apparent diurnal mo. only in states of combination, or in their tion of the heavenly bodies about the axis rapid transition from one body 10 another. must be uniform. If a clock, therefore, We can scarcely discover their specific be adjusted to go 24 hours from the pas. affinities, or measure their force, and we sage of any fixed star over the meridian are unable to trace their particular com till it returns to it again, its rate of going binations, or consider them as essential may be determined by comparing it with constituent principles of any compound. the transit of any fixed star, and observing They are moreover diffused over every whether the interval continues to be 24 kind of matter; at least caloric exists in hours: if not, the difference shows how all bodies, and probably also the electric much it gains or loses in that time. A

clock thus adjusted is said to be adjusted time from the passage of a fixed star over to sidereal time, and all the sidereal days the meridian till it returns to it again. are equal. But all the solar days are not From these considerations it will be evi. equal, that is, the intervals from the sun's dent, that if a clock be adjusted to go 24, leaving the meridian till it returns to it hours in a mean solar day, it will not conagain are not all equal; so that if a clock tinue to coincide with the sun, that is, to be adjusted to go 24 hours in one interval, show 12 when the sun comes to the meri. another interval will be performed in dian, because the true solar day's differ in more or less than 24 hours, and thus the length from a mean solar day; but the sun and the clock will not agree; that is, sun will pass the meridian, sometimes be. the clock will not continue to show 12 fore 12, and sometimes after 12, and this when the sun comes to the meridian. It difference is called the equation. A clock is found that the length of the solar day thus adjusted, is said to be adjusted to is equal to the time of the earth's rotation mean solar time. The time shown by the about its axis, together with the time of clock is called true or mean time; and describing an angle equal to the increase that shown by the sun is called apparent of the sun's right ascension in a true solar time: thus, when the sun comes to the day. Now if the sun moved, or appeared meridian, it is said to be 12 o'clock appato move, uniformly, and in the equator, rent time. Hence the time shown by the this increase would be always the same in sun-dial is apparent time; and therefore a the same time, and therefore the solar days dial will differ from a clock by how much would be all equal; but the sun moves, or the equation of time is on that day. appears to move, in the ecliptic; and, When, therefore, we set a clock or watch therefore, if its motions were uniform, by the dial, we must attend to what the equal arcs upon the ecliptic would not equation of time is upon that day by a tagive equal arcs upon the equator. But ble, such as that given helow, and allow the apparent motion of the sun in the for it: thus, if the equation be 4 minutes, ecliptic is not uniform, and hence also as it is on new year's day, and the watch any arc upon the ecliptic, described in a or clock be faster than the sun ; then the given time, is subject to a variation, and watch or clock must be made to show 4 consequently that on the equator is sub. minutes past 12 when the dial shows 12 ject to a variation. The increase then of precisely. On the 30th of April, when the the sun's right ascension in a true solar dial shows 12, the clock or watch, to be day varies, from two causes: first, because accurate, must want 3 mintes of that the ecliptic, in which the sun appears to hour, and so of the rest. In calculating move, is inclined to the equator; secondly, tables of the equation of time, for every because his motion in the ecliptic is not day in the year, the sun and clock are set uniform, therefore the length of a true together, when the sun is in his apogee, solar day is subject to a continual variation; and then they investigate the difference consequently, a clock which is adjusted to between the sun and the clock, for every go 24 hours for any one true solar day, day at noon, and insert them in a table, will not continue to show 12 when the stating, by means of the signs + and -, sun comes to the meridian, because the how much the clock is before or afterthe intervals by the clock will continue equal, sun. The inclination of the equator to if the clock be supposed accurate; but the the ecliptic, upon which the equation of intervals of the sun's apparent passage time partly depends, and the place of the over the meridian are not equal.

sun's apogee, when the clock and sun set As the sun appears to move through off' together, being both subject to vary, 360° of right ascension in about 3651 days, the equation of time for the saine days of therefore 365.25 : 1 day :: 360° : 59'8" the year will every year vary, and there2", the increase of right ascension in one fore it must, where great accuracy is reday, if the increase were uniform; or it quired, be calculated for every year. Be. would be the increase in a mean solar sides the time when the sun is in his apo. day, that is, if the solar days were all gee, there are three other times of the equal; for they would be all equal, year when the clock and sun agree, or if the sun's right ascension increased uni. when mean and apparent time is the same, formly. As the earth describes an angle as will be seen in the following table, of 360° 59', about its axis in a mean so. which is adapted to the second year aflar day of 24 hours, and an angle of 360° ter Bissextile, and will always be found in a sidereal day, we say, as 360° 59'8' 2": within a few seconds of the truth, and, 360° : : 24b : 23h 56' 4", the length of a therefore, sufficiently accurate for all sidereal day in mean solar time; or the common purposes. VOL, XU.


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