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down on their bag of corn to wait. After a lapse of a few minutes more, there was another slight rustling, and again all was still. Quiet as the grave they sat there for an hour, but ere this it began to dawn upon them that the rattling sound that their heated imaginations had wrought into the stealthy movements of a score of crouching, murderous Apaches, was only the rubbing of rank corn blades together as they were stirred by the light breeze. This was proven the next morning when, by daylight, a search was made, and no Indian track found immediately around where they were. The arrows which had been shot at them were found, also the trail by which the Indians had escaped. The bl. nket was secured and kept by Swetnam for a long time as a trophy. This ended the pilfering, but three weeks later the Indians came in force and, judging by the trail which they made no attempt to conceal, there must have been a hundred and fifty; there were even tracks of children not more than eight or nine years old in the party, and they got away with at least one hundred bushels of corn, worth six dollars per bushel. The theft was not discovered until the next morning. The moon was at its full, and the next evening, a little after dark, ten men started upon the trail, but after a few miles the Indians scattered in different directions, and though the boys followed for fifteen miles, they found no Indians.

About the middle of September, Lieut. Baty, with sixteen men, was detailed by the commander of Fort Whipple for the protection of the settlers of the Verde valley. But they were of little use, several of the men, from one cause

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and another, being unfit for duty, and the lieutenant commanding was a coward. On the way down, within seven miles of the settlement, the soldiers were attacked by the Apaches, the commissary wagon captured and burned, one or two troopers wounded, and two government mules killed. It was a notorious fact throughout the country that Indians would not hesitate to attack a party of troops double the number of a party of settlers or miners that would be left unmolested, the reason being that the soldiers had little heart in the fight and, up to the days of General Crook, were poorly commanded, while the settlers and miners were fighting for their homes, for honor, for life itself.

“When the soldiers had been in the valley about one month, the savages made another attack, capturing all the remaining cattle except seven, being the last but seven of a herd of fiftyfive head brought into the valley less than eight months before. In this raid the direction and management of the defenses was left to the military, though the settlers joined them with their old-time vigor. Lieutenant Baty gave his orders, detailing a sergeant to execute them, and was immediately taken ill, returning to his tent, keeping a man to fan him, and did not come out again for more than an hour, not until the fight was over and the Indians gone. The savages had made the raid from the hills northeast of the fort, and were back again with their booty under cover before the sergeant with nine troopers and eight settlers got started in pursuit. But half a mile back in the bluffs they made a stand, and but for the watchfulness and intrepidity of two of the settlers, Culbertson and Sanford, part of

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the troops would have been surrounded and probably killed. The Indians were well managed, a large party of them rapidly retreating, followed by the sergeant and five men, not knowing that another party of Indians were concealed while the troops were passing them. But several of the settlers coming at an angle, discovered a savage belonging to the concealed band, and knowing that a trap had been set, began firing. This brought the savages from their cover, and made the soldiers aware of their danger. The latter at once began to retreat, and the Indians, leaping forth by dozens, turned their whole attention to the settlers, who stood their ground manfully, and finding that the savages were being reinforced, and that it was retreat or be scalped, Melvin and Ruff immediately sought the shelter of a ravine and escaped unhurt, but Culbertson and Sanford were not so fortunate. The latter was surrounded, and defending himself as best he could, when Culbertson rushed to his assistance. The savages were then driven back, and the two men then began to dodge from cover to cover, loading and firing as opportunity offered, until assistance arrived and the Apaches fell back. Both men were wounded, Culbertson quite seriously. In the meantime the sergeant had succeeded in extricating his men from what came near being a serious ambuscade.

“Although October, the day was hot, and one of the funny incidents connected with the fight was the appearance of one of the Indians, evidently a chief from the active part he took, wearing during the whole time a soldier's heavy cape overcoat.

A few weeks after this, Baty was relieved of the command, Lieutenant McNeal, with a small reinforcement, being sent to take his place. McNeal was a very good man, who seemed to realize the situation.

“The government made arrangements to take all the corn and grain which the settlers wished to sell, paying for the corn, without its being shelled, thirteen dollars per hundred. This was some compensation, but when it is remembered that during the season the Indians had destroyed or carried away barley and corn to the amount of nearly $2,000, driven off horses to the value of $500, and cattle to the value of over $6,000, for none of which the settlers have ever received any reimbursement, the profits were not large, considering the labor, anxiety and privations, not to mention the sufferings of the men who established and maintained the first settlement in the valley of the Verde."

Never in the history of the world did men have to contend against so formidable a foe as did the pioneer settlers of Arizona. Harassed on all sides by the relentless Apaches, cut off from civilization by the desert plains of New Mexico and California, they lived a life of warfare and privations, a few determined men against hordes of savage foes. Many of these hardy settlers fell victims to Indian cunning, and the finding of a few bleached bones in after years was all the record left of their untimely departure.

CHAPTER XII.
EARLY SETTLEMENTS (Continued).
FIRST SETTLEMENT IN LOWER SAN PEDRO VAL-

LEY-MILITARY PROTECTION WITHDRAWN-
INDIAN DEPREDATIONS—WM. A. BELL'S DE-
SCRIPTION OF SETTLEMENT—FISH'S DESCRIP-
TION OF EARLY SETTLEMENTS — RUSLING'S
DESCRIPTION OF EARLY ARIZONA-YUMA-
TUCSON EHRENBERG — LA PAZ - CASTLE
DOME LANDINGDESCRIPTION OF PRESCOTT
BY BEN C. TRUMAN_“SAN FRANCISCO Ex-
AMINER'S" DESCRIPTION OF PRESCOTT-ARI-
ZONA HISTORICAL SOCIETY — BIOGRAPHY OF
BEN H. WEAVER-HOOPER & Co., FIRST MER-
CANTILE ESTABLISHMENT IN ARIZONA-MEM-

BERS OF BIOGRAPHY OF EDWARD N. Fish. Colonization in the southern portion of the Territory was also begun contemporaneously with the colonization in the north. From the Fish manuscript I quote the following:

“The occupying of the lower San Pedro (the term lower is used to distinguish it from the settlements above Benson made later on), was the earliest of any point in this district. On December 15th, 1865, Mark Aldrich, John H. Archibald, F. Berthold, Jarvis Jackson, John Montgomery and H. Brown, of Tucson, came into the lower San Pedro valley, and located lands. They immediately put in a crop of wheat and barley. In February, 1866, they commenced work on the ditch which was to carry water to their lands. Things went on quite well, and by the 25th of April, all were ready to plant a crop of corn. Houses had been erected and a few

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