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clerk of the board. He died in Tucson on the 21st day of October, 1908.

The following is from an address which was given by Mr. Shibell to the Pioneer's Historical Society, and it gives a very graphic account of conditions in Pima County in the early days of its settlement:

“In the early part of the year 1862 I arrived in Tucson in the employ of the government, and after a trip to the Rio Grande, returned here in February of the year 1863, and, leaving the government employ, became a permanent resident of the Territory. During the latter part of 1863, I went to Los Angeles, via Yuma, and returned to Mohave, spent two or three weeks there, and took a canoe trip from Mohave down the Colorado to Yuma in company with one Stebbins and James Gardner, who was afterwards murdered at Texas Hill in the latter part of the year 1864. From Yuma I returned to Tucson, and was in the employ of Gen. J. B. Allen from January to June, at which date the California Volunteer troop which had been stationed at Tucson was ordered to proceed to Las Cruces on the Rio Grande, to be mustered out of service. In the latter part of June I went to the Cerro Colorado mine in company with Alfonzo Rickman, John H. Behan, Charles Roberts and George Blair, where I remained until November in the employment of the company. While there I first became acquainted with Charles T. Etchells, W. W. Williams, C. H. Lord, John Miller, James Walters, and numerous others. During my sojourn at Cerro Colorado, a number of murders were perpetrated by the Indians, the names of most of the murdered it is impossible to recollect. I recall among the murdered were William Wrightson, the manager of the Salero Mining Company, and after whom one of the peaks of the Santa Ritas is named, and the genial, pleasant, affable friend and companion, Francis A. Hopkins, who was a member from Pima County in the first Arizona Legislature; also a Mexican, name unknown, their servant, killed in the latter part of the year, 1864, at Point of Rocks, near old Fort Buchanan, now known as Camp Crittenden; Edward Stevens and J. S. Mills were killed near Patagonia in the early part of the year. In the fall of 1864 I returned to Tucson, remained until January, 1865, again returned to Cerro Colorado, where I was employed until May. Upon leaving went to Tubac, from which point I went to the Sonoita to try my hand at ranching, on what was the Finley ranch, now known as Maish's lower ranch in that valley, being then the most exposed settlement in the southwestern part of the country. William Rainey was my partner in ranching, and during the year 1865 the ranch was attacked three times; each time the Indians succeeded in running off all our stock. At that time there was no other ranch on the Sonoita, and our nearest neighbor was on the upper Santa Cruz, known as the Huababi, occupied by a Mexican by the name of Rafael Saavedra. Indian murders were very numerous during the year, and were confined amongst the Mexicans, whose names I cannot recall. In January, 1866, a party of Mexicans established a vineterillo or mescal factory at Casa Blanca, upper Sonoita, but in the course of a few weeks they were driven out, their stock stolen, and two of their number killed, after which they abandoned the place. In April, 1866, they attacked the ranch, and although they did not succeed in killing anyone, they captured all our working animals and killed some of the cattle. Before the attack on us they had attacked the Huababi ranch, killing a Mexican, a woman, two children, one three the other five years old, and the owner, Rafael Saavedra. The circumstances under which Rafael Saavedra was killed showed the heroic mould in which pioneers were cast. The Indians had set fire to all the outbuildings and huts near the main house in which were Saavedra and his family, who could have protected themselves against the attack. The Indians had captured a woman, one of the peons or servants, and were dragging her away. Her heart-rending cries calling for someone to save her, reached the ears of Rafael Saavedra, who, resisting the appeals of his family not to leave them, rushed out, attacked the Indians, succeeded in saving the woman, but at the expense of his own life. He received a mortal wound from which that same night he died. This heroic act, if portrayed by the pen of Scott or Tennyson, would render immortal the name of Rafael Saavedra.

“During the year 1866 we remained at the ranch, but were not attacked, although parties of Mexicans were killed, along the southern border in our vicinity, the names of whom were unknown to us, our own personal loss being the stock driven off as fast as we could replenish it. During the latter part of the year one of our men, a Mexican, name impossible to recall, other than Juan, was killed within one hundred yards

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of the house. After harvesting the crop we abandoned the ranch and moved to Tubac. During the same year the Indians attacked a party of Mexicans at the Arroyo de San Gayetano, about five miles south of Tubac, killing two men, two women and two children."

Mr. W. N. Kelly, an old pioneer of Prescott, furnished me with the following data relating to the principal Indian fights in the northern part of the Territory during the year 1866.

According to his statement, the Apaches and Mohaves gave great trouble to the pioneer settlers during this year. A band of them fol. lowed Freeman's train into Skull Valley, and when he went into camp the Indians came out on the hills and wanted to come into the camp. They professed to be friendly. They left their bows and arrows behind, but all of them had knives which they had secreted. They surrounded the train and became “sassy” and wanted Freeman to give up his supplies. After a little while an old squaw came into the camp and wanted to know why the Indians did not start in and kill the white men off, and at that they drew their knives and started for the teamsters who all jumped for their guns. Freeman had an old fashioned goose gun, both barrels loaded with buck shot. The Indians then took to the woods for their bows and arrows. Old Freeman turned his goose gun loose just as the Indians were leading away from him in Indian file, and he must have got six or seven Indians in one shot, which disheartened them. They had quite a little fight, but the Indians finally took to the woods. It is said that the woods were full

of corpses from that fight. Freeman did not lose a man. He afterwards died in Phoenix.

Binckley had a team and a train with Freeman. He had lost an eye in the Battle Flat fight, and he said that he had got even with the Indians. Every teamster had bows and arrows and other things which they took from the Indians. Fred Henry was one of the heroes of that fight.

The Indians engaged in that fight were from the La Paz reservation on the Colorado, and it was proved afterwards that they had followed Freeman's train more than one hundred miles to find a favorable opportunity for making the attack, leaving the river in small parties by different routes, and concentrating at different points.

In the fall of 1866 Poindexter was the mail carrier between Prescott and Hardyville, and was escorted by soldiers of the 14th U. S. Infantry, Pat McAteer, Ed May, and one other. They arrived one evening at Fort Rock and made a stop for the night. The day they got there Thad Buckman, the son of the man who kept the station, a boy of about fourteen or fifteen years of age, had made a little playhouse in front of the cabin in the form of a crescent of stones, about twelve or fifteen inches high. As Poindexter and his escort were ready to pull out the next morning, the Indians charged them. At the first shot they shot Thad Buckman through the leg, and his father through the groin, and the shots came so thick and fast that Buckman and McAteer could not get back into the cabin, and the two men and the boy dropped into the little playhouse, inside of the stones,

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