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brighter hopes of material value in its physical composition than this, if her people are only true to themselves. And that no people I have ever visited in the same or similar circumstances present higher evidence of a pervading sense of the matters of civil order and obedience to law and good government than this with comparatively few, very few, exceptions, and none that I have ever seen who, as a body, unfortunately have been more grossly misrepresented by some of those who have assumed to speak for and of them. But this false reputation, if true to themselves, the people of Arizona can and must live down by the irresistible logic of facts.

“I am aware of no particular matter that it is now requisite or necessary for me to give you in charge, nor can I better epitomize your whole duty by a general charge than in the language of the oath that your foreman has just taken, and you through him, that is, that you ‘diligently inquire into and true presentment make of all public offenses against the United States and of this Territory, committed or triable within this county, of which you have or can obtain local evidence. You shall present no person through malice, hatred or islwill, nor leave any unpresented through bias, fear or affection, or have any reward or promise or hope, but in all your presentments, you shall present the truth and nothing but the truth according to the best of your skill and understanding.' Under this oath, gentlemen, your intelligence will readily point out to you your duty. It would hardly be necessary or even proper for me further to enlarge upon this subject. Your deliberations are, of course, secret, and you are each of you bound to keep secret the counsels of yourselves and each of your fellows, and whatever shall transpire in your deliberations in the jury-room and also those of the counsel of the Government and the Attorney-General, who alone may be with you to advise you and aid you in your deliberations."

CHAPTER XI.
EARLY SETTLEMENTS.

FIRST WHITE SETTLEMENT IN VERDE VALLEY

DR. J. M. SWETNAM'S STORY-MEMBERS OF
PARTY-LOCATION OF SETTLEMENT-PRICES
OF SUPPLIES — DIFFERENCES OF OPINION-
THE CAMP DIVIDED-OPENING IRRIGATION
DITCH-NEW ADDITION TO PARTY—INDIAN
RAIDSHARVESTING CROPSREFUSAL OF U.
S. QUARTERMASTER TO PURCHASE CROPS
FINALLY AGREES TO PURCHASE-MORE IN-

DIAN RAIDS-MILITARY PROTECTION. Soon after the organization of the Territorial Government and the settlement of Prescott, parties of hardy pioneers began to branch out and form settlements in other parts of the Territory. One of these parties, headed by James M. Swetnam, now a practicing physician and surgeon in Phoenix, made the first white settlement in the Verde Valley. I am indebted to Dr. Swetnam for the following account of this settlement:

“Early in January, 1865, a party consisting of James M. Swetnam, William L. Osborn, Clayton M. Ralston, Henry D. Morse, Jake Ramstein, Thos. Ruff, Ed. A. Boblett, James Parrish and James Robinson, left Prescott for the purpose of locating a colony for farming purposes in the valley of the Verde River, if a suitable place could be found. At that time the only ranch east of the immediate vicinity of Fort Whipple and Prescott, was that of Col. King S. Woolsey, which was at the upper end of the Agua Fria Canyon, twenty-five miles east of Prescott, it being twenty-five miles further east to the Verde Valley.

“The party understood their liability to come in contact with the Apache Indians, but they were well armed, young and brave, and felt themselves equal to the task they had undertaken.

“The men were all on foot, taking along a single horse on which was packed their blankets, cooking utensils, and provisions for ten days. They followed the road to Woolsey's ranch, then the Chaves trail, to near the head of the Copper Canyon, at which point they left the old trail

, following down the canyon by an Indian trail to the Verde River, which they reached on the third day at a point almost due east of Prescott, and fifty miles distant.

“At Prescott the ground was covered with snow, and the contrast presented by the valley, not only devoid of snow, but showing evidences of approaching spring, was very agreeable. But the one thing which was not so agreeable was a quantity of fresh Indian signs, and the sight of a couple of columns of blue smoke, lazily ascending at a distance of four or five miles.

To reach the east side of the river, which was perhaps fifty feet wide and in the deepest part two feet, the party waded across and camped until toward evening, when they moved down the valley something over two miles to a point half a mile north of Clear Fork, where they camped for the night, placing a guard with relief every two hours.

When morning came three men were left to guard camp, and the others, dividing into two parties, started out to explore, one the region about Clear Fork, the other going north toward the next tributary called Beaver Creek.

“The party passing up Clear Fork had gone less than a mile when they came suddenly upon moccasin tracks, and shortly afterwards a camp fire, with evidence of recent flight.

“Moving cautiously to an elevation, several savages were seen scurrying away toward a rough canyon on the north, which they soon entered, passing out of sight.

Three or four days were spent in the valley, the exploration extending from one mile below Clear Fork to ten miles above. But it was finally decided, although the amount of arable land was less than desired, to locate on the 'V'shaped point between the Verde and Clear Fork on the north side of the latter. The reasons for this decision were:

“First: The facility and cheapness with which water could be brought from Clear Fork for irrigation.

“Second: Its advantageous position for defense in case of attack from savages, which they had every reason to expect.

“Third: The large amount of stone reduced to the proper shape for building-remains of an ancient edifice, perhaps a temple whose people had been driven from its use and enjoyment hundreds of years ago by the ancestors of these same savage Apaches.

“The location being determined upon, the party returned to Prescott, and began preparations for making a success of the enterprise. This was no easy task. Some of the best informed and oldest settlers about Fort Whipple

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