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for no other reason but the terror of losing his master's favour, when all the laws divine and human cannot keep him whom he serves within bounds, with relation to any one of these virtues.

4. And greater sure my merit, who, to gain

A point sublime, could such a task sustain.

RULE II. When the relative only is expressed, the antecedent being

understood, the accentual force then falls upon the relative.

EXAMPLES.

1. Who does the best his circumstance allows, Does well, acts nobly; angels could no more.

2. Who lives to nature, rarely can be poor : Who lives to fancy, never can be rich.

3. What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy,
The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt joy,
Is virtue's prize.

4. Who noble ends by noble means obtains,
Or failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.

GENERAL EMPHASIS, Is that emphatic force, which, when the composition is very animated, and approaches to a close, we often lay upon several words in succession. This emphasis is not so much regulated by the sense of the author as by the taste and feelings of the reader, and therefore does not admit of any certain rule.

EXAMPLES.

1.

What men could do,
Is done already : heaven and earth will witness,

If Rome' must' fall', that we are innocent. 2. There was a time, then, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters both by sea and land; when their troops and forts surrounded the entire circuit of Attica; when they possessed Eubea, Tanagra, the whole Baotian district, Megara, Ægina, Cleone, and the other islands, while this state had not one ship, not' one' wall'.

In these examples, if the words marked as emphatic are pronounced with the proper inflections, and with a distinct pause after each, it is inconceivable the force that will be given to these few words. This general emphasis, it may be observed, has identity for its object, the antithesis to which is appearance, similitude, or the least possible di. versity.

THE INTERMEDIATE OR ELLIPTICAL MEMBER

Is that part of a sentence which is equally related to both parts of an antithesis, but which is properly only once expressed.

EXAMPLES.

1. Must we, in your person, crown' the author of the public calamities, or must we destroy' him?

2. A good man will love himself too well to lose' an estate by gaming, and his neighbour too well to win' one.

In the above examples, the elliptical members “ the author of the public calamities” and “ an estate by gaming”-are pronounced with the rising inflection, but with a higher and feebler tone of voice than the antithetic words crown and lose.*

In the two following examples, the elliptical members, which are immediately after the last two antithetic words win and brain, are pronounced with the falling inflection, but in a lower tone of voice than these words.

EXAMPLES.

3. A good man will love himself too well to lose and his neighbour too well to win', an estate by gaming.

4. It would be in vain to inquire whether the power of image ining things strongly proceeds from any greater perfection in the soul', or from any nicer texture in the brain' of one man than of another.

When the intermediate member contains an emphatical word, or extends to any length, it will be necessary to consider it as an essential member of the sentence, and to pronounce it with emphasis and variety.

EXAMPLE. 5. A man would not only be an unhappy', but a rude unfinished! creature, were he conversant with none but those of his own make,

EXERCISES on EMPHASIS. 1. In their prosperity, my friends shall never hear of me; in their adversity, always.

2. There is no possibility of speaking properly the language of any passion, without feeling it.

. When the elliptical member contains no emphatical word it must be pronounced in a monotone.

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3. A book that is to be read, requires one sort of style; a man that is toʻspeak, must use another.

4. A sentiment, which, expressed diffusely, will barely be admitted to be just ; expressed concisely, will be admired as spirited.

5. Whatever may have been the origin of pastoral poetry, it is, un. doubtedly, a natural, and very agreeable form of poetical composition.

6. A stream that runs within its banks is a beautiful object; but when it rushes down with the impetuosity and noise of a torrent, it presently becomes a sublime one.

7. Though rules and instructions cannot do all that is requisite, they may, however, do much that is of real use. They cannot, it is true, inspire genius; but they can direct and assist it. They cannot remedy barrenness; but they can correct redundancy.

8. A French sermon is, for the most part, a warm animated ex. hortation ; an English one, is a piece of cool instructive reasoning. The French preachers address themselves chiefly to the imagination and the passions; the English, almost solely to the understanding,

9. No person can imagine that to be a frivolous and contemptible art, which has been employed by writers under divine inspiration, and has been chosen as a proper channel for conveying to the world the knowledge of divine truth.

10. The tastes of men may differ very considerably as to their object, and yet none of them be wrong. One man relishes poetry most ; another takes pleasure in nothing but history. One prefers comedy ; another, tragedy. One admires the simple ; another, the ornamented style. The young are amused with gay and sprightly compositions ; the elderly are more entertained with those of a graver cast. Some nations delight in bold pictures of manners, and strong representations of passions; others incline to more correct and regular elegance both in description and sentiment. Though all differ, yet all pitch upon some one beauty which peculiarly suits their turn of mind ; and, therefore, no one has a title to condemn the rest. 11. Pleads he in earnest ? Look upon his face:

His eyes do drop no tears ; his prayers are jest ;
His words come from his mouth; ours, from our breast;
He prays but faintly, and would be denied';

We pray with heart and soul.
12. Two principles in human nature reign;

Self-love to urge, and reason to restrain :
Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call;

Each works its end, to move or govern all.
13. See the sole bliss Heav'n could on all bestow !

Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can know :
Yet poor with fortune, and with learning blind,

The bad must miss; the good untaught will find. 14. In this our day of proof, our land of hope,

The good man has his clouds that intervene;
Clouds that may dim his sublunary day,
But cannot darken : even the best must own,
Patience and resignation are the pillars
Of human peace on earth.

15. Some dream that they can silence when they will

The storm of passion, and say, Peace, be still,
But • Thus far, and no farther,' when address'd
To the wild wave, or wilder human breast,
Implies authority, that never can,

And never ought to be the lot of man.
16. While bence they walk, the pilgrim's bosom wrought

With all the travail of uncertain thought.
His partner's acts, without their cause appear :
'Twas there a vice, and seem'd a madness bere.
Detesting that, and pitying this, he goes,
Lost and confounded with the various shows.

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RHETORICAL PAUSES. Rule 1.- Pause after the nominative when it consists of more than RULE II.-When any member comes between the nominative case

one word.*

EXAMPLES. 1. The fashion of this world passeth away. 2. The experience of want enhances the value of plenty. 3. Excessive merriment is the parent of grief. 4. To practise virtue is the sure way to love it. 5. The cares of this world often choke the growth of virtue.

6. The pains and calamities to which we are subject form a part in the established order of providence.

7. The pleasures and honours of the world to come are, in the strictest sense of the word, everlasting.

Note 1.-A pause may be made after a nominative even when it consists of only one word, if it be a word of importance, or if we wish it to be particularly observed.

EXAMPLES.

1. Adversity is the school of piety. 2. The fool hath said in his heart there is no God. 3. Industry is the guardian of innocence-industry is the instrument of virtue.

Note 2._When a sentence consists of a nominative and a verb, each expressed in a single word, no pause is necessary.

EXAMPLES

1. George learns.-2. The boys read.-3. The tree grows.-4. He comes.

The place of the pause is immediately before each of the words printed in italics.

and the verb, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause,

EXAMPLES.

1. Trials in this state of being are the lot of man. 2. Honest endeavours if preserved in will finally be successful.

3. Disappointments and afflictions however disagreeable often improve us.

4. Such is the constitution of men, that virtue however it may be neglected for a time will ultimately be acknowledged and respected.

5. All floats on the surface of that river, which with swift current is running towards a boundless ocean.

RULE III.—When any member comes between the verb and the

ohjective or accusative case, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause.

EXAMPLES.

1. I knew a person who possessed the faculty of distinguishing flavours in so great a perfection, that, after having tasted ten different kinds of tea, he would distinguish without seeing the colour of it the particular sort which was offered him.

2. A man of a fine taste in writing will discern after the same manner not only the general beauties and imperfections of an author, but discover the several ways of thinking and expressing himself, which diversify him from all other authors.

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RULE IV.—When two verbs come together, and the latter is in the

infinitive mood, if any words come between, they must be separated

from the latter verb by a pause.

EXAMPLES.

1. Now, because our inward passions and inclinations can never make themselves visible, it is impossible for a jealous man to be thoroughly cured of his suspicions.

2. Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune ;
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them?

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