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Hassayampa, the Agua Fria, Lynx Creek, and other streams in this region, now known as Central Arizona, were first found by the explorers, Capts. Walker and Weaver, in 1863. They entered the country simultaneously, though without concert of action, one coming from the Gila and one from the Colorado. In the same year the quartz lodes attracted attention, and people flocked to the district from all quarters. The Territorial officers, then on the Rio Grande en route for the Territory, were induced to turn westward, via the 35 parallel or Whipple route, and make a personal examination of the country. The investigations of Governor Goodwin, who spent some months in travel over the Territory, going as far south as the Sonora line, and east to the Verde and Salinas, convinced him that this promised to be a most important and populous section, and here he concluded to convene the first Legislative Assembly.

“Prescott, the capital, is in the heart of a mining district, second, in my judgment, to none upon the Pacific coast. The surface ores of thirty mines of gold, silver and copper, which I have had assayed in San Francisco, were pronounced equal to any surface ores ever tested by the metallurgists, who are among the most skillful and experienced in the city, and, as far as ore has been had from a depth, it fully sustains its reputation. The veins are large and boldly defined, and the ores are of varied classes, usually such as to be readily and inexpensively worked, while the facilities for working them are of a superior order. At the ledges is an abundant supply of wood and water; near at hand are grazing and farming lands, and roads may be

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opened in every direction without great cost. Some of the streams are dry at certain seasons, which fact renders placer mining an uncertain enterprise in this part as in other parts of the Territory; but for quartz mining there could not possibly be a more inviting locality. The altitude is so great that the temperature is never oppressively warm; the nights, even in midsummer, are refreshingly cool and bracing. The ascent from the river by the roads from La Paz and Mojave is so easy that with the small amount of work already done upon the same, the heaviest machinery may be readily transported. The distance by either road is about one hundred and sixty miles and the charge for freight from six to eight cents per pound. Contracts may now be made for the delivery of machinery at Prescott from San Francisco, via the Colorado, for ten cents per pound.

"Prescott is built exclusively of wood, and inhabited almost entirely by Americans, mainly from California, and Colorado. Picturesquely located in the pine clad mountains, it resembles a town in Northern New England. The first house was erected in June last, and now the town has some hundreds of inhabitants, and the country for fifty miles about, including a dozen mining districts and farming valleys, is largely taken up by settlers. The valleys will, it is thought, produce good crops without irrigation, as the rains in this region are frequent and heavy.

Weaver and Wickenburg, upon the Hassayampa, the one fifty and the other seventy miles south of Prescott, and each about one hundred and ten miles east of La Paz, upon the Colorado, are mining towns and centres of a considerable business. The former is at the foot of Antelope Hill, upon the summit of which very rich placers were discovered early in 1863, the working of which paid largely for a year or more and probably would at present with a proper arrangement for the elevation of water. Maricopa Wells and Pima villages in the Maricopa and Pima reservations upon the Gila, about one hundred and twenty-five miles southeast from Prescott, and some eighty miles northwest from Tucson, are places of Indian trade, and depots of grain and other supplies for the troops in the Territory. Eastward from Prescott, upon the Agua Fria, the Verde, the Salinas and other streams, all the way to the New Mexican line, exploring parties have discovered evidences of great mineral wealth and excellent agricultural districts. Northward to the villages of the Moquis, and the San Juan River, the country is but little known, but believed to be prolific in the precious ores, and in timber.

“Some of the most promising districts in the Territory have not yet been prospected at all, and others only in a most superficial manner. It is the opinion of many that the richest mines are yet unfound, and lie eastward from Tucson and Prescott; but if one in ten of those already known yield such a return, upon the introduction of proper machinery, as is promised by the indications and tests had to this time, Arizona will far excel all other territories of the Union in its metallic revenue.

“CONCLUSIONS. “This succinct description of the four counties into which Arizona is at present divided,

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will, I trust, satisfy the reader that the Territory is neither the hopeless desert nor the inaccessible region which some have pronounced it. Its resources are varied, and have only to be rightly improved to render it a prosperous and powerful State. Though hitherto, for the want of roads and the means of conveyance, considered remote and isolated, it is in fact central, and upon the best highways from the Rio Grande to the Pacific. The inevitable continental railroad can follow no parallels more favorable for its economical construction and successful working than the 32d or 35th.

“For a year after the organization of its government the Territory was without a mail or postoffice. Now a weekly mail is established between Los Angeles and Prescott, and eastward to Santa Fe via the 35th parallel, where it connects with that for the Missouri River. Other routes are proposed, and will at once be authorized. A company is organized to furnish telegraphic communication between Los Angeles and Prescott, and it will doubtless be had at an early day, and so put the Territory in immediate communication both with the Pacific and the Atlantic coast. Once built to Prescott, and the project is entirely feasible, the line could soon be extended eastward to Santa Fe and Denver.

“The Indians of Yuma and Mojave Counties are all peaceable and well-disposed to the whites. The Papagoes of Pima County, and the Pimas, Maricopas, Yavapais, Hualapais, and Moquis, of Yavapai County, are equally friendly. Those not already upon reservations will be so placed at an early day, and become a producing people. A reservation for the Colorado tribes was des

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ignated by the last Congress. It is upon the river between La Paz and Williams' Fork, an exceedingly fertile tract.

“The Apaches alone refuse reconciliation to the whites. Their depredations have been the serious drawback to the settlement and development of the Territory. Far more than any lack of agricultural lands, of water, or of timber, has their hostile presence delayed the incoming of a large white population. By frequent and vigorous onslaughts from military and civil expeditions, their warriors have, it is believed, been reduced to less than a thousand. These have their retreats in the rugged mountains eastward of the Verde and the Salinas, and on the upper Gila. Their subjugation or extermination, while a matter of some difficulty, owing to their agile movements and entire familiarity with the country, cannot be a remote consummation if the present military force in the Territory is allowed to remain undisturbed in its campaign. The difficulty hitherto experienced has been in the interruption, by some new disposition of the troops, of every movement, however well planned. I think I may safely predict that if Arizona is left in its connection with the Department of the Pacific, and under the command of General Mason, who is alive to the necessity of destroying forever the power of the Apache, it will speedily be rendered as safe for residence and business, even to its eastern boundary, as it now is from the Colorado to the Verde.

“If the government had ever dealt with the Apache with the force and pertinacity with which it has handled the Sioux, hundreds of valuable lives would have been saved in Arizona, a

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