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and were very well lodged in a large apartment, in a house belonging to a Turk of Sevri-hissar.
We are now on the promontory, anciently called Myonnesus,* between Teos and Lebedus. The summit has been described as conical, and standing on an ample base. It was accessible from the continent by a narrow track only, and was terminated toward the sea by wave-worn rocks, hanging over, and in some places projecting beyond the vessels, to which it furnished a safe station below. The Myonnesus was the property of the Teians.
Hypsile is a small village. The name, which is Greek, denotes its lofty situation. It was the strong-hold, to which Cineis, whom we have mentioned in a preceding chapter, retired before the army of Sultan Morat, and which he maintained gallantly, until his men began to mutiny. After surrendering, he was murdered here, sleeping in his tent.
· Lebedus—The island Aspis—The Dionysiasts.
We left Hypsile at eight in the morning, and in about an hour descended into a narrow bottom, which was filled with a thick smoke or mist, occasioned, as we discovered on a nearer approach, by steam arising from a small tepid brook, called Elijah ; the bed of a deep green colour. The current, which tasted like copperas, is confined in a narrow
* In D'Anville's chart, Psili-bouroun, corruptly for Ilypsilobounos, The High Mountain.
channel below, and turns two over-shot mills, falling soon after into a stream, then shallow, but flowing from a rich vale between the mountains, in a very wide course; the bed, of stone and white sand.
We are now in the territory of Lebedus, which was noted, beyond any on the sea-coast, for hot waters. These are on record as plentiful, beneficial to the human race, and exciting admiration. The stream now supplies two mean baths on the margin, one with a large cross, carved on a stone in the pavement, and chiefly used by the Greeks.
From the baths we were conducted to some ruins called Ecclesia, The Church, about half an hour distant, on the same side of the river, and beneath the mountain we had descended, or Myonnesus. They consisted of naked masses of stone and of brick, with cement, besides a very few marble fragments; and a basement, with the entire floor of a small temple; the whole environed with bushes. I rode on about a quarter of a mile to the sea, but found no port or other vestiges of buildings.
We returned to the road, and crossing a cultivated plain, with a stream or two, came in an hour and a half to the sea, and a little peninsula sown with wheat. It has a fair beach, and probably is the spot on which Lebedus stood. By the rocky edge are traces of ancient wall; and, within it, besides rubbish, are some pieces of doric columns. This city enjoyed a fertile territory, but was subverted by Lysimachus, who removed the inhabitants, when he peopled Ephesus, to the sea. It survived long as a village, and became, as it were, proverbial for its solitude. It is ' now untenanted, and not even a village.
Strabo has mentioned an island called Aspis, and by
some Arconnesus, between Teos and Lebedus ; that, I suppose, which bore by our compass 68" west of south from this spot, and which Pococke describes as a long island, about the middle of the bay, stretching to the south-west, and now called Carabash, The Black Sash, from some imaginary resemblance. It is omitted in D'Anville's chart of the sea-coast of Asia Minor.
The Dionysiasts, mentioned in a preceding chapter, proving turbulent and seditious, were expelled Teos. They · removed to Ephesus, and from thence were translated by king Attalus. to Myonnesus. The Teians sent an embassy to the Romans, requesting them not to suffer the Myonnesus to be fortified; and the Dionysiasts then removed to Lebedus, where they were received with joy. It was the custom of their synod to hold yearly a general assembly, at which they sacrificed to the gods, and poured libations to their deceased benefactors. They likewise celebrated games in honour of Bacchus. The crowns, which any of the communities had bestowed as rewards of merit, were announced by heralds; and the wearers applauded. It was the business of the presidents to provide splendid entertainments, and the meeting was solemnized with great pomp and festivity. This congress, it is probable, was held at the ruins described above, and that temple dedicated to the god, their patron.
We cross a torrent-Ascend Mount Gallesus—Arrive at Zillé, or
Claros—Remains—Of the oracle and temple of Apollo-Of the oracular fountain and cave-Of Colophon, Notium, und Claros-No remains of the two former-We arrive at Ephesus.
LEBEDUS was equi-distant one hundred and twenty stadia, or fifteen miles, from Teos and from Colophon, near which city was Claros. We proceeded with an islet in view before us, once sacred to Diana. It was anciently believed that does, when big, swam across from the continent, and were there delivered of their young. Our guide mistook the track, and conducted us an hour out of our way. We passed through lanes, olive-groves, and corn. In two hours and a half we were suddenly stopped by a wide and very turbid river, descending from between Mount Gallesus or The Alemán, and the southern extremity of Mount Corax, the range, which had continued on our left hand from near Teos. It is impossible perhaps to conceive greater visible rapidity, the water hurrying hy with so precipitous and headlong a course, it was gone like an arrow from a bow. Our guide, after some hesitation, entered the stream, which proved shallow, reaching only to the belly of his horse. We were apprehensive a low mule, heavily laden with baggage, would be carried away, but it struggled through, and we all got over safe. We tarried the night at a village an hour farther on, high on the mountain side, and overlooking a rich plain and the sea, to the island of Samos,
In the morning, the wind, which had been northerly for some time, was very cutting. We rode among the roots of Gallesus, through pleasant thickets abounding with gold finches. The aërial summits of this immense mountain towered on our left, clad with 'pines. We turned from the sea, and began to ascend a rough track between green hills ; a clear stream falling by in murmuring cascades. At a distance was a village, which appeared almost in the clouds. Steep succeeded steep, as we advanced, and the path became more narrow, slippery, and uneven. We were instructed to let our bridle be loose, to sit steady, and to prevent the saddle from sliding back by grasping the manes of our horses, while they clambered up; their known sureness of foot was our confidence and security by fearful precipices and giddy heighits ; where, if, from being checked or by accident, they chance to fall, down you tumble many a fathom, without one friendly bush or shrub to interpose, and contribute to your preservation. After much labour and straining, we got to the top of the ridge, which is exceedingly high. Here we found the surface bare, except a few pines on one summit, beneath which some miserable cattle were standing, seemingly pinched with hunger, and ruminating on the wretchedness of their lot. We saw at a distance a vast body of water enconipassed with hills, being the lake or reservoir, from which the numerous rills and rivulets on the sides of the mountain are fed. Farther in the country was a white top glistening with snow; and nearly before us, a summit remarkably craggy, which is by the lake of Myûs, and will be often mentioned. Several of our horses were lamed in this journey to the sky, which was attended with many moanings from the Armenians, their owners.