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enchain', complain', explain', domain', refrain', &c. ; twain, swain, wain, vain, stain, &c. (ain, s. an, in) chil'blain, por'celain, mort'.
main. (ain, 8. en, in) again', against'. 50. ain, unaccented, e. in, in villain, chap'lain, chamberlain, murrain,
qua'train, chief'tain, plan'tain, quin'tain, foun'tain, moun'tain, &c. (ain, s ān, in) cas'tellain-cockswain and boatswain are pronounced
kok'-sn and bõt'-swan, or bo' sn. 51. ion. preceded by l or n, accented, s. yun, in battalion, vermillion,
pavil'ion, medal'iion, rebellion, billion, million, postil'ion, &c.
compan'ion, min'ion, domin'ion, opin'ion, on'ion, &c. $2. sion. preceded by a, e, i, o, or u, s. zhun, in occa'sion, eva'sion,
inva'sion, persuaʼsion, dissuaʼsion : adhe'sion, inhe'sion, cohe'sion, exe'sion : decisi'on, precisi'on, incisi'on. collision, divisi'on, provisi'on ; effo'sion, displo'sjon, explo'sion, ero'sion, arro'sion, corro'
sion : fu'sion, diffi'sion, infu'sion, confu'sion, conclu'sion, &c. 53. sion, preceded by any of the consonants, s. shun, in impulsion, com
pulsion, expan'sion, comprehen'sion, dimen'sion, mer'sion, aver'
sion, incur.jon, &c. 54. ssion, s. shun, in passi'on, compassion, cessi'on, concessi'on, pro.
fessi'on, egressi'on, pression, sessi'on, possessi'on, &c. 55. tion, s. shun, in constitu'tion, solu'tion, elocu'tion, cau'tion, por'
tion, op'tion, perception, atten'tion, contriti'on, additi'on, &c. 56. tion, preceded by s, or X, s. trun, in ambus'tion, combus'tion,
que-'tion, congestion; mix'tion, admix'tion, commix'tion, &c. 67. xion, s shun, in A: x'ion, complex'ion, annex'ion, connex'ion, pre
fix'ion, affix'ion, crucifix'ion, commix'ion, flux'ion, deflux'ion, af
flux'ion, ffl ux'ion. 68. son, s. 2n, in rea'son, trea'son, sea'son, den'ison, ven'ison, foi'son,
poi'son, empoi'son, coun'erpoison, disinher'ison, pris'on, impris'on, dam'son, crim'son. (son, s. zun, in) diapa'son, oraison, ben'ison, advow'son. (son, s. sun, in)son, grand'son, god'son, u'nison, capar'. ison, compar'ison, (son, s. sn, in) ma'son, garʻrison, parfson, per‘son,
les'son. (son, s. sûn, in) caisson'. 59. own, s. own, in down, adown', upside-down', gown, lown, clown,
renown', brown, &c. (own, s õn, in) own, shown, blown, flown, high'flown, known, unknown', grown, sown, disown', unsown'. 60. ear, s. ēr, in ear, dear, endear', fear, gear, hear, rehear', overhear',
shear, blear, clear, tear ( n water), &c. (ear, s. ār, in) bear, bug'bear, uphear', underbear', overbear', forbear', pear, tear (v.), tear, (n. a rent), wear, swear, unswear', forswear', outswear'. (ear,
8. ear, in lin'ear, rectilin'ear, curvilin'ear. 61. er, s. ěr, in am'ber, cham'ber, octoʻber, cum'ber, of'ficer, offend'er,
pretend'er, fin'ger, lin'ger, lexicogʻrapher, geog'rapher, orthogʻrapher, biogʻrapher, historiogʻrapher, cosmogʻrapher, &c. (er, accented, s. er, in) defer', refer', prefer', infer', misinfer', deter', &c. (eer, s. ēr, in) beer, deer, rain'deer, cheer, feer, mountaineer', engineer', domineer', &c. (eer, 8. ér, in chan'ticleer l'er, s. ār, in) e'er, ne'er, whene'er, where'er'. (ier accented, and in one syllable, s. ēr, in) pier, cashier', cavalier', chandelier', gondolier', carabinier', can
nonier', &c. 62. or, s. ur, in ambass'ador, meteor, an'chor, met'aphor, au'thor,
ma'jor, se'nior, ju’nior, infe'rior, supe'rior, inte'rior, warrior, sailor, demean'our, mi’nor, &c. (or, 8. or, in) or, a'chor, i'chor, nor, sa'por,
pre'tor, Au'or, for, unlooked'for, unboped'for, &c. (or and oor, 8. õr in) louis d'or', corridor', door, bat'iledoor, back'door, trapdoor', death's'door, floor, ground'Aoor, thrash'ingfloor. (oor, s. ûr, in) boor, moor, poor, unmoor', --vor, s. år, in black'amoor.--or, s. Âr, in
abhor. 63. our, 8. ur, in la'bour, ta'bour, ar'bour, har'bour, suc'cour, ran'cour,
splen'dour, vig'our, val'our, colour, &c. (our, 8. owr, in) our, scour, hour, flour, defour', sour, devour'. (our, s. ùr, in) amour', par'.
tour, contour'.--the verb to pour, s. pûr, põr, or powr.-four, s. för.--your, s. ür, or ür.--lour, 8. yur, in behay'iour, sav'iour. 64. ass, s. ăss, in ass, lass, class, glass, look'ing glass, i'sing-glass,
tin'giass, weath'erglass, hour' glass, mass, amass', pass, repass', surpass', brass, vant'brass, grass, spar'rowgrass, scur'vygrass. (ass, 8. ass, in) carcass, cut'lass, com'pass, encom'pass, tres' pass, har'ass,
sas'safras, cuirass', morass', can'vass : băss, a mat, bāss, in music. 65. ous, s. us, in tremen'dous, stupen'dous, hid'eous, sponta'neous,
plen'teous, terra'queous, anal'ogous, o'dious, stu'dious, pi'ous, va'. rious, jeal'ous, per'ilous, friv'olous, cred’ulous, trem'ulous, &c. 66. ceous, s. shus, in faba'ceous, herba'ceous, folia'ceous, coria'ceous,
argilla'ceous, poma'ceous, membrana'ceous, arena'ceous, &c. 87. ious and cous, preceded by d, 8. yus, in te'dious, perfid'ious, fastid'.
ious, insid'ious, in id'ious, compen'dious, o'dious, milo'dious, com
mo'dious, &c. hid'eous, lapid'eous.-ious, s. éus, in stu'dious. 68. cious and scious, s. shus, in effica'cious, auda'cious, saga'cious,
falla'cious, tena'cious, pertina'cious, spa'cious, gra'cious, vora'cious,
&c. omnisci'ous, con'scious, lusci'ous, &c. 69. tious, 8. shus, in ostenta'tious, vexa'tious, fac'tious, ambiti'ous,
propiti'ous, fictiti'vus, adventiti'ous, superstiti'ous, conscien’tious,
senten' tious, conten’tious, captious, cau'tious, incau'tious, &c. 70. ous, s. uus, in conspicuous, innoc'uous, promis'cuous, assid'uous,
ar'duous, ambigʻuous, contigʻuous, mellif'luous, superfluous, ingen'uous, &c. (quous, 8. kwus, in) sil'iquous, multisil’oquous, ambil'oquous, multil'oquous. (uous, s. ŭus, in) con'gruous, incon'. gruous. 71. eat, 8. ēt, in eat, beat, brow'beat, feat, defeat', heat, cheat, escheat',
bleat, meat, neat, peat, repeat', &c. eat, 8. ét, in sweet'ineat.-eat, 8. et, in threat, sweat.-ut, s. at, in great.--eat s. cat, in ca'veat.--hereat', thereat', whereat', 8. hēr at', thar at', hwar at'. 72. ct, s. kt, in act, enact', compact', defect', infect', per'tect, deject',
select', as'pect, respect', inspect', pros'pect, &c. (ct has the same sound when s is added, thus) acts, enacts, defecis', intects', dejects', respects', inspects', pros'pects, directs', &c. (iot, 8. it, in endict',
and in dict'. 73. ight, 8. it, in dight, bedight', fight, hight, light, alight', blight,
delight', flight, enlight', moon'light, plight, &c. (ight, s. ït, in) twi'light, mid'night, fort'night, birth'right, down'right (adj.), up'right, fore'sight, in'sight, o'versight. seven-night, s. sen'nit.) 74. eight, 8. āt, in freight, weight, pen'ny weight, troy'-weight,
weight'ily, weight'iness, weight'y, eight, eight'een, eight'fold, eighth,
eight'score, eighty. (eight, 8. it, in) height, sleight. 75. aught, s. Ât, in aught, caught, haught, naught, fraught, ful'fraught.
(aught, s. əft, in) draught, rough'draught. 76. ought, s. ât, in ought, bought, dear'-bought, fought, thought,
methought', fore' thought, ai'ter-thought, mer'ry-thought, nought, brought, wroughi, bigii' wrought, inwrought', unwrought', over
wrought', sought, besought'. (vughi, 3. owe, in drought.) 77. scent, s. sent, in scent, ascent', renas'cent, herbes'cent, descent',
quies'cent, convales'cent, evanes'cent, cres'cent, excres'cent, &c. 78. ow, s. o, in elbow, rain'dow, nead'ow, shad'ow, overshad'ow,
wid'ow, wind'ow, bow'-window, &c. (ow, s. 7, in) bow (n.), to shoot arrows; imbow', show, ra'ree-show, foreshow', pup'petshow, low (adj. or adv ), blow, overflow' (v), glow, slow, mow (v.), know, overthrow' (v.), strow, sow, (v.), tow, stow, bestow', &c. (ow, 8. ow, in) bow (n. an act of reverenre, or v. to bend ), cow, endow', how, some' how, low (v.), to bellow; allow', disallow', mow (n), now,
enow', brow, eye'brow, prow, sow (n.), vow, avow'. 79. ay, 8. ā, in bay, decay', alack'aday', noon'day, fay, gay, delay',
relay', allay', inlay', play, display', &c. (ay, so à in) mon'day, tues'day, wednes'day, thurs'day, fri'day, sat'urday, sun'day, yes'terday, hey'-day, holy'day, nose'gay, round'elay, &c.
-ay, s. ae.
quny, s. kē.
80. fy, a verbal termination, s. fi, in jus'tify, rec'tify, pu’rify, tes'tify,
pac'ify, cru'cify, not'ify, ter'rify, fortify, cal'efy, tu'mefy, beau'tify, sanc'tify, sig'nify, qua'lify, glo'rify, &c. fy, or fi, in the participles of such verbs, has the same sound, thus) jus'tifying, jus'tified ; rec'tifying, rec'tified ; pu’rifying, pu’rified, &c. (the same sound of fi prevails in the nouns derived rom such verbs as these signifying an actor, thus) jus'tifier, rec'tifier, pu’rifier, &c. (but in nouns from these verbs signifying an act, fi takes the sound of fe, thus) justifica'tion, purifica'. tion, testifica'tion, &c. (fi has the sound of fé also in such words as) justifica'tor, testifica'tor, &c. (fy sounds t'i, in the verbs defy and affy, also in the interjection fy.-fy sounds fë, in the adjectives lea'fy,
chaf'fy, draf'fy, puf'fy, shelf'y, gulf'y, turf'y. 81. ly, unaccented, s. lė, in a'bly, probʼably, af'fably, remark’ably, sea'.
sonably, du'rably, suitably, learn'edly, sa'credly, assur'edly, i'dly, friend'ly, time'ly, humane'ly, &c. (ly, accented, and in monosyllables, s. lī, in) supply', apply', comply', reply', ply, july', ally', fly, outfly',
rely'. 82. ably, s. ablė, in prob’ably, am'icably, laud'ably, peace’ably, af'fably,
va'riably, renark’ably, conform’ably, rea'sonably, sea'sonably, com'. parably, al'terably, tol'erably, &c. (the adverb a'bly, s. āble.) 83. ibly, s. ėblē, in invin'cibly, forc'ibly, cred'ibly, au'dibly, legʻibly,
intelligibly, infal'libly, ter'ribly, vis'ibly, sen'sibly, pos'sibly, plau'. sibly, compat'ibly, percep'tibly, contemp'tibly, convert'ibly, &c. 84. ily, 8. élė, in readily, stead'ily, gaud'ily, wor'thily, luck'ily, fam'ily
hapspily, pri'marily, or'dinarily, sol'itarily, voluntarily, satisfac'. torily, tran'sitorily, bus'ily, &c. ily, s. īje, in shi'ly, sli'ly, wi'ly. ily, s. ilė, in lily.--aily, s. álė, in daily, gai'ly. 85. iety, s. iéti, in nullibi'ety, ubi'ety, soci'ety, medi'ety, nimi'ety,
pi'ety, impi'ety, contrari'ety, vari'ety, ebri'ety, sobri'ety, insobri'ety, notori'ety, propri'ety, impropriety, sati'ety, anxi'ety. (aiety, s. äėtė,
in gai'ety.moiety, s. oy-ė-tė, in moi'ety. 86. ity, s. et', in prob'ity, ascer'bity, sagac'ity, capacity, felic'ity, du
plic'ity, velocity, atroc'ity, valid'ity, rapid'ity, florid'ity, profun'dity, de'ity, corpore'ity, verbal'ity, frugal'ity, liberal'ity, plural'ity, fatality, ability, &c. (ity s. itė, in) cit'y, pit'y.
87. osity, & osétė, in verbos'ity, morbos'ity, curios'ity, sententios'ity,
glandulos’ity, animos'ity, tenebros'ity, numeros'ity, generos'ity, moros'ity, monstros'ity, aquosity, flatuossity, unctuos'ity, &c.
The Natives of IRELAND should frequently pronounce the fol
lowing words, as they commonly give them an improper
sound. rm, at the end of a word, which the Irish pronounce in two syllables, must
form only one. arm, farm, harm, charm, alarm', disarm', warm, swarm, sperm, term, misterm', firm, affirm', infirm', confirm', unfirm', form, deform', reform', efform', 'difform', cu'biform, inform', misinform', conform', perform', transform', plat'form, worm, glow'worm, turm ; born, corn, scorn, adorn', horn, shorn, thorn, lorn, morn, torn, worn, sworn, burn, adjourn', mourn, spurn, turn, return', overturn', &c.
Im, at the end of a word, must also be pronounced in one syllable. balm, embalm', calm, becalm', realm, halm, shalm, palm, psalm, qualm, elm, whelm, overwhelm', film, sea'holm.
ey, in monosyllables, or when accented, sounds like ay in day, or ā.
obey', disobey', fey, hey, they, whey, grey, prey, trey, convey', purvey', survey'.-key, and ley, s. kē, lē.
a, accented, at the end of a syllable, sounds ā, or like ay in day. ra'diance, ra'diant, ra'dius, ra'diate, pa'tron, ma'tron, commenta'tor, a'lien, a'lienable, a'lienate, a'corn, a'ga, a'gency, a'gent, a'gio, a'gue, a'guish, pa’pacy, pa'pal, pa’pist, pa'per, pa'gan, pa'god.father, papa, mamma, s. fâ'ther, papâ', mamma'. When a consonant follows the vowel a in the same syllable, and the accent
is on the consonant, the vowel a has always its short sound, as in hat, man.
mal'ice, man'age, man'cipate, ntan'ful, man'ner, man'ifold, man'sion, man'ual, hap'less, happy, haz'ard, haz'ardous, an'nals, an'nual, an'. swer, an'tedate, an'them, ban'ish, ban'ner, battle, calam'itous, &c. The diphthong ea sounds ē when the vowel e is accented, as in sea'son,
rea'son, &c. sea, sea'man, sea'port, sea'sonable, sea'soning, trea'son, trea'sonable, trea'tise, wea'ry, wea'risome, bea'ver, crea'ture, &c. (ea, s. ā, in) great a pear, a bear, to bear, to forbear', to swear, to tear, to wear.
ei, sounded ā by the Irish, sounds ē in English deceit', deceit'ful, deceive', deceiv'er, receive', receiv'able, receiv er, receipt', conceit', conceit'ed, conceiv'able, conceive', perceive', perceiv’able, nei'ther, ei'ther, deceiv'ing, deceived', receiv'ing, received', conceit'ing, perceiv'ing, perceived', &c. (ei, followed by g, s. ā, thus) reign, feign, deign, &c. (ei, s. ā, also in) rein, reins, vein, drein, veil, heir.
The final e mute malces the preceding e in the same syllable, when accented,
have the sound of ē, as in supreme, sincere, replete. scheme, blaspheme', theme, supreme', extreme', sincere', insincere', severe', persevere', delete', replete', complete', incomplete', mete, secrete', concrete', discrete', &c. ere, s. ār, in there and where. The following words are pronounced differently in IRELAND from what
they are in ENGLAND. cheer'ful, fear'ful, door, floor, gape, gath'er, beard, bull, bush, push, pull, pul'pit, calf, catch, coarse, course, court, malici'ous, pud'ding, quash, lei'sure, clam'our, drought, search, source, strength, length, strove, drove, ten'ure, ten'able, wrath, wroth, fare'well, rode, strode, shone, schism, where'fore, there'fore, breadth, cold, bold, cof'fer, endeav'. our, foot, mischievous, on'ion, put, reach, squad'ron, zealous, zeal'ot.
Faults of the English in PRONUNCIATION, and particularly of
the LONDONERS. The letters sts, or tes, the plural of nouns, or the singular of verbs, must
all be distinctly heard in one syllable. casts, out'casts, fasts, enthu'siasts, blasts, masts, boasts, con'trasts, chests, jests, nests, for'ests, con’tests, guests, requests', con quests; abates', ded'icates, com'plicates, sup'plicates, dates, mit'igates, in'stigates, hates, me'diates, ex'piates, sa'tiates, ob'viates, relates', &c.
v must never be pronounced for w, nor w for v. vale, valsiant, val'id, val’ue, van, var'nish, vast, vaunt, vehemence, vein, ven'erate, ven'ture, verge, vest, vic'ar, vice, view, village, vine, vin'egar, vi'olet, vir'tue, viv'id, wood, wood'land, word, work, worthy, &c.
h after w must always be sounded. whale, wheat, whelm, when, whence, where, whereat', whereby', whereas', whereunto', whet, wheth'er, whey, which, while, whilst, whim, whine, whip, whirl, whist, white, who, whoev'er, whole, &c.
h must be sounded in such words as the following: hab'it, hail, hair, half, hall, halt, bam'let, hand, hang, hank, hap'py, harangue',har'ass, har'bour, hard, hardheart'ed, harm, harmony, harp'er, har'row, haste, hate, hate'ful, haugh'ty, haz'ard, head, head'long, heal, health, heap, hear, heart, heart'whole, heat, heath, hea'then, heave, heav'en, heed, height, height'en, hei'nous, held, helm, &c.
In the following words the 'h is silent. heir, heir'ess, herb, herb'age, hon'est, hon'esty, hon'estly, hon'our, hon'ourable, hon'ourably, hos'pital, hos'tler, hour, hour'ly, hum'ble, hum'bles, hum'bled, hum'bly, hu'mour, hu'morist, hu'morous, hu'. morously, hu'morsome.
In the pronunciation of the following words the Natives of
SCOTLAND are very liable to err. of, off, in'to, with, within', without', beneath', ere, erelong', ere. now', crewhile', ne'er, e'er, and, man, an, wax, waft, are, were, have, hast, has, hath, had, do, dost, doth, does, might, could, would, should, shall, length, strength,' long, strong, na'tion, nati'ona na'. ture, nat'ural, naturally, bold, hold, cold, sold, told, yet.