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it was on its way to the Pima Villages. Dr. Tappan and four soldiers were killed, entirely through the carelessness or over-confidence of Major Miller, who said there were no Indians, and neglected to take proper precautions.

The “Arizona Miner” says that General McDowell was given a reception in Prescott on the 14th day of February, 1866, at which reception he stated that he had sent all possible troops to the Territory, including a regiment of regulars. According to the same authority, General McDowell issued a special order on February 7th, 1866, establishing a government farm at Fort McDowell in charge of Lieutenant Colonel Bennett, and authorized the employment of three men at $50 per month, and twenty men at $40 per month and rations, to build a ditch and drain and cultivate the soil.

On March 28th, 1866, the military headquarters for the Territory were removed from Drescott to Tucson.

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CHAPTER VII. THE INDIANS AND THE MILITARY (Continued). REPORT OF JOINT COMMITTEE-REGULAR TROOPS

POORLY ADAPTED TO FIGHTING INDIANSRECOMMEND COMPANY OF RANGERS IN EACH COUNTY-CONTROVERSY BETWEEN GOVERNOR McCORMICK AND GENERAL MCDOWELL IN REGARD TO TROOPS—“MINER” EDITORIAL ON COMMISSIONERS' REPORT ON INDIAN DIFFICULTIES. The Third Legislature appointed a Joint Committee on Military and Indian Affairs, which made the following report to the respective houses :

“The Joint Committee on Military and Indian Affairs hereby report that they have had the subject under careful consideration, and beg leave to present the following conclusions :

“1. That the military force now in the Territory is entirely insufficient to protect the inhabitants from the depredations of the

Apaches, Pah-Utes and other hostile Indians. That it is, in fact, inadequate properly to garrison the different posts, and to defend the roads and mails, not to speak of waging an aggressive war upon the barbarous enemy, which war is positively necessary to the successful opening of the country.

“2. That experience has proven that the regular troops are poorly adapted to Indian fighting in this country; that while they hold the forts, another force must be provided for the field—a force familiar with the haunts and habits of the Indians, and who are eager to punish them.

That, as set forth in the letter of Governor McCormick to the Secretary of War, in June last, the qualities shown by the several companies of native (or Mexican) volunteers, in service during the past year, were such as prove them to be the right men in the right place, and that it is much to be regretted that they were not kept in service. That the hearty thanks of the people are due to them for their marked efficiency, and that we earnestly recommend the Legislative Assembly to memorialize Congress for authority to raise a full regiment of them, (if it is thought that the men can be raised,) for the term of two years, confidently believing it to be the only step whereby the hostile savages can quickly, surely and cheaply be brought to terms.

3. That for the immediate defense of the people, the organization of a company of rangers in each county, to serve only when actually needed, is a necessity; and that it is recommended that an appropriation to meet the expenses of sustaining the same be asked of Congress, as a just and reasonable demand.

4. That the management of the Indian superintendency, for some time past, has been such as to injure rather than benefit the Territory. The Superintendent seems to have entertained the impression that he could discharge the duties of his important office by remaining in one particular locality, while it is the judgment of your committee that he should visit all parts of the Territory, and by actual observation and intercourse become familiar with the wants of the various tribes. This duty has been so entirely neglected that many of the tribes are yet ignorant of the existence of a superintendent, and have had no share in the appropriations of the Indian department. As for instance, the Moquis, who have within the past year sent two delegations to Prescott, to make inquiry on various matters with which the superintendent should long since have made them familiar.

“The present unfriendly attitude of the PahUtes and Wallapais may be attributed to the same inexcusable neglect. Had the superintendent manifested any interest in them, they might have been kept in order. But worse than all, the superintendent has been unable to control the Indians living in his own immediate vicinity, as is clearly shown by the recent affair in Skull Valley, where they were the aggressors, and far beyond the imaginary peace line created by him.

Your committee are of the opinion that the system of donations or presents to the Indians, or of feeding them in the hope of gaining their friendship, is a false one, and that to place them upon reservations without a distinct understanding that they are to remain there, and the necessary power to force a strict compliance with such understanding, is a stupendous farce. In conclusion, they would protest against the unfair representations of the superintendent, that the whites are determined to wrong the Indians, and that the recent offensive movements of the former against the Pah-Utes, Yavapais and Wallapais, are to be attributed to this determination.

“It is their opinion that, excepting against the Apache, who has always been considered hostile, the whites have not made any unfriendly

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demonstration until entirely satisfied—as in the case of the Pah-Utes, Yavapais and Wallapais, that they are bent on war, and already guilty of unprovoked atrocities. In the popular judgment, that on the first sign of antagonism it is necessary to deal summarily and severely with all Indians, and that half-way measures are of no avail, your committee would express a hearty concurrence.

“0, D. Gass, “Chairman Council Committee.

A. E. DAVIS, “Chairman House Committee." The following year Governor McCormick, in a letter to General McDowell, urged that more troops be sent to General Gregg, and that that officer use discretionary views in dealing with the hostile Indians, and not have to submit his campaign plans to San Francisco for approval. The Governor said that the Pah-Utes, the Hualapais, and some of the Navajoes were on the warpath, also that the eastern tribes were active; to which General McDowell replied, under date of September 10th, 1867, in which he said that there were fourteen companies employed in northern Arizona, and thirteen companies in southern Arizona, which were all the troops that could be spared, and in which he also said that the Governor had expressed his satisfaction with this arrangement when in San Francisco. (Governor McCormick had visited San Francisco in 1866 to confer with General McDowell and the military authorities on affairs in Arizona.) General McDowell said, among other things: “You say men of experience are needed, as in the popular judgment here (Prescott),

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