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to a convenient pitch, they are trans. ed by the Royal Academy at Paris, is as planted into a soil well prepared for their 36: 33.355. reception : care is also taken to keep TOLUIFERA, in botany, balsam of this ground clear of weeds, and to pull Tolui tree, a genus of the Decandria Mooff the lowest leaves of the plant, that ten nogynia class and order. Natural order of or fifteen of the finest leaves may have all Terebintaceæ, Jussieu. Essential characthe nourishment. When these leaves are ter: calyx five-toothed, bell-shaped; peripe, which is known by their breaking tals five, the lowest twice as big, obcorwhen bent, the stalks are cut, and left to date ; style none. There is but one spedry two or three hours in the sun, after cies, viz. T. balsamum, balsam of tolu which they are tied together two and two, tree. It is a native of Spanish America, and hung on ropes under a shade, to be in the province of Tolu, near Carthagedried in the air. And when the leaves are na; it is a tree of a considerable size, the sufficiently dried, they are pulled from off bark is thick, rough, and of a brown cothe stalks, and made up in little bundles; lour, the branches spread wide on every which, being steeped in sea water, or, side; leaves alternate, oblong, four for want thereof, in common water, are inches long, and two broad in the middle, twisted in the manner of ropes, and the rounded at the base, acuminate at the twists formed into rolls, by winding them end, smooth, of a light green colour, on with a kind of mill around a stick : in very short foot stalks; the flowers are which condition it is imported into Eu. produced in small axillary racemes, or rope, where it is cut by the tobacconists bunches, each on a slender pedicle ; the for smoking, formed into snuif, and the corolla has four narrow petals of a yellow like. Besides the tobacco of the West colour, a little longer than the calyx, and Indies, there are considerable quantities a fifth, the claw of which is of the same cultivated in the Levant, the coasts of length as the other petals, and the top Greece and the Archipelago, the island ovate cordate ; stamens within the tube, of Malta and Italy.
and terminated by oblong, erect, sulphur. TODUS, the iody, in natural history, a coloured anthers; fruit roundishi, the genus of birds of the order Picæ. Gene. size of a large pea, divided into four cells, ric character : bill thin, depressed, broad, each containing one oblong ovate seed. and at the base covered with bristles; The balsam of Tolu, which is brought to nostrils small and oval; toes three before Europe in litile gourd shells, is obtained and one behind, the middle much con. by making incisions in the bark of the nected with the outer. There are sixteen tree; it is collected in spoons, which are species, of which the following is the made of black wax, and from them it is principal:
poured into proper vessels; it is of a T. viridis, or the green tody, is of the reddish yellow colour, transparent, in size of a wren, and is found in the warm consistence thick and tenacious; by age climates of America, and in the West In- it grows hard and brittle, so that it may dies. Its colouring is a beautiful combina- be rubbed into a powder between the tion of green, white, and red. It is solita. finger and thumb ; its smell is extremely ry, stupid, feeds upon soft insects, fre. fragrant ; its taste is warm and sweetish; quents moist situations, sitting long to thrown into the fire it immediately liquegether with its head under its shoulder, fies, takes Aame, and disperses its agree. and may sometimes be taken by the hand. ablé odour. Birds of this genus are principally found TOMENTUM, in botany, short wool, a in the warmer territories of America, are species of hoary or downy pubescence, somewhat allied to the genus of Fly. which covers the surface of many plants, catchers, but are distinguished by a con- particularly those in the neighbourhood siderable connection between the toes, of the sea, and such as in their native soil whereas those of the flycatcher are com are exposed to the ravages of bleak and pletely divided. Several species are much violent winds. The substance in question larger than the above.
consists of a number of small hairs, that TOISE is a French measure, containing are so closely interwoven as scarcely to six feet, or a fathom ; a square toise is be distinguished by the naked eye, the thirty-six square feet. The toise and the white appearance arising from their agfathom correspond in the division of the gregation and compact texture. feet; but these divisions being unequal, TOMEX, in botany, a genus of the it is necessary to observe that the pro. Dodecandria Monogynia class and order. portion of the yard, as fixed by the Royal Essential character: involucre four or Society at London, to the half toise as fix. five-leared ; calyx none; corolla five-pe
talled; nectary scales five, between the TONSILS, in anatomy, two remarkable lower stamens; berry one-seeded. There glands situated one on each side of the are three species, among which we shall mouth, near the uvula, and commonly notice the T. sebifera, glutinous tomex, called almonds of the ears, from their reor tallow-tree; it grows to a considerable sembling almonds in figure. Their use is, size, with spreading branches ; leaves to secrete a mucous humour for lubricatovate, oblong, quite entire, smooth, alter. ing the passages: this they discharge by nate, petioled; peduncles lateral, and several irregular but conspicuous forami. subterminating, two or three-flowered; næ into the mouth. See ANATOMY. 1 berries small, smooth, and blackish. Na- TONTINE, a variable kind of life an. tive of China and Cochin China. The nuity, but generally so contrived as to be wood, which is light, and of a pale colour, progressively increasing in amount. It is is used for rafters, studs, &c. in building; formed by nominating a certain number the leaves and twigs abound in a viscid of lives within limited ages, who, for each juice, and being bruised and macerated one hundred pounds, or any other gross in water, render it glutinous; for this sum paid down, are to receive at first a reason the natives work up their plaster specific annuity : but as any of the lives with it, to render it more tenacious, and fail, their annuity is to be equally divided also that it may last the longer; a great among those that remain; by which quantity of a thick white oil is extracted means those who happen to survive a from the berries, of which common can- considerable number of years obtain a dles are made, resembling spermaceti or large augmentation of their annual re. wax candles, but having an unpleasant ceipt; and the life, which is the longest smell.
life of the whole, (if there is no restricTOMPION, in naval affairs, a circular tion to the contrary,) gets for the remain. piece of wood used to stop the mouth of der of its continuance, the total sum paid à cannon. At sea, the tompions are care at first to all the nominees. Tontines of fully encircled with tallow or putty, to this kind, if properly conducted, are prevent the penetration of the water into considered by some persons as affording the bore, whereby the powder contained an eligible opportunity of making some in the chamber might be rendered unfit provision for children, as the nominafor service.
tion of young healthy lives gives a good TONNAGE, in military and naval af chance of survivorship. It has several fairs, a custom or impost due for mer. times been attempted to raise money on chandize, brought or carried in tons, this species of annuity for the service of from or to other nations, after a certain government, but it has never been found rate, in every ton. The method of find. practicable to obtain any considerable ing the tonnage of any ship is by the fol. sum in this way: on a smaller scale, lowing rule: Multiply the length of the it has been adopted successfully both in keel by the breadth of the beam, and Great Britain and Ireland, for procur. that product by half the breadth of the ing the sums necessary for building beam, and divide the last product by 94, bridges, large inns or hotels, and other and the quotient will be the tonnage, expensive edifices. Ex. Suppose the ship's keel 72 feet, Of late years many delusive schemes breadth of the beam 24 feet, then have been set on foot, under the name of 72 X 24 X 12 – 920 6. The tonnace of tontines, but differing very materially 94
from the plan above mentioned, as they goods is sometimes taken by weight, and do not require a gross sum to be paid sometimes by measurement. The me down, but quarterly or half yearly pay. thod which yields the most is allowed to ments during their continuance, which is a vessel. In weight, twenty hundred limited to the short period of five, seven, make one ton; but by measurement, for. or ten years ; the intention being, that ty cubic feet are equal to one ton.
the subscribers should receive back all TONSELLA, in botany, a genus of the they had contributed, with the additions Triandria Monogynia class and order. made to it from improvement at com. Essential character: calyx five-parted; pound interest, and the division of the petals five ; nectary pitcher.shaped ; ber- contributions of such as might happen to ry one-celled, four-seeded. There are die within the term. But the difference two species, viz. T. scandens, climbing between compound and simple interest tonsella; and T. Africana, African ton- in the improvement of such payments, cella, both natives of Guinea.
for a short time, is so trifling, and the . . 68
probability of any considerable reduc. Silica . . . . . . . . 31 tion, during such term, in the number of
Alumina . . . . . . . DO a set of young lives, wbo it may be pre Loss . . . . . . . . 1 sumed were thought healthy subjects at the time of their nomination, is so small,
100 that the advantages derived from these sources have been sometimes overba. lanced by the expenses of management,
It is found in veins that traverse primiand, in fact, in several instances of these tive rocks, accompanied by fluor-spar, tin schemes, which have expired within ore, and arsenical pyrites. It is found these few years past, the subscribers have in Brazil; in Siberia, among the Uralian actually received considerably less than mountains. The tonay of the ancien the payments they had made would have
supposed to be our chrysalite. The Saxon amounted to without any improvement at topaz is most valued by jewellers, though interest.
even this is in no very high estimation. TOP, in naval affairs, a sort of platform TOPIC, in rhetoric, denotes a probasurrounding the lower mast head, from ble argument, drawn from the several cir. which it projects on all sides like a scaf. cumstances of a fact, &c. Hence the art fold. The intention of the top is to ex. of finding and managing such arguments tend the top.mast shrouds so as to form a is called by the ancients topica. greater angle with the mast, and thereby TOPOGRAPHY. This term is applied give additional support to the latter. The to all those writings, which have for their top is likewise convenient to contain the subjects the description of tracts of coun. materials necessary for extending the try, and the buildings on their surfaces. small sails, and for fixing and repairing We often meet with passages in the the rigging and machinery with greater works of ancient authors which are topoexpedition. In ships of war, the tops are
graphical, or, in other words, descriptive furnished with swivels, musketry, and
of particular places; but rarely or never other fire-arms, and are guarded with a
with volumes dedicated wholly to this fence of hammocks in time of action. In
purpose. The scriptures bave many of this case the top is used as a kind of re- the former, particularly the account of doubt; and is accordingly fortified for at. Solomon's temple : Homer abounds with tack or defence, being furnished with
such in his Iliad and Odyssey; and Virgil
such in his Miad and Odvs arms, and guarded by a thick fence of in his Æneid; to which might be added corded hammocks. The top is employed subsequent writers, though not of equal likewise as a place for looking out, either celebrity. The two Pliny's have favoured in the day or night.
us with sketches of this nature, one of TOPAZ, in mineralogy, is a species of which, by the younger, we shall intro. the flint genus, of a wine-yellow colour, duce as a specimen. Speaking of his of all degrees of intensity, and passing to Tuscan villa, he says, “The face of the various other colours. It occurs massive, country is extremely beautiful. Imagine disseminated, sometimes in rolled pieces, to yourself an amphitheatre of immense but commonly crystallized. There are circumference, such as could be formed many varieties. Specific gravity, accord. only by the hand of nature : a wide-exing to Werner, is about 3.5. The Saxon tended plain is surrounded by mountains, variety, in a gentle heat, turns white; but whose summits are covered with tall, an. a strong heat deprives it of lustre and cient woods, stocked with game for all transparency; the Brazilian, by exposure kinds of hunting; the descent is planted to a high temperature, burns rose-red; with under-woods, among which are freand in a still higher, violet blue. Before quently little risings, of a rich and deep the blow.pipe it is scarcely fusible; but soil, where a stone, if sought for, is scarce exposed to a stream of oxygen gas, it to be found : in fertility they yield not to melts into a porcellanous bead. It is fu- the finest vales, and produce as good sible with borax, but alkali has little ef. crops of corn, although not so early in the fect on it. The Brazilian, Siberian, and year. Below these, on the side of the other topazes, when heated, exhibit at mountain, is a continued range of vineone extremity positive, and at the other yards, that extend themselves without innegative, electricity. The Saxon topaz, terruption far and near, at the foot of by friction only, gives signs of electricity. which is a sort of border of shrubs. From The contituent parts are, according to thence you have meadows and open Vauquelin,
fields : the arable grounds require large oxen and the strongest ploughs; the earth nasteries, and some slight description of is so tough, and rises in such large clods them and their sites. We shall introduce when it is first broken up, that it cannot the title of one of those, quoted by Mr. be reduced till it has been ploughed nine Malcolm, in his “ History of St. Bartho. times: the meadows glitter with flowers, lomew's Priory, London," in order to conand produce the trefoil and other kinds vey to the reader an idea of their abilities of grass, always soft and tender, and ap- in our language, about the time of Henry pearing always new; for they are excel. III. or perhaps rather earlier: “For as lently well watered with never failing mooche that the meritory and notable springs; yet where these springs are operacyons of famose goode and devoute in greatest confluence, they make no faders yn God sholde be remembred, for marshes, the declivity of the land dis. instruction of aftercumers to theyr con. charging into the Tiber all the water that solacion and encres of devotion; thys ab. it does not drink in.”
brevyat tretesse shall compendiously exHad it been the custom at those very presse and declare the wondreful, and, of distant periods of time to write thus, fre. celestial concel, gracious foundacion of quently, and had the art of printing been our hoely placeys, called the priory of then invented, how much valuable infor- Seynt Bartholomew yn Smythfyld, and of mation would bave reached us that is now the hospital of olde tyme longyng to the irretrievably lost; and with what pleasure same ; with other notabilities expediently should we have read descriptions of many to be knowyn; and most specially the important places, the sites of which are gloriouse and excellent myracles wroghte now only known by conjecture from some withyn them by the intercessions, sufcasual circumstance! Numbers of beauti. frages, and merytys of the forsayd be. ful cities, far surpassing any existing nynge, feythful, and blessid of God, aposat present in the magnificence of their tyl Sanet Bartholomy, ynto the laude of public structures, have been deserted, Almighty God, and agñcion of his infinite through different causes, by their inhabit. power. Ffyrst shall be shewyd who was ants, and are yet splendid in their ruins : iFunder of owere hoely places, and howgh, those offered every incitement for de- by grace, he was ffyrst pryor of owr priscription, but have perished without ob- ory; and by howgh longe time that he taining this act of justice. Egypt, in par. contynued yn the same. Thys churche, ticular, furnished the writer with the yn the honoure of most blessed Bartho. means of immortalizing bis name as a lomew apostle, ffunded Rayer, of good topographer; and it is a subject of severe remembraunce. And theryn to serve regret that we have not been gratified God (after the rewle of the most holy faby an account of that country, when all der Austyn) aggregat togidir religiouse the wonderful fragments scattered over men. And to them was prelate xxii its surface were connected by the chain yere : usynge the office and dignite of of society, and perfect in themselves; à priore ” This ancient topograpber then, we bave every reason to suppose, mentions that Rahere, the prior and rich 'woods fringed the borders of their founder of the priory, died in the reign cities, and extensive gardens afforded of king Stephen, and was succeeded by equal pleasure and advantage to the in. Thomas, in the year 1144. The follow. habitants: like a sublime picture, we ing passage will prove that the manushould have been enabled to contrast its script was written immediately after the ancient softest tints with its present above period : “And yn what ordur he dreary wastes and gloomy ruins.
sette the fundament of this temple ya The French have ever been an enter- fewe wordes lette us shewe, as they testi. prising people, and very early turned fied to us that sey him, herd him, and were their attention to travelling, and topo. presente yn his workys and dedis ; of the graphical description; an interesting ac- whiche sume have take ther slepe yn count of which may be found in Mr. Cryiste, and sume of them be zitte alure, Johnes's recent translation of “Bertrand wytnesseth of that that we shall after say." de la Broquiere's Travels in Palestine," It may be perceived from this speci. about the year 1432. The English nation men of early topograpby, that we had by did not entirely neglect this species of no means arrived to the degree of excel. literature, in the earliest periods of their lence which Pliny and his contemporaries annals; as several monks might be men- attained in similar productions; neither tioned, who gave their brethren, in dif- did we accomplish this very desirable ferent parts of the country, manuscript point till within the last century. Those accounts of the foundations of their mom who have perused our best works, his. torical and descriptive, before the reign cal Dictionary, the patient and useful proof George II. will find great accuracy and duction of Mr. Carlisle. deep research; but unfortunately we The encouragement all these and simi. learn nothing of the nature and beauties lar publications have hitherto uniformly of the surface of the earth, or of the pro met with has been eminently advanta. portions and sculptures of our buildings, geous to draftsmen and engravers, whose from the valuable works of Leland, Stowe, works, for the embellishment of topogra. Speed, Camden, Dugdale, &c. indeed, phical writings, are not surpassed by any had not Hollar been employed by the which have made their appearance on latter, his splendid accounts of monaste the continent, an assertion that may be ries and St. Paul's would have given us proved decidedly by referring to the reno idea whatever of the richness of their cent publications is the beauties of En. forms and decorations. .
gland and Wales,” and “the Architectu. It is, however, to the authors, whose ral Antiquities of Great Britain,” two of names we have recapitulated, that we are the best, without exception, that have indebted for admirable models in topo. ever issued from the British press; the graphy; and it would be injustice to the joint performance, in the first instance, of moderns to deny them the merit of hav. Messrs. Britton and Brayley: and in the ing greatly improved upon them, by second, of the former only: their descending to the minutiæ, which TORDYLIUM, in botany, heart-wort, seems to have escaped the attention of a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class their great predecessors. The public has and order. Natural order of Umbellatæ, for a very considerable length of time or Umbelliferæ. Essential character : been extremely partial to topographical corolla radiate; all hermaphrodite; fruit works, which is evinced by the shoals of suborbicular, notched at the edge; invo. publications issued from the London and lucres long, undivided. There are seven provincial presses on this subject. The species. metropolis has had every thing said of it, TORENIA, in botany, so named from which the art of man could rake toge- Olof Toreen, a Swedish clergyman, a gether; almost every county has its histo. nus of the Didynamia Angiospermia class rian, and some have had several; the ci. and order. Natural order of Personatæ. ties have each been described, and every Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. Essential charactown worth, or not worth a description, ter: calyx two lipped, upper lip threehas its guide ; and, exclusively of those, cusped; filaments, the lower with a stenumbers of tours are continually making rile branchlet; capsule two-celled. There their appearance. It appears almost in are three species. vidious to mention any particular exer- TORMENTILLA, in botany, a genus tions, without enumerating every well. of the Icosandria Polygamia class and or. founded pretension to public approba. der. Natural order of Senticosæ. Rosation; and yet we cannot conclude this ceæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx article accurately without observing, that eight-cleft, inferior; petals four; seeds Gough's edition of Camden's “ Britan- roundish, naked, wrinkled, fastened to a nia,' and his “Sepulchral Monuments" small, juiceless receptacle. There are of this kingdom, are worthy of ranking two species: viz. T. erecta, cominon torwith the works of our best ancient topo- mentil; and T. reptans, trailing tormen. graphers; and that amongst the many ex. til Natives of Europe. cellent county histories we possess, none TORNADO, a sudden and vehement has a greater claim, for extent and accu gust of wind from all points of the comracy, than the “ History of Leicester pass, frequent on the coast of Guinea. shire,” by Mr. John Nichols. The envi. A tornado seems to partake much of rons of London have received every pos- the nature of a whirlwind, or perhaps of sible attention from the indefatigable a water-spout, but is more violent in its brothers, Daniel and Samuel Lysons, who effects. It commences very suddenly, are now pursuing a most laborious under several clouds being previously drawn taking, on nearly the same plan, to be together, when a spout of wind, proceed. extended to all England ; and of London, ing from them, strikes the ground in a the great centre, every thing has been round spot of a few rods or perches diasaid by Stowe, Strype and Malcolm ; be. meter, and proceeds thus half a mile or a sides the slighter performance of Pen. mile. The proneness of its descent makes nant, to wbom we are more indebted for it rebound from the earth, throwing such his other topographical works; and, to things as are moveable before it, but some conclude, we now possess a Topographi. sideways, or in a lateral direction from it.