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til 1856, his knowledge of drugs gaining him the position of hospital steward. After his discharge from the army in 1856, Mr. Martin located in Yuma, assuming control of the sutler's store at that place, which position he held until 1859. When the placer mines were discovered at Gila City, he opened a general merchandise store, taking advantage of the need for supplies. After the war between the states broke out he went into partnership with King S. Woolsey on the Agua Caliente ranch, and at the end of three years disposed of his interest in the ranch to Woolsey. He then entered the employ of Hooper & Company at Yuma, having charge of their store there until 1872, when he established a drug business in Yuma, which he transferred to Tucson in January, 1884. He was a resident of that city until the time of his death. He was prominent in local affairs, serving as county supervisor and county treasurer of Yuma County, and also as city treasurer and member of the city council of Yuma.

While a resident of Yuma Mr. Martin married Miss Delfina Redondo, a daughter of Stevan Redondo, one of the leading men of Sonora, Mexico, and a member of an old Spanish family. To Mr. and Mrs. Martin were born eight children; one of them, Andrew, served in the Upper House of the second State Legislature of Ari

zona.

Mr. Martin died in Los Angeles, California, March 30th, 1907, and is buried in Tucson.

CHAPTER XIV. MINES AND MINING-POSSIBILITIES OF THE TER

RITORY-RESUMPTION OF MAIL AND STAGE

LINES.
EARLY PROSPECTING IN GILA COUNTY_DISCOVERY

OF COPPER AT CLIFTON—CAPTAIN HARDY'S
PROSPECTING EXPEDITION—MINING AT THE
“VULTURE”—R. C. McCORMICK'S OPINION
AS TO POSSIBILITIES OF THE TERRITORY-RES-

TORATION OF MAIL AND FREIGHT LINES. Although the first excitement created by the discovery of the placer mines in the vicinity of Prescott had somewhat died down, mining and prospecting were still carried on to a very large extent, not only along the Hassayampa and in Yavapai County, but in other parts of the territory. The first record I have of prospecting or mining in Gila County is given in the Fish manuscript, which states:

“The first man to explore and prospect in the vicinity of Globe was a man by the name of Stowe, and but little is known of him, for he was alone, and very reticent as to his doings. He visited old Camp Goodwin in 1864–65. He went to the camp for supplies, which the boys gave him. He was furnished provisions from the commissary, for at that time the government supplied any and all travellers who needed food, even though the parties had no money. This prospector made four or five trips to the Post, each time securing enough provisions to last about three months. He finally failed to put in a reappearance, and no trace of him or his gold and silver mines has ever been found by white men."

In the Fish manuscript it is stated that the wonderful copper deposits at Clifton, which have made the mines in that place famous throughout the west, and placed them at the head of the list in the production of copper, were first discovered by soldiers on some of their scouting expeditions after the Apaches as early as 1865, although it is finally claimed that the real discovery was in 1870. The history of these mines will be treated farther along in these pages.

In 1866 a prospector reached Hardyville and displayed some rich specimens of copper and silver, creating much excitement among the residents of that place. Captain W. H. Hardy formed an expedition to go in quest of the silver mountain, which the prospector said was near the mouth of the Little Colorado. The party reached its destination but, failing to find the silver mountain, started to return to Hardyville. Near Cataract Creek the party was attacked by Indians, but escaped by flight, turning their mules loose; and some of the mules reached Hardyville before the men.

Much has been mentioned in a previous chapter of the discovery of the Vulture Mine, and this mine, as old residents of Arizona know, had some very varied experiences. After Henry Wickenburg, its discoverer, had managed to get the first ton of the ore packed into his camp in 1864, and ground, he sold to anyone who would put up an arrastra, the ore for $15 a ton, the buyer mining and sorting the ore himself. During the years 1865 and 1866, there were four mills built within less than one mile of the present town of Wickenburg; one a five-stamp mill, built by Charles Tyson, another a five-stamp mill built by Jack Swilling at the place where F. H. O'Brien afterwards owned a ranch; another a ten-stamp mill, and the fourth a twenty-stamp mill, half a mile above the present town of Wickenburg. This last mill was run two years when twenty more stamps were added, after which it was run until 1871. James Cusenberry built the twenty-stamp mill, and also added the twenty more stamps. He turned the management over to a man named Sexton, who ran it into the ground, and was over one hundred thousand dollars in debt in Arizona in 1871, when he had to close down. C. B. Genung, says that it is hard to tell how much the Vulture owed in California at that time, and that it is doubtful if any of the debts were ever paid.

The ten-stamp mill was owned by Wm. Smith, Fritz Brill and others, and was moved from Wickenburg to a point about thirteen miles down the Hassayampa, in order to get wood, as the wood had all been consumed near the town. This mill was run until 1878 and 1879, when Smith & Company sold out, their claim and hold on the Vulture reverting to James Seymour of New York, who had bought the old Wickenburg interests. Seymour employed James Cusenberry to superintend the working of the property, and he moved twenty stamps of the old mill down to a point on the river about eleven miles below, and the twenty stamps were run at the place which was called “Seymour” for nearly a year, when a man named Shipman was put in charge. Instead of moving the other twenty stamps to Seymour, he advised the building of a larger mill at the mine and pumping the water from the river to it.

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The result was an eighty-stamp mill, and a seventeen mile pipe-line to it. It was not worked to any extent until 1912, when the property passed to a Canadian company.

Ř. C. McCormick, the Secretary of the Territory, afterwards Governor, and then delegate to Congress, probably did more for the advancement of the Territory than any other one man. He was enthusiastic as to the possibilities of Arizona, as more than one of his letters to the eastern papers are evidence.

In a previous chapter I gave one of his letters to the New York Tribune," which was designed to give publicity to the Territory. Mr. McCormick was not only an enthusiastic believer in the possibilities of Arizona, but was a student of national affairs, as the following letter, dated June 20th, 1865, will show: "To the Editors of the Journal of Commerce:

"Your editorial headed Safety Valves for Superfluous Pugnacity,' suggests a matter worthy not only of the consideration of our now unemployed volunteers, but also of the government.

“Just as California offered a safety valve for the superfluous fighting element of the country after the Mexican War, so the territories which have recently been proved to be equals of California in metallic wealth, offer the desired opportunity for working off the excess of pugnacity which survives the great Rebellion. We do not mean to say that the discharged soldiers who migrate to the territories will have much fighting to do. There will be a taste of it occasionally in scaring off the hostile Sioux, Pah-Utes or Apaches. This, with hunting and other wild sports, will enable them to keep up something of their

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