« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
It must be carefully observed, that every falling, or every rising in. flection, does not necessarily terminate upon the same key, or on the same note of that key ; neither is every emphatic word pronounced with the same degree of force : for, as various as infections and em. phases are in number, almost as varied should be the manner of pronouncing them. In these, however, and in many other circumstances, whereon the beauty of reading and speaking chiefly depends, the im. port of the subject, the nature of the audience, and the place the speaker occupies, must all be judiciously considered, in order properly to regulate his pronunciation and delivery.
General Rules and Observations on Reading and
1. Give the letters their proper sounds. 2. Pronounce the vowels a, e, i, o, u, clearly, giving to each its pro
per quantity. 3. The liquids l, m, n, r, should be pronounced with a considerable
degree of force. 4. Distinguish every accented letter or syllable by a peculiar stress of
the voice. 5. Read audibly and distinctly, with a degree of deliberation suited to
the subject. 6. Pause at the points a sufficient length of time; but not so long as to break that connexion which one part of a sentence has with another. 7. The meaning of a sentence is often considerably elucidated by
pausing where none of the usual marks could properly be inserted. 8. Give every sentence, and member of a sentence, that inflection of
voice, which tends to improve either the sound, or the sense. 9. Monotones, judiciously introduced, have a wonderful effect in di
versifying delivery. 10. Every emphatical word must be marked with a force corresponding
with the importance of the subject. 11. At the beginning of a subject or discourse, the pitch of the voice
should, in general, be low :-to this rule, however, there are some exceptions in poetry, and even in prose. 12. As the Speaker proceeds, the tones of his voice should swell, and
his animation increase with the increasing importance of his subject. 13. At the commencement of a new paragraph, division, or sub-divi.
sion of a discourse, the voice may be lowercd, and again allowed gradually to swell. 14. The tones of the voice must, in every instance, be regulated entire
ly by the nature of the subject. 15. In recitation, the speaker must adopt those tones, looks, and ges
tures, which are muit agreeable to the nature of whatever he delivers :- he must « suit the action to the word, and the word to the “action ;" always remembering, that " rightiy to seem, is tran. siently to be.”
Long, ā ē i ö
Short, à é o ú
à senate, prelate, piráte. ē bēre, mēte, mēre.
ė ėlapse, élate, élect. i mine, time, wine.
Ï Ïdea, ïdeal, ideally. ö löne, tone, bone.
• obey, oblige, omit. ū mūse, fūme, tūne.
i unite, unitedly, unition.
* LINES - and CIRCUMFLEXES A mark the long, and Dots •and BREVES
the short quantity of the same sounds. Initial w and y sound as in we, ye. Ow and oy sound as in now, cloy.
is always sharp (ess), as in-so, such, son.
is always sharp (eks), as in--ox, fox, box.
dj equivalent to French
TABLE OF INITIAL SOUNDS.
sounds À 91h is silent||1718u
f||19th ko-op 1 pre
s 21 trans diz 14 se
sē 22 un ē 15 se
së 233 egz| 16 sky
th thr trans
prē 20 thr
dis 13 ps
15 dis 6 dis 7ea 18 ex
INITIAL SOUNDS.* 1. au, at the beginning of words, sounds Â in au'burn, auction, aud'
tionary, au'dible, au'dibly, au'dience, au'dit, au’ditor, au'ditory, au'ditress, au'ger, aught, aug'ment, (noun), au'gur, t au'gury, au'gust, (n.), au’lic, &c. (au, sounds & in) auctioneer', auda'cious, audac'ity, augment' (verb), augmenta'tion, august', (adj) aure'lia, auric'ula,
auric'ular, aurif'erous, auroʻra, auro'ra-borea'lis, &c.- aunt s. ânt. 2. ch. s. k, in chalcogʻraphy, chalyb'eate, cham, chame'leon, cha'os,
chaot'ick, char'acter, characteris'tick, characterize, chasm, chil'iad, chiliaed'ron, chime'ra, chimer'ical, chimer'ically, chirogʻrapher, chirogʻraphy, chir'omancy, chirur'geon, chirur'gical, chloro'sis, choir, choler, cholerick, choʻral, chord, chor'ister, chorogʻraphy, cho'rus, chrisă, chris'ten, chris'tendom, chris'tening, chris'tian, christian'. ity, christ'ianize, chris'tmas, chromat'ic, chron'ical, chron’ick, chron'icle, chron'ogram, chronologʻical, chronology, chrys'alis, chrys'olite, chyla'ceous, chyle, chym'ical, chym'ist, chym'istrychart, s. kârt, or chârt; ch, in the beginning of most other words, sounds ch, as in chance, charge, &c.- in a few words, most of which are derived from the French, the ch sounds sh, as in chicane', chev.
alier', &c. 3. circum. 8. ser-kum, in circumam'bient, circumam'bulate, cir'cum.
cise, circumcisi' on, circumduct', circum'ference, circumferen'tor,
cir'cumflex, circum'fuent, circum'Auous, circumfuse', &c. 4. co-op, s. ko-op, in co-op'erate, co-opera'tion, co-op'erative, co-op'er
ator, co-opta'tion, (co-or, s. koâr, in) co-ordinate, co-or'dinately,
co-ordinateness, (co-or. s. kb.or, in) co-ordina'tion. 5. dis. 8. dis, in disability, disadvan’tage, disaffec'tion, disagree', dis.
allow', disappear', disapprove', disavow', discard', disclose', &c. 6. dis, s. diz, in disa'ble, disarm', disas'ter, disastrous, disband', dis.
bark', disbench', disbranch', disbur'den, disburse', disburse'ment,
* These words may serve as useful exercises, not only in orthoepy, but also in orthography.--For this purpose a portion of them may be pronounced and spelled by the pupil each day, or as often as the Teacher may think proper.
+ Participles have the accent on the same syllable, as the verbs from which they are derived ; thus the verb to in'terest has the accent on the first syllable, the participles in'teresting, in'terested, derived from it, have the accent on the same syllable.
discern', discern'ible, discern'ing, discern'ment, disdain', &c. (di,
before s. sounds de in) dishev'elled, dispread', (disme, 8. dim ) 7. ea, s. ē in each, ea'ger, ea'. erly, ea'gerness, ea'gle eyed, eaʼzlet,
ear, ear'less, ear'-ring, ear'shot, &c (earl, s. erl, in) earl, earldom, . ear'liness, ear'ly, earn, ear'nest, earnestly, earth, earth'en, earth'.
ling, earth'ly, earth'quake, earth'y. 8. ex, s. egz, in exacerba'tion, exact', exactly, exac'tion, exact'ness,
exag'gerate, exaggera'tion, exag'itate, exalt', exalta'tion, &c. (ex, in the beginning of almost all other words, sounds ex) ex'cellence, ex.
cep'tion, exclaim', excommu'nicate, excursion, exhala'tion, &c. 9. k is silent ir heir, heir'ess, heir'less, heir'ship, herb, herb'age, herb'y, hon'est, hon'estiy, hon'esty, hon'orary, hon'our, hon'our. able, hon'ourably, hos'pital, hos'tler, hour. hour'glass, hourly, hum'ble, hum'ble-mouthed, hum'bles, hum'bled, hum'bly, hu'mor
ist, hu'morous, hu'morously, hu'mour. 10. or, 8. Âr in orb, orb'ed or'bit, or'chard, or'chestre, ordeal, or'. der, orderless, or'derly, or'dinable, ordinal, ordinance, or'dinary, or'dinate, &c. (or. s. or, in) orien'tal, orig'inal orig'inally, orig'. inary, origʻinate, orac'ular, orac'ulous, oran'gery, ora'tion, (or, s. or, in) oracle. or'ange, or'ator, orato'rial, orator'ical, oratory, orba'tion, orbic'ular, orches'tra, ordain', ordina'tion, &c. (or, s. ör in)
o'ral, ore, o'rient. 11. pn, 8. f, in pha’eton, pha?lans, or phal'anx, phan_tasm, phan_tom,
phar'macy, pha'ros, pha'sis, phenom'enon, phi'al, philan'thropy, philip'pick, philology, phil'omel, philos'ophy, phil'ter, phlebot'. omy, phos'phorus, phrase, phys'ick, physiology, phytol'ogy, &c.
phthisick, s. tiz'-ik, phthisis, s. thi'-sis. 12. pre, s. prē, in preach, preach'er, preach'ment, pre'cept, pre'dal,
pre'dial, pre'fect, pre'tis, (n.), pre’mier, preʼmium, pre'science, pre'. scient, pre'script, pre'tor, previous, pre'viously. (preamble, 8. prē'ambl, or pream'bl.- precinct, 8. prē'-singkt, or pr -singkti-prey, 8. prk.-pre is shut in) preb'end, preb'endary, preceda'neous, prec'edent, prec'ipice, pred'atory, pred'ecessor, pred'icable, &c. (pre. sage, s. pres'-aj, or pre-sāj.-in most other words the pre s. pre.) preca'rious, precede', precep'tive, precip'itate, precise', preclude', preconceit', predestina'rian, predict', predispose', predom'inant, pre-estab'lish, prefer', &c. 13. ps, s. s, in psalm, psalmist, psal'mody, psalmog'raphy, psal'ter,
psal'tery, pseu'do, pseudogʻraphy, pseu'dology, pshaw, psy'che, psychol'ogy, psychom'achy, psy'chomancy.--pt, s. t, in ptisan',
pty'alism, ptylo'sis, ptys'magogue. 14. se, s. sē, in sea, sea'beat, sea'born, sea-boy, seacalf', sea'chart,
(sea, s. sē, in all its other compounds) seal, seal'ingwax, seam, seam'. less, sear, sear'cloth, sea'son, sea'sonable, sea'sonably, sea'soning,
seat, sea'ward, se'cant, se'crecy, se'cret, se'cretly, &c. 15. se, s. sè, in secede', secessi'on, seclude', seclu'sion, secrete', secre'.
tion, secre'tory, secure', secure'ly, secur'ity, sedan', sedate', se. date'ly, sedate'ness, sediti'on, sediti'ous, seduce', seduce'ment, seduc'ible, &c. (ser, 8. sâr, in ser'geant. ---SEW, s. so.)
sewer, 8. sõ'ěr, one who uses a needle. "
in most other words the e in se is shut or joined to the next letter-thus-sec'ond, sec'retary, sed'ulous, seldom, sem'blance, sensa'tion,
ser'mon, ser'vitude, settlement, &c. 16. sky, 8. skyi, in sky, sky'ey, sky'colour, sky'coloured, sky'dyed,
sky'ed, sky'ish, sky'lark, sky'light, sky'rocket. (kind, s. kyind, in) kind, kind'ly, kind'ness, unkind', unkind'lv, unkind'ness, gav'el
kind, mankind', womankind, bumankind', kine. 17. su. 8. su, in supine' (adj.), supine'ly, supine'ness, suprem'acy, su
preme', supreme'ly, (su, s. sū, in) su'pine (n) 18. super, s. super, in superabun'dance, superadd’, superan'nuate,
superb', supercar'go, superceles'tial, supercil'ious, superem'inent, superer'ogate, superex'cellent, superfici'es, superfine', super'Auous, superintend', superior'ity, supe'rior, super'lative, supernat'ural, supernu'merary, superscrip'tion, superstiti'ous, superven'tion, supervi'sor, &c. (super, s. sūper, in) su'perable, su'perfice, su'perflux. 19. th, s. tħ, in thane, thank, 'thank'ful, thank'less, thanks'giving,
thatch, thatch'er, thaw, the’atre, theft, theocracy, theod'olite, theolo'gian, the'ory, thermom'eter, the'sis, &c. (th, s. th, in) thence, thence'forth, thenceforward, there, there about, thereby', thith'er,
thith'erto, thith'erward, though, (thyme, s. tīm.) 20. thr, 8. thr, in thrall, thral'dom, thrap'ple, thrash, thrash'er, thra
son'ical, thread, thread'bare, threat, threat'en, three, three'fold,
threw, thrice, thrift, thrill, thrive, throat, throb, throe, &c. 21. trans, s. trans, in transact', transcend', transcribe', transfig'ure,
transfuse', trans'it, transition, translate', transmit', transpire', transverse', &c. transi, s. tran'-shé, in) tran'sient, tran'siently, tran'..
sientness. 22. un, s. un, in unalterable, unbound', uncertain, unconcern', un.
daunt'ed, undirect'ed, une'qual, unexplor'ed, unfor'tunate, ungen'. erous, unhap'py, &c. u, s. ū, before n, in) u'nicorn, u'niform, u'niformly, u'nion, u'nison, u'nit, u'nity, u'niverse. (2. s. i, be. fore n, in) unanim'ity, unan'imous, unifor'mity, unite', unit'edly, uniti'on, univer'sal, universal'ity, univer'sally, univer'sity, univ'. ocal. (unc, s. ungk, in) un'cle, unc'tion, unc'tuous. (unguent, s.
ung'gwent.) 23. x, in words from the Greek, where it is initial, is always pronounced
like z, thus-xerocollyr'ium, xero'des, xeromi'rum, xeroph'agy, xerop'hthalmy, xero'tes, xiph'ias, xiphoi'des, xylobal'samum, xys'ter. In proper names also x sounds 2 when beginning a word or syllable ; thus-Xan'the, Xan'tho, Xan'thus, Xan'ticles, Xantip'pe, Xantip'. pus, Xenag'oras, Xenar'chus, Xen'ares, Xen'etus, Xeni'ades, Xenocle'a, Xen'ocles, Xenoeli'des, Xenoc'rates, Xenod'amus, Xenodo'rus, Xenoph'anes, Xen'ophon, Xenophonti'us, Xerx'es, Xeu'xes, Xu'thus, Xy'chus, Xyn'ias, Xynoich'ia, &c.