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which I can most clearly demonstrate, it is impossible for the commanding officer to act promptly and with effect, unless he has permission to move the troops without a delay in submitting his plans to San Francisco for approval, according to the exigency of the hour. After your return to Arizona from your visit to San Francisco to confer with the military authorities on the conditions of this Territory, you wrote me that you found 'general satisfaction over all arrangements for the military affairs in Arizona. These arrangements, made while both you and General Gregg were here, contemplated the most active operations against the hostile Apaches with the forces in the District, and with these arrangements you both appeared to be satisfied, at that time. Under them General Gregg has not been restricted from moving his troops according to the exigency of the hour, and has not been required to delay in order to submit his plans for so doing to San Francisco for approval. How the public have any chance of knowing what my instructions to General Gregg are, or are not, is not seen, but it has been sufficient to form their 'popular judgment' against me, in which you concur, and as you have been furnished with copies of my letters to General Gregg, along with conditions of things, on July 23rd, I am not able to see how you can have justly concurred in it. You say, 'that in order to have anything like vigorous, speedy and aggressive operations, it seems absolutely necessary for the protection of life and property, and the holding of the country, that at least six cavalry companies should at once be added to General Gregg's command.' Your communication will be sent to General Halleck for such further consideration as he may think proper to give it."

These cavalry companies were never furnished, but Arizona was left with an insufficient guard to protect herself against the Indians who, at that time, both in the west and in the east, were up in arms.

It seems that about this time a commission was appointed to inquire into the cause of Indian difficulties on the plains, and to suggest remedial methods. This commission made its report early in 1867, and, in an editorial in the “Miner,” under date of August 24th, 1867, this report was reviewed as follows:

“HUMBUG. "The commissioners appointed some months ago to inquire into the cause of the Indian difficulties on the plains, and to suggest steps for their suppression, have made their report, and we find a synopsis of it in our late eastern exchanges. General Sanford, one of the commissioners, says:

'To be secure it is necessary for the Government to abstain from an aggressive war. It is plain the history of the Indian wars furnish no instance where Indians have asked for mercy, or even a cessation of the same. He recommends that all troops in the Indian country be employed in garrisoning military posts to protect wagon roads, railways and railroad lines, and the navigation and travel across the plains, and to punish and, if possible, kill the small thieving parties of Indians that come upon lines of travel. Commissioners should be sent to the Indians and friendly relations restored. To jeopardize and sacrifice the lives of large numbers of our people for the purpose of carrying on a frontier war against a few Indians who can readily be kept at peace, is deemed unwise.

General Sanford, in view of the facts narrated, recommends that we avoid war; says, second, that final and permanent homes be provided for the Indians; third, that a tribunal be established before which Indian wrongs may be redressed, and, fourth, that the Indian Bureau be organized into a Department with full authority to control and manage the Indian countries.

“The other commissioners report in a similar strain, and one of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs accepts their conclusion as favorable, sound and satisfactory, and gives a report to Congress by saying: The Indians can be saved from extinction only by consolidating them, and setting apart a territory for their exclusive occupation. The total cost of the Indian Bureau, in its extended form of operation, including all its expenditures, does not exceed $3,000,000 per annum.'

“Evidently all the commissioners have not had the actual experience to ascertain the correct idea of the Indian character. What could be more absurd to men who have lived upon the frontier, and dealt with the redskins, than the words of General Sanford, (whoever he may be), 'that in order to secure peace it is necessary for the Government to abstain from aggressive war? What avail can it be to punish small thieving parties, when whole tribes are responsible for their depredations, and in league with them? The Commissioner of Indian Affairs

seems eager to save the Indians from extinction. What makes him so sensitive on this point ? We doubt very much that the taxpaying American people, especially those who know the Indians in their true light, would wish to save them from extinction at any price, much less than $3,000,000 per annum, which the Commissioner seems to think a modest sum. We are not of those who would kill every Indian on sight, be he friendly or unfriendly, but we look upon all this appellation of war with the barbarians, who would impede the development and progress of civilization, as exceedingly silly and preposterous. The giving of blankets and beads has proven a sad farce, and it is surprising that a single man wishes to continue the practice.

“It should be made known to Congress that however well meant the reports of these Commissioners, they display a glaring ignorance of the Indians' character and history, and are not worthy of consideration. So long as Congress is humbugged into accepting and favoring such views, so long will life and travel upon the plains be wholly insecure, so long are the great American people at the mercy of a few thousand red devils, and power and force are the only arguments calculated to control. Let them know that the whites are most powerful, and soon all will be well. Let them continue to believe that we deem it necessary to propitiate them by annual offerings, and that we fear an aggressive war, and they will take our scalps and property for years to come.” '

CHAPTER VIII.
THE SECOND LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
FIRST REGULAR ELECTION—GOVERNOR GOODWIN

ELECTED DELEGATE TO CONGRESS-SECRETARY
McCORMICK SUCCEEDS GOODWIN AS Gov-
ERNOR-MEMBERS OF LEGISLATURE—CONVEN-
ING OF LEGISLATURE-MESSAGE OF ACTING
GOVERNOR—CREATION OF COUNTY OF PAH-
UTE-RESOLUTION OF LEGISLATURE REGARD-
ING DEATH OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN_RESOLU-
TION OF LEGISLATURE REGARDING TERMINA-
TION OF CIVIL WAR — SETTLERS IN AND
AROUND PRESCOTT ASSESS OWN PROPERTY
FOR TAXATION-REPORT OF FIRST TREASURER

OF TERRITORY—POPULATION. The first regular election in the Territory was held in September, 1864. At this election John N. Goodwin, C. D. Poston, and Joseph P. Allyn, were candidates for Delegate to Congress. The vote was as follows: Counties.

Joseph P. Allyn.

C. D. Poston.

Union
52

J. N. Goodwin.

Union
409
80
56
162

Yavapai Mohave Yuma Pima

56

Union
118
29
26
208

149

3

Total

707

260

381

Poston declared that the election of Goodwin was secured through a combination of the military and Federal authorities of the Territory, and proposed to contest the seat of Governor Goodwin in Congress, but this idea he abandoned although there may have been some truth in his charge.

Poston served as Delegate for three months during the session of 1864–65, and the record of

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