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great population would have entered the Territory, and, long ere this, its opulent mines and agricultural lands would have been so worked as to surprise the nation and the world with their returns.

“Primarily a quartz mining country, the settler in Arizona must not expect the quick wealth often obtained from the placers. These, while numerous and rich, are not, as before stated, to be depended upon. To engage in quartz mining, on his own account, he will need some means. The introduction of machinery now going forward, both from the Atlantic and the Pacific, and the extensive development of the mines, will make a demand for labor at remunerative wages. There will also be an encouragement for the trades. Mechanics of all kinds will be needed. For farmers and herdsmen there is an immediate inducement. The expense of mining operations can in no way be so speedily reduced and the general prosperity of the Territory advanced, as by the extensive production of bread and meat. This is a first necessity, and may at once be made a source of profit to those who engage in it with willing and persevering hands.

“In conclusion, I recommend Arizona to our discharged volunteers, and to all unemployed persons who seek a wholesome climate, and a new and broad field for energetic industry. To all who are ready to labor, and to wait even a little time for large success, it is full of promise. The day cannot be distant when it will occupy a first rank among the wealthy and populous states. Its mountains and valleys teeming with cities and towns, musical with implements of mining and agriculture, its great river burdened with traffic, and its people thrifty and happy, the

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wonder will be that it was ever neglected by the government, and by capitalists, as an insignificant and unpromising possession.

“The white population of the Territory is largely composed of industrious, intelligent and enterprising persons. Many families have arrived since the organization of the government, and a large emigration from the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Pacific is expected within the present year.

“The Territorial government is now fully organized in all its departments. Law and order everywhere prevail. The courts are in operation. Schools have been established in the leading settlements, and the printing press is doing its part to build up society and promote substantial prosperity. A code of laws unusually thorough and complete was adopted by the Legislature. The chapter regulating the location, ownership, and development of mining lands, is pronounced the best ever devised upon the subject, and is urged for adoption in some of the older Territories. It is a guarantee to those who acquire mining interests that their rights will be carefully guarded, and it will be likely to save much of the annoying and expensive litigation hitherto common in mining districts.

“This letter would, perhaps, be incomplete without some allusion to the means and expense of getting to Arizona. The emigrant by land from the Missouri may with ordinary wagons and animals make the journey to Tucson or Prescott in 90 days, going via Santa Fe. Arrived in the Territory he may sell his wagons and animals for as much, if not more, than they cost him upon the Missouri. He will experience no danger from Indians on the route if with a party of a

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dozen or more determined men. The roads are good and fairly supplied with grass and water. That via the 35th parallel from Santa Fe on the Rio Grande, being by the pass of Zuni, one of the easiest in the Rocky Mountains; that via the 32d parallel, from Mesilla on the Rio Grande to Tucson, is also level and easy.

“Thé emigrant going by water may now get passage to San Francisco at a low rate, and from there he may go by land or water to Los Angeles also at a reasonable cost. From the latter point the roads to the Colorado and to Central and Southern Arizona are good. Wagons and animals may be purchased on fair terms at Los Angeles. Those who wish to take goods, mining or agricultural implements with them, can do so from the Missouri better, I think, at this time than from the Pacific, owing to the difference in the currency. All emigrants should start provided with a supply of provisions for one year, and with flannel rather than linen clothing, even for the warmest parts of the Territory.

“Any further information regarding Arizona, its resources and prospects, that I can furnish, is at your command, and that of any who have an interest in the Territory. “I am, Your Obedient Servant,

“RICHARD C. McCORMICK,

Secretary of the Territory." The foregoing letter, in the main, stated the facts as they existed at the time. Very little was known of Arizona. The accompanying map will show the principal places of settlement, which were few and far between. Of course, Secretary McCormick was an optimist, but when he states that all the tribes of Indians along the Colorado were at peace with the whites, that statement can be easily controverted. It was dangerous at any time for a small party to go from any point on the Colorado River to Prescott, as their stock would be stolen and their lives endangered, and at the end of the year 1865, the Wallapais, the Yavapais and the Mohaves were at open war with the whites.

There was a reservation established on the Colorado River in the latter part of this year, which was occupied by a portion of the Mohave tribe, but they could not be considered peaceable, for, in the following year, 1866, they killed their Indian agent, as will be seen further on in this work, and anyone who had the hardiness to attempt to make a home beyond the protection of the military, took his life in his own hands.

Secretary McCormick says there was only a thousand warriors among the hostile Apaches. In this he was clearly mistaken. To say nothing of the bands upon the Colorado, which were Yumas and not Apaches, those tribes in the eastern part of the Territory, Mescaleros, Chiricahuas, Pinalenos, Coyoteros, Tontos, White Mountain Apaches, and Apache-Mohaves, a a branch of the Mohaves which had separated from their original tribe and affiliated with the Tontos, would probably muster more than two thousand warriors. They were all fighters and strategists, never venturing to fight in the open field unless they far outnumbered the foe. At no time could an immigrant party of ten or twelve, encumbered with wagons, stock and their families, enter Arizona with safety from New Mexico. Particularly was this the case with reference to the lower part of the Territory, along the old Butterfield route, where the bands of Mangus and Cochise held undisputed sway.

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