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of it * Near the mouth is a piece of ordinary mosaic pavement. By a conical hill, on the north, are vestiges of an ample theatre in the mountain-side; and, farther on, by the sea, three pedestals of white marble. Beyond these is an old square fortress standing on a low spot, a little inland; and by it was a short sepulchral inscription. We searched in vain for a temple of Hercules, which has been mentioned as one of the highest antiquity, and as resembling the temples of Egypt. The god was represented on a float, on which they related that he arrived at Erythrae from Phoenicia.^
Before the port of Erythrae are four islets, once called Hippi, the Horses; and beyond these are the Spalmadore islands, by which we sailed, in our stormy passage from Scio to Kara-bornu. A promontory of Mount Mimas beyond Erythrae was named Coryna; and one near mid-way sailing toward Scio, Hera Mesate. The shore winds, and forms several bays.
Erythrae has been long deserted* and, like Clazomene, stripped even of its ruins, except some masses of hard cement, a few vaults of sepulchres, a fragment of inscribed architrave, a broken column or two, and a large stone, on which is carved a round shield. The bare rock afforded a natural foundation for the houses and public edifices; and the materials, when they were ruined, lay ready to be transported to Scio and other places, which continue to nourish. Some words were visible on one of the pedestals. We would have cleared them all from weeds and rubbish, which concealed their inscriptions; but our guide had affirmed, that we
* Pliny, L 31. x. + Pausanias, p. 210.
could not pass the night here without danger; our horses were standing ready, and we had no time to spare.
Of the peninsula—ChismS—Mount Corycus—Mount Mimas— End of the peninsula—At Segigeck—Antiquities—Cranes.
Erythrje was about mid-way in the peripliis, or circumnavigation of the peninsula. It had to the north a village named Cybellia, and the cape, by which was a quarry, dug for mill-stones. The lofty mountain to the south was called Corycus, and its promontory Argennum. This ran out toward Posidium, a promontory of Chios, from which it was separated by a strait, about sixty stadia, or seven miles and a half wide. In Corycus a cave was shewn, in which they said the sibyl Herophile was born. Its coast had several ports, and was much infested by pirates and robbers. After Corycus was Gerae, a small town of the Teians by the port, north of their city. The third tribe of the Erythreans had its name from a region called Chalcitis, peopled with Chalcidensians; and the sea-baths, by a cape of that district, were esteemed superior to any in Ionia.
We had been told that at Chisme, a town since noted for the destruction of the Turkish navy by the Russians, and distant about five hours from Erythree, were spacious and handsome baths erected by the Genoese. We had intended seeing them, but were now informed that the place was almost abandoned, the plague having been carried thither from Scio.
Our guide, at setting out, conducted us to the shore; and, winding southward, we ascended a lofty ridge of Mount Corycus, from which we had an extensive view of the cOast, of the channel ofScio, and of the gulf of Smyrna. The Brothers were before us, and behind us Chism6. The mountain was covered with low shrubs. We then descended to the station of some goatherds, guarded by several large and fierce dogs. In three hours and a half we came unexpectedly to the village on Mount Mimas, where we lay the preceding night.
The valley beneath us, and the side of the mountain, were again enveloped in thick shining mist, when we began our journey; and, keeping along the southern edge of a plain, re-ascended Mount Mimas, which the ancients have described as woody, and abounding in wild beasts. The slopes here were clothed with pines and shrubs, and garnished with flowers, many of a bright yellow, resembling small single pinks. The hogs had rooted up the green corn in several places. At noon we came to the bay, which we passed in going to Erythrae; and, striking off to the right, dismounted to dine under some shady trees by a copious fountain. We had suffered much from the sun, and were greatly fatigued.
After enjoying awhile the luxury of cool water and shade, we continued our journey, leaving Vourla and the villages on our left hand. , As we crossed the mountain, the island Samos rose to view at a distance, and we opened the sea on the south side of the peninsula. We passed.many small pleasant spots, well watered, and green with corn, or with myrtles and shrubs. We descended from Mount Mimas by a road cut in the rock, which anciently divided the Erythrean territory from the Clazomenian. Here the peninsula ends. The way from hence, or from the beginning of the isthmus on the south, to Clazomene, was over Mount Mimas to Chytrium, originally the site of that city, and now, it seems, of Vourla.
We rode on, and after three hours arrived at Segigeck, which was before us, by the head of a shining bay, landlocked, with an islet near the mouth. We were civilly received by a party of men and boys, who were gathered about the gate on our approach, and directed to the interior fortress, which was much out of repair. Here we were lodged in an apartment over the gate-way, belonging to the aga or governor, who was absent on a visit of ceremony to a superior officer, attended by most of the garrison. Our horses, servants, and baggage, were disposed in the area, or court below.
Segigeck is a large square ordinary fortress, erected, it is said, by the Genoese, on a flat; with a few brass cannon toward the sea. It was anciently called Gerae, was the port of the city Teos toward the north, and had been peopled with Chalsidensians, who arrived under Geres. It incloses some mean mud-built houses. In the wall next the water are several inscribed marbles, the colour a blue-grey, transported from Teos. Another is fixed in a fountain without the south gate. In the hot bath are two large fragments placed upside down, and serving for seats, which I examined, but hastily, fearing some infection, as the plague was known to be near. All these have been published by the learned Chishull. By a mosque and in the burying-grounds are some scattered fragments, and a sepulchral inscription* or
* Inscript. Ant. p. 6.
two. This place is reckoned eight hours from Smyrna. A view of it is given in the Ionian Antiquities.
The cranes were now arrived at their respective quarters, and a couple had made their nest, which is bigger in circumference than a bushel, on a dome close by our chamber. This pair stood, side by side, with great gravity, shewing no concern at what was transacting beneath them, but at intervals twisting about their long necks, and clattering with their beaks turned behind them upon their backs, as it were in concert. This was continued the whole night. An owl, a bird also unmolested, was perched hard by, and as frequently hooted. The crane is tall, like a heron, but much larger; the body white, with black pinions, the neck and legs very long, the head small, and the bill thick. The Turks call it friend and brother, believing it has an affection for their nation, and will accompany them into the countries they shall conquer. In the course of our journey, we saw one hopping on a wall with a single leg, the maimed stump wrapped in linen.
Situation of Teos—Remains—The port, $c.—The temple of Bacchus—Teos deserted—A Venetian vessel.
Segiokck stands on the north side of the isthmus of a small rough peninsula, which extends westward, and terminates in a sharp low point. This perhaps was the cape once called Macria, by which were the baths of the Teians, some on the shore in a cavity of the rock, or natural, and some