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EXAMPLES

1. A certain general has an army of 141376 men. How many must he place in rank and file to form them into a square ?

Ans. 376. 2. If the area of a circle be 1760 yards, how many

feet must the side of a square measure to contain that quantity ?

Ans. 125.857+ feet. 3. If a line 144 feet long will reach from the top of a fort to the opposite side of a river 64 feet wide, on whose brink it stands, what is the height of the fort ? Ans. 128.99+

4. A certain room is 20 feet long, 16 feet wide, and 12 feet high ; how long must a line be to extend from one of the lower corners to the upper corner farthest from it? Ans. 28.28ft.

5. A certain field is 40 rods square; what must be the length of one of the equal sides of another field that shall contain only one fourth as much area ?

Ans. 20 rods. 6. The areas of two similar triangular-shaped fields are 60 and 90 acres, and a side of the former is 66 rods. Required the corresponding side of the latter ?

7. If a lead pipe { of an inch in diameter will fill a cistern in 3 hours, what should be its diameter to fill it in 2 hours ?

Ans. .918+ inches. 8. If a pipe 14 inches in diameter will fill a cistern in 50 minutes, how long would it require a pipe that is 2 inches in diameter to fill the same cistern?

Ans. 28m. 74s. 9. If a pipe 6 inches in diameter will draw off a certain quantity of water in 4 hours, in what time would it take 3 pipes of four inches in diameter to draw off twice the quantity ?

Ans. 6 hours. 10. The first term of a proportion is 40, and the fourth term 90. Required a mean proportional between them. Ans. 60.

11. In a pair of scales a body weighed 314 pounds in one scale, and only 20 pounds in the other scale. Required its true weight.

Ans. 25 pounds. 12. I wish to set out an orchard of 2400 mulberry-trees, so that the length shall be to the breadth as 3 to 2, and the distance between any two adjacent trees 7 yards. How many trees must there be in the length, and how many in the breadth; and on how many square yards of ground will they stand ? Ans. 60 in length ; 40 in breadth ; 112749 sq. yd. 13. The sum of two persons' ages is 50 years,

and their product is 600 years.

What are their ages ? Ans. Of the one, 20 years; of the other, 30 years. 14. Two ships sail from the same port; one goes due north 128 miles, the other due east 72 miles; how far are the ships from each other?

Ans. 146.86+. 15. There are two columns in the ruins of Persepolis left standing upright; one is 70 feet above the plane, and the other 50; in a straight line between these stands a small statue, 5 feet in height, the head of which is 100 feet from the summit of the higher, and 80 feet from the top of the lower column. Required the distance between the tops of the two columns.

16. The sum of two numbers is 44, and the square of their difference is 16. Required the numbers.

Ans. 24 the larger number; 20 the smaller. 17. A tree 80 feet in height stands on a horizontal plane; at what height from the ground must it be broken off, so that the top of it may fall on a point 40 feet from the bottom of the tree, the end where it was broken off resting on the stump?

Ans. 30 feet. 18. The height of a tree, growing in the centre of a circular island, 100 feet in diameter, is 160 feet; and a line extending from the top of it to the farther shore is 400 feet. What is the breadth of the stream, provided the land on each side of the water be level ?

Ans. 316.6+ feet. 19. A ladder 70 feet long is so planted as to reach a win dow 40 feet from the ground, on one side of the street, and without moving it at the foot it will reach a window 30 feet high on the other side ; what is the breadth of the street ?

20. If an iron wire It of an inch in diameter will sustain a weight of 450 pounds, what weight might be sustained by a wire an inch in diameter ?

Ans. 45000lb. 21. A gentleman proposes to plant a vineyard of 10 acres. If he places the vines 6 feet apart, how many more can he plant by setting them in the quincunx order than in the square order, allowing the plat to lie in the form of a square, and no vine to be set nearer its edge than 1 foot in either case ?

Ans. 1870 more in the quincunx order.

22. Four men, A, B, C, and D, bought a grindstone, the diameter of which was 40 inches and the place for the shaft 4 inches in diameter. It was agreed that A should grind off his share first, then in turn B, C, and D. Required how many inches each man will grind off from the semidiameter, providing they each paid the same sum.

Ans. A, 2.65lin.; B, 3.137in.; C, 4.064in.; and D, 8.148in.

23. I have a board whose surface contains 49 square feet; the board is 14 inches thick, and I wish to make a cubical box of it. Required the length of one of its equal sides.

Ans. 36 inches. 24. A carpenter has a plank 1 foot wide, 2233 feet long, and 21 inches thick ; and he wishes to make a box whose width shall be twice its height, and whose length shall be twice its width. Required the contents of the box.

Ans. 5719 cubic inches. 25. If a ball, 3 inches in diameter, weigh 4 pounds, what will be the weight of a ball that is 6 inches in diameter?

Ans. 32lbs. 26. If a globe of gold, one inch in diameter, be worth $120, what is the value of a globe 34 inches in diameter?

27. If the weight of a well-proportioned man, 5 feet 10 inches in height, be 180 pounds, what must have been the weight of Goliath of Gath, who was 10 feet 4} inches in height?

Ans. 1015.1+1b. 28. If a bell, 4 inches in height, 3 inches in width, and of an inch in thickness, weigh 2 pounds, what should be the dimensions of a similar bell that would weigh 2000 pounds ?

Ans. 3ft. 4in. high, 2ft. 6in. wide, and 24in. thick. 29. What are the two mean proportionals between 56 and 12096 ?

Ans. 336 and 2016. 30. Having a small stack of hay, 5 feet in height, weighing Icwt., I wish to know the weight of a similar stack that is 20 feet in height.

Ans. 64cwt. 31. If a man dig a small square cellar, which will measure 6 feet each way, in one day, how long would it take him to dig a similar one that measured 10 feet each way?

Ans. 4.629+ days. 32. If an ox, whose girth is 6 feet, weighs 600lb., what is the weight of an ox whose girth is 8 feet? Ans. 1422.2+1b.

33. Four women own a ball of yarn, 5 inches in diameter. It is agreed that each shall wind off her share from the ball. How many

inches of its diameter shall each wind off ? Ans. First, .45+ inches; second, .57+ inches; third, .82+

inches; fourth, 3.149+ inches. 34. John Jones has a stack of hay in the form of a quadrangular pyramid. It is 16 feet in height, and 12 feet wide at its base. It contains 5 tons of hay, worth $ 17.50 per ton. Mr. Jones has sold this hay to Messrs. Pierce, Row, Wells, and Northend. As the upper part of the stack has been injured, it is agreed that Mr. Pierce, who takes the upper part, shall have 10 per cent. more of the hay than Mr. Rowe ; and Mr. Rowe, who takes his share next, shall have 8 per cent. more than Mr. Wells; and Mr. Northend, who has the bottom of the stack, that has been much injured, shall have 10 per cent. more than Mr. Wells. Required the quantity of hay, and how many feet of the height of the stack, beginning at the top, each receives. Ans. Pierce receives 274cwt. and 10.366+ feet in height;

Rowe, 24149cwt. and 2.493 feet; Wells, 2234fcwt. and 1.666 feet; Northend, 2524cwt. and 1.474 feet.

PROGRESSION, OR SERIES.

554. A SERIES is a succession of numbers that depend on one another by some fixed law.

The numbers constituting a series are called its terms; of which the first and last are called extremes, and the other terms the means,

ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.

555. ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION, or PROGRESSION BY DIFFERENCE, is a series that increases or decreases by a constant number, called the common DIFFERENCE.

The series is said to be an ascending one when each term

after the first exceeds the one before it; and a descending one when each term after the first is less than the one before it.

Thus, 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, is an ascending series, in which each term after the first is derived from the one preceding it by the addition of the common difference 4; and 25, 22, 19, 16, 13, 10, 7, 4, 1, is a descending series, in which each term after the first is derived from the one preceding it by the subtraction of the common difference 3.

556. In arithmetical progression, the first term, the last term, the number of terms, the common difference, and the sum of the terms, are so related to each other, that, three of these being given, the two others may be readily determined.

OPERATION.

557. To find the common difference, the extremes and number of terms being given.

Ex. 1. The extremes of an arithmetical series are 3 and 45, and the number of terms is 22. Required the common difference.

Ans. 2. It is evident that the number of common 45 3

differences in any series must be 1 less than

the number of terms. Therefore, since the 22 1

number of terms in this series is 22, the num

ber of common differences will be 22 - 1 21, and their sum will be equal to the difference of the extremes; hence the difference of the extremes, 45 - 3 = 42, divided by the number of common differences, 21, gives 2 as the common difference required.

RULE. Divide the difference of the extremes by the number of terms less one, and the quotient will be the common difference.

= 2.

EXAMPLES.

2. A certain school consists of 19 teachers and scholars, whose ages form an arithmetical series; the youngest is 3 years old, and the oldest 39. What is the common difference of their ages ?

Ans. 2 years. 3. A man is to travel from Albany to a certain place in 11 days, and to go but 5 miles the first day, increasing the distance equally each day, so that the last day's journey may be 45 miles. Required the daily increase.

Ans. 4 miles.

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