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and nights there was great rejoicing among the tribe. Horses were killed and eaten, as was their custom on their days of feasting or celebration, and the residents of the town of La Paz wondered what the occasion was, until informed by some squaws that Leihy was killed, a statement soon confirmed by the next traveller over the road."

The Indian account, by Mike Burns, of the killing of Agent Leihy, is given in a preceding volume.

In September, 1865, Fort McDowell was established, with five companies of California Volunteers, as a point from which to operate against the Indians of the neighboring mountains. The post was situated on the west bank of the Rio Verde, about eight miles from its junction with the Salt River, and is about eighteen hundred feet above sea level. The sickly place called Camp Date Creek, about sixty-five miles southwest from Prescott, was first established as Camp McPherson in 1866, the name being changed in November, 1868. It afforded considerable protection to travellers between Prescott and the Colorado River.

The killing of Agent Leihy and his companion was entirely due to his own negligence. He had been warned not to travel without a sufficiently large escort, but wilfully disregarded the warning, and paid the penalty of his carelessness. Another instance of this negligence or carelessness resulted in the killing of Doctor Tappan in 1866. Dr. Tappan was escorted by Major Miller of the 14th U. S. Infantry. Major Miller said there were no Indians, but the party was waylaid in a canyon called Round Valley while

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it was on its way to the Pima Villages. Dr. Tappan and four soldiers were killed, entirely through the carelessness or over-confidence of Major Miller, who said there were no Indians, and neglected to take proper precautions.

The “Arizona Miner” says that General McDowell was given a reception in Prescott on the 14th day of February, 1866, at which reception he stated that he had sent all possible troops to the Territory, including a regiment of regulars. According to the same authority, General McDowell issued a special order on February 7th, 1866, establishing a government farm at Fort McDowell in charge of Lieutenant Colonel Bennett, and authorized the employment of three men at $50 per month, and twenty men at $40 per month and rations, to build a ditch and drain and cultivate the soil.

On March 28th, 1866, the military headquarters for the Territory were removed from Prescott to Tucson.

CHAPTER VII.
THE INDIANS AND THE MILITARY (Continued).
REPORT OF JOINT COMMITTEE-REGULAR TROOPS

POORLY ADAPTED TO FIGHTING INDIANS-
RECOMMEND COMPANY OF RANGERS IN EACH
COUNTY_CONTROVERSY BETWEEN GOVERNOR
McCORMICK AND GENERAL MCDOWELL IN
REGARD TO TROOPS—“MINER” EDITORIAL ON
COMMISSIONERS' REPORT ON INDIAN DIFFI-

CULTIES. The Third Legislature appointed a Joint Committee on Military and Indian Affairs, which made the following report to the respective houses :

“The Joint Committee on Military and Indian Affairs hereby report that they have had the subject under careful consideration, and beg leave to present the following conclusions:

“1. That the military force now in the Territory is entirely insufficient to protect the inhabitants from the depredations of the Apaches, Pah-Utes and other hostile Indians. That it is, in fact, inadequate properly to garrison the different posts, and to defend the roads and mails, not to speak of waging an aggressive war upon the barbarous enemy, which war is positively necessary to the successful opening of the country.

“2. That experience has proven that the regular troops are poorly adapted to Indian fighting in this country; that while they hold the forts, another force must be provided for the field-a force familiar with the haunts and habits of the Indians, and who are eager to punish them.

That, as set forth in the letter of Governor McCormick to the Secretary of War, in June last, the qualities shown by the several companies of native (or Mexican) volunteers, in service during the past year, were such as prove them to be the right men in the right place, and that it is much to be regretted that they were not kept in service. That the hearty thanks of the people are due to them for their marked efficiency, and that we earnestly recommend the Legislative Assembly to memorialize Congress for authority to raise a full regiment of them, (if it is thought that the men can be raised,) for the term of two years, confidently believing it to be the only step whereby the hostile savages can quickly, surely and cheaply be brought to terms.

3. That for the immediate defense of the people, the organization of a company of rangers in each county, to serve only when actually needed, is a necessity; and that it is recommended that an appropriation to meet the expenses of sustaining the same be asked of Congress, as a just and reasonable demand.

4. That the management of the Indian superintendency, for some time past, has been such as to injure rather than benefit the Territory. The Superintendent seems to have entertained the impression that he could discharge the duties of his important office by remaining in one particular locality, while it is the judgment of your committee that he should visit all parts of the Territory, and by actual observation and intercourse become familiar with the wants of the various tribes. This duty has been so en

tirely neglected that many of the tribes are yet ignorant of the existence of a superintendent, and have had no share in the appropriations of the Indian department. As for instance, the Moquis, who have within the past year sent two delegations to Prescott, to make inquiry on various matters with which the superintendent should long since have made them familiar.

“The present unfriendly attitude of the PahUtes and Wallapais may be attributed to the same inexcusable neglect. Had the superintendent manifested any interest in them, they might have been kept in order. But worse than all, the superintendent has been unable to control the Indians living in his own immediate vicinity, as is clearly shown by the recent affair in Skull Valley, where they were the aggressors, and far beyond the imaginary peace line created by him.

“Your committee are of the opinion that the system of donations or presents to the Indians, or of feeding them in the hope of gaining their friendship, is a false one, and that to place them upon reservations without a distinct understanding that they are to remain there, and the necessary power to force a strict compliance with such understanding, is a stupendous farce. In conclusion, they would protest against the unfair representations of the superintendent, that the whites are determined to wrong the Indians, and that the recent offensive movements of the former against the Pah-Utes, Yavapais and Wallapais, are to be attributed to this determination.

“It is their opinion that, excepting against the Apache, who has always been considered hostile, the whites have not made any unfriendly

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