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of access, and the general characteristics of the Territory, which is at once one of the largest and richest of our Pacific possessions.

To be rightly appreciated, Arizona must be taken as a whole. Those who know it only as "The Gadsden Purchase,' those who have no knowledge of more than the Colorado River district, and those who are only familiar with the newly-opened central and northern regions, are incompetent to furnish that complete view of the Territory which is necessary to a correct understanding of its varied and extensive resources, and to a proper estimate of its progress and prospects.

“In the beginning, I wish to correct the common impression that Arizona, as erected into a territory, contains only the tract of land acquired under the treaty with Mexico in 1854, and familiarly known as “The Gadsden Purchase.' While but half of that tract is included in the Territory (that portion west of the 109° longitude, the remainder being in New Mexico), a region of country north of the Gila River, and vastly greater in extent, is comprised within the

The general lines of the Territory are thus defined in the organic act, approved February 24, 1863:—All that portion of the present Territory of New Mexico situate west of a line running due south from the point where the southwest corner of the Territory of Colorado joins the northern boundary of the Territory of New Mexico to the southern boundary line of said Territory of New Mexico.' In other words, all of New Mexico, as formerly existing, between the 109° longitude and the California line, embracing 120,912 square miles, or 77,383,680 acres, a district three times as large as the State of New York.


“The locality of this broad area pre-supposes great metallic wealth. The mountain ranges are the prolongation of those which southward in Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango have yielded silver by millions for centuries past, and which northward in Nevada are now amazing the world by their massive returns of the precious ores. The general direction of the mountains and the veins is northwest and southeast, and there are numerous parallel ranges which form long valleys in the same direction. These and the broad and level bottoms of the rivers, which may be easily and cheaply irrigated by acequias or artesian wells, under which treatment the soils return an immense yield, and are independent of the seasons, produce, so far as tested, every variety of grain, grass, vegetables, fruits and flowers. While it has some barren and desolate country, no mineral region belonging to the United States, not excepting California, has, in proportion to its extent, more arable, pastoral and timber lands. Those who have asserted to the contrary have been either superficial and limited in their observations, or willfully inaccurate in their statements. In the language of a recent editorial in The Arizona Miner:

'For its extent, there is not a section in the United States which more abounds in glades and vales, and wide-spreading plains, suitable for cultivation, and only awaiting the hand of industry to blossom as the rose.

“The climate, considered either in its relations to health and longevity, or to agricultural and mining labor, is unrivaled in the world. Dis

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ease is unknown, and the warmest suns of the Gila and Colorado River bottoms are less oppressive and enervating than those of the Middle States. The proportion of fine weather is greater than in any other part of the world I have visited or read of.

In order to a simple description and clear understanding of the whole Territory, I will speak of it in the several divisions created by the First Legislative Assembly, convened at Prescott, in September last. That body authorized the organization of four counties, each to be named after a leading tribe of Indians residing within its borders.

“PIMA COUNTY. "This county is bounded on the east by the line of the Territory of New Mexico; on the north by the middle of the main channel of the Gila River; on the west by the line of 113° 20 west longitude, and on the south by the Sonora line. The seat of justice is established at Tucson.

“Pima County embraces all of “The Gadsden Purchase' within the Territorial lines, excepting the small portion west of 113° 20 west longitude (which is in Yuma County), and is the best known portion of Arizona. This comes from its early settlement, the development of its mines, and the extensive travel through its length during the running of the Southern or Butterfield Overland Mail. Its silver veins are among the richest on the continent. Some of them have been worked for centuries, and if they have not constantly yielded a large return it has been more from a lack of prudent management or the incursions of hostile Indians than from any defect in the quality or quantity of the ore, or in the facilities for extracting and working the same.

The ores are chiefly argentiferous galena, and are best adapted to smelting. Some of the mines at a depth, have a silver-copper glance, iodide of silver, and a mineral containing quicksilver. The copper ores of Pima County are surprisingly rich, yielding in some instances as high as 90 per cent of pure copper. They are chiefly red oxides and gray sulphurets.

“Wood and water if not immediately at hand may usually be had at a convenient distance. The Santa Rita Mountains have fine pine forests, and between Tubac and San Xavier is a timber district some miles in width, extending from the Santa Cruz River to the base of the mountains. The timber is mesquit and of a large size; for mining purposes it is well adapted; for building it is too hard and crooked. The cotton-wood is found on the margin of all the streams; it is of rapid growth, and well adapted for building. The adobe or sun-burnt brick is, however, the favorite building material. It is easily and inexpensively made, and laid in thick walls furnishes an enduring and comfortable house; better suited to the climate than any other. The agricultural and pasture lands of Pima County are very extensive. The valleys of the Gila, and Santa Cruz, the San Pedro, and other streams, are large and equal in fertility to any agricultural district in the United States. The San Pedro Valley, over one hundred miles în length, is, perhaps, the best farming district south of the Gila River. The Sonoita Valley, which opens into the Santa Cruz near Calabazas, is some fifty miles long.

“Mr. Bartlett, United States Boundary Commissioner, thus describes the valley of the Santa Cruz:

“ 'This valley was traversed by the earliest Spanish explorers in 1535, seduced by the flattering accounts of Cabeza de Vaca, Marco de Niza and Coronado, led their adventurers through it in search of the famed cities of Cibola, north of the Gila; and before the year 1600, its richness having been made known, it was soon after occupied as missionary ground. Remains of several of these missions still exist. The mission church of San Xavier del Bac, erected during the last century, is the finest edifice of the kind in Arizona. Tumacacori, a few miles south of Tubac, was the most extensive mission in this part of the country. The extensive buildings, irrigating canals, and broad cultivated domain here at once attest its advantages.'

“The same authority pronounces the valley one of the finest agricultural districts, and presenting many advantages for settlers.

“In each of these valleys there is an abundance of water for irrigation, and both whites and Indians had raised large crops with little labor. Some of the old ranches now owned by parties engaged in working the mines, are noted for their exuberant growth of every variety of cereals, vegetables and fruits.

“The table-lands of Pima County are covered with a short and luxurious grass, upon which immense herds of cattle have been and still may be raised, and the grazing districts include many

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