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ing inflection ; if the emphasis does not exclude the antithesis the em. phatic word has the rising inflection. The distinction between the two emphatic inflections is this ; the falling infection affirms something in the emphasis, and denies what is opposed to it in the antithesis, while the emphasis with the rising inflection, affirms something in the emphasis without denying what is opposed to it in the antithesis : the former, therefore, from its affirming and denying absolutely, may be called the strong emphasis ; and the latter, from its affirming only, and not denying, may be called the weak emphasis. We have an instance of the strong emphasis and falling inflection on the words de. spite and fear, in the following sentence, where Richard the Third rejects the proposal of the Duke of Norfolk to pardon the rebels.

4. Why that, indeed, was our sixth Harry's way,
Which made his reign one scene of rude commotion :
I'll be in men's despite a monarch; no,
Let kings that fear forgive; blows and revenge

For me. The paraphrase of these words, when thus emphatical, would be, r'n be, not in men's favour, but in their despite, a monarch-and, let not me who am fearless, but kings that fear, forgive. The weak emphasis, with the rising inflection, takes place on the word man in the following example from the Fair Penitent, where Horatio, taxing Lothario with forgery, says,

5. 'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man', To forge a scroll so villanous and loose,

And mark it with a noble lady's name. If this emphasis were paraphrased, it would run thus : 'Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man, though not unworthy of a brute.

The first of the following examples is an instance of the single emphasis implied; the second, of the single emphasis expressed ; the third, of the double emphasis ; and the fourth, of the treble emphasis.

1. Exercise and temperance strengthen even an indifferent constitution.

2. You were paid to fight' against Alexander, and not to rail at him.

3. The pleasures of the imagination are not so gross' as those of sense', nor so refined as those of the understanding.

4. He' raised a mortal' to the skies',

She' drew an angel' down'.

In these examples of emphasis the emphatic word alone is printed in italics ; the marks above them denote the inflections.

1

SINGLE EMPHASIS.*
RULE.When a sentence is composed of a positive and negative part,

the positive must have the falling, and the negative the rising
inflection.

EXAMPLES.

1. We can do nothing againsť the truth, but for the truth.

2. None more impatiently suffer' injuries, than they who are most forward in doing them.

3. You were paid to fight against Alexander, and not to rail' at him.

4. Hunting (and men', not beasts',) shall be his game.

5. Cæsar, who would not wait the conclusion of the consul's speech, generously replied, that he came into Italy not to injure' the liberties of Rome and its citizens, but to restore them.

6. If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours' only, but also for the sins of the whole

world'.

7. Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called the sons of God! therefore the world knoweth us' not, because it knew him not.

8. It is not the business of virtue to extirpate' the affections of the mind, but to regulate them :

9. It may moderate and restrain', but was not designed to banish gladness from the heart of man. 10. Those governments which curb' not evils, cause!

And a rich knave's a libel on our laws. 11. For if you pronounce, that, as my public conduct hath not been right, Ctesiphon must stand condemned, it must be thought that yourselves' have acted wrong, not that you owe your present state to the caprice of fortune. But it cannot be. No, my countrymen! it cannot be you have acted wrong, in encountering danger bravely, for the liberty and safety of Greece'. No! by those generous souls of ancient times, who were exposed at Marathon! by those who stood arrayed at Platæa'! by those who encountered the Persian fleet at Satamis! who fought at Artemesium! By all those illustrious sons of Athens, whose remains lie deposited in the public monuments'! All of whom re

* When two emphatic words in antithesis with each other are either expressed or implied, the emphasis is said to be single.

of To this rule, however, there are some exceptions, not only in poetry, but also in prose. ,

ceived the same honourable interment from their country : Not those only who prevailed, not those only who were victorious'. And with reason. What was the part of gallant men they all performed; their success was such as the supreme Director of the world dispensed to each.

Note.—When two objects are compared, the comparative word has the strong emphasis and falling inflection, and the word compared has the weak emphasis and rising inflection.*

EXAMPLES.

1.

It is a custom
More honoured in the breach than the observance'.
2. I would die' sooner than mention it.

DOUBLE EMPHASIS. Rule.-The falling inflection takes place on the first emphatic word, 14. If men of eminence are exposed to eensure' on one hand, they are as much liable to flattery' on the other'.

the rising on the second and third, and the falling on the fourth. I

EXAMPLES.

1. To err' is human'; to forgive' divine'. 2. Custom is the plague' of wisé' men, and the idol of fools'. 3. The prodigal robs his heir', the miser' robs himself". 4. We are weak', and ye are strong'. 5. Without' were fightings', within' were fears'. 6. Business' sweetens pleasure', as labour' sweetens rest'. 7. Prosperity gains' friends, and adversity tries' them.

8. The wise' man considers what he wants', and the fool' what he abounds' in.

9. One' sun by day'-by nighť ten thousand' shine.

10. Justice appropriates honours' to virtue', and rewards' to merit'.

11. Justice seems most agreeable to the nature of God', and mercy' to that of man',

12. It is as great a point of wisdom to hide ignorance', as to discover' knowledge'.

13. As it is the part of justice' never to do violence', it is of modesty never to commit offence'.

* This is the case when it is the intention of the speaker to declare, with emphasis, the priority or preferableness of one thing to another.

+ When two words are opposed to each other and contrasted with two other words, the emphasis on these four words may be called double.

# The pause after the second emphatic word must be considerably longer than that after the first or third.

15. The wise man is happy when he gains his own' approba. tion, and the fool' when he recommends himself to the applause of those about him.

16. We make provision for this life as though it were never to have an end', and for the other' life as though it were never to have a beginning

17. Alfred seemed born not only to defend his bleeding country', but even to adorn' humanity. ,

18. His care was to polish' the country by arts', as he had protected it by arms!

19. Yielding to immoral' pleasure corrupts' the mind, living to animal and trifling' ones debases' it.

20. Grief is the counter passion of joy. The one arises from agreeable', and the other' from dis'agreeable events,—the one! from pleasure and the other from pain', -the one from good and the other from evil'. 21. Fools' anger shew', which politicians' hide'.

22. The foulest stain and scandal of our nature
Became its boast. One' murder makes a villain',
Millions' a Hero'. War' its thousands' slays,
Peace' its ten' thousands.
23.

In arms oppos'd,
Marlborough and Alexander vie for fame
With glorious competition; equal both
In valour and in fortune: but their praise
Be different, for with different views they fought ;
This' to subdue', and thať to free' mankind*.

1

TREBLE EMPHASIST. Rule.-The rising inflection takes place on the first and third, and

the falling on the second of the first three emphatical words; the first and third of the other three have the falling, and the second has the rising inflection.

EXAMPLES.

1. A friend cannot be known' in prosperity'; and an enemj cannot be hidden' in adversity'.

* Though some of the examples under the head of emphasis are not strictly emphatical, yet the words marked as such will show how similarly constructed sentences may be read.

of When three emphatic words are opposed to three other emphatio words, in the same sentence, the emphasis is called treble.

2. Flowers of rhetoric in sermons or serious discourses, are like the blue and red flowers in corn, pleasing' to those' who come only for amusement' , but prejudicial' to him' who would reap the profit'.

3. Man is a creature designed for two different states of being, or rather, for two different lives. The first life is short' and transient': his second, permanent and lasting":

4. The difference between a madman and a fool, is, that the former' reasons justly, from false' data; and the latter', erroneously', from just data.

5. He rais'd a mortal to the skies', She' drew an angel down',

6. Passions' are winds' to urge us o'er the wave', Reason' the rudder', to direct and save' ;

7. This without those', obtains a vain' employ, Those' without this', but urge us to destroy'.

8. The generous buoyant spirit is a power
Which in the virtuous mind doth all things conquer.
It bears' the hero' on to arduous' deeds:
It lifts' the saint' to heaven'.

Note.-In the following examples the treble emphasis, though not expressed, is evidently implied.

EXAMPLES

1. To reign is worth ambition, though in hell ;

Better to reign' in hell' than serve in heaven'. 2. I would rather be the first man in that village' than the second in Rome'.

THE ANTECEDENT. Rule I.- Personal or adjective pronouns, when antecedents,

must be pronounced with accentual force, to intimate that the relative is in view, and in some measure to anticipate the pronunciation of it.

EXAMPLES. 1. He, that pursues fame with just claims, trusts his happihess to the winds; but he, that endeavours after it by false merit, has to fear, not only the violence of the storm, but the leaks of his vessel.

2. The weakest reasoners are always the most positive in debate; and the cause is obvious; for they are unavoidably driven to maintain their pretensions by violence, who want arguments and reasons to prove that they are in the right.

3. A man will have his servant just, diligent, sober, and chaste,

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