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THE ARIZONA VOLUNTEERS.
FOUR COMPANIES ORGANIZED — ONE COM-
BIOGRAPHY OF CAPTAIN J. D. WALKER. The following is compiled from original papers in the office of the Adjutant-General of the State of Arizona, which he has kindly placed at my disposal. These papers all refer to the organization of the Arizona militia, and their activities during the years 1865 and 1866.
On the 20th of February, 1864, the Governor of Arizona asked authority to raise a regiment of volunteers in Arizona for service for three years, or during the war, in reply to which he received the following letter:
“Washington, D. C., April 1, 1864. “His Excellency, “The Governor of Arizona,
“Fort Whipple, Arizona Territory. “Sir: As requested in your letter of the 20th of February, you are hereby authorized to raise within the territory of Arizona one regiment of volunteer infantry to serve for three years or during the war. The chief mustering officer for the Department of the Pacific will exercise general superintendence over the recruitment, and to him application should be made for any additional information that may be desired.
“All supplies will be furnished under existing regulations.
Copies of the necessary regulations will be furnished you by the adjutant-general of the army. “I am, sir, “Very respectfully,"
(No signature.) On the back of this letter is the endorsement: “Gen. J. H. Carleton, Oct. 4, 1864.
“Mustering officer of dept. of New Mexico will direct mustering of Ariz. Regiment.”
Genl. Carleton added the following endorsement:
"Headquarters, Dept. of N. Mex. “Respectfully returned. If the proclamation of the Governor be issued, instructions will be sent from here. Arizona belongs to this department.
“JAMES H. CARLETON,
“Brig. General, Commanding. “Oct. 14, 1864."
Under date of April 16, 1864, the following letter was sent to the Governor:
“Washington, D. C., Apr. 16, 64. "His Excellency, “The Governor of Arizona,
"Fort Whipple, Arizona. “Sir: As requested in your letter of the 20th of February, you are hereby authorized to raise,
within the territory of Arizona, one regiment of Volunteer Infantry to serve for three years or during the war.
“The recruitment, organization and musters of the regiment must conform to that prescribed by existing regulations.
“The Chief Mustering Officer for the Department of the Pacific will exercise a general superintendence over the recruitment, and to him application should be made for any additional information that may be desired.
“All supplies will be furnished under existing regulations.
“Copies of the necessary regulations will be furnished you by the Adjutant-General of the Army. “I am, sir,
“JAMES B. FRY,
“Provost Marshal General." For some reason or other this authority to raise a regiment was not exercised until the following year, when an effort was made, beginning in June of that year, to raise the regiment as required. In the meantime the commissioners appointed under authority of a bill passed by the First Legislature in 1864, authorizing the raising of a militia for the defence of Arizona against the Indians, and the issuance of bonds therefor, reported that it was impossible to float the bonds in San Francisco, in consequence of which this action was taken.
William H. Garvin was appointed AdjutantGeneral of the Territory, to whom all reports were made.
The records are very imperfect. There was much difficulty in raising men at that time. Those who were ready to enlist, mostly Mexicans, were out of employment and willing to take almost any job which would provide them with food and clothing; many of them were leaving the Territory, as, also, were many of the whites. This was particularly the case in the southern part of Arizona.
From the message of the Acting Governor to the Second Legislature, which will be mentioned hereafter, it appears that four companies were organized, one being of Pima Indians, and another of Maricopa Indians, the other two companies being largely made up of Mexicans. John D. Walker, who afterwards became identified with many industrial interests in the Territory, was captain of the Pima Indians company; Antonio Azul, a Pima Chief, was their first lieutenant, and W. A. Hancock, who afterwards located in the Salt River Valley and became identified with the early settlement of that portion of the Territory, was made second lieutenant. The picture on the opposite page is of some of the veterans of this company.
H. S. Washburn was captain of the First Company, which was recruited to its full strength, and Oscar Hutton was second lieutenant of the Third Company. I have been unable to obtain the names of the other officers. These companies were apparently mustered in and mustered out by the Military Department of the Pacific. They were hampered at the start by the want of supplies, arms and ammunition, although it seems that until the latter part of the year 1865, General Mason, who had
succeeded General Carleton in the command of the Department of Arizona, lent every assistance in his power.
The only records of Indian fighting by these companies that I have been able to obtain are as follows:
"Pima Villages, A. T.
“April 5th, 1866. “General :
“In compliance with your circular of March 30, I have the honor to state that my company is now on detached service at this place per S. O. No. 27, Hd. Qrs. Fort McDowell.
“The company left this place on the 27th ult., accompanied by two hundred and sixty volunteer Pimas and forty enlisted men of Company B, 1st Inf., A. V. Had a fight with the Apaches on the morning of the 31st, killing twenty-five Apaches, taking sixteen prisoners and eight horses. Had three Pimas wounded, one of whom died on the 1st. My company are armed with Mississippi rifles, worn, and are at present well clothed, but during the first six months service they were not. If the Territory could furnish two hundred carbines and pistols for two companies of mounted Pimas, it would be of great service in ridding this country of Apaches. The arms could be stored here and given to the men when going on campaigns and returned here again on returning, without danger of being lost.
"J. D. WALKER,
“Lt. 1st Inf., A. V. “W. H. GARVIN, Adjt. Genl. Ty. Arizona."