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arrived from Claros, and were employed on it three days, in taking a plan and view. We had a letter of recommendation from a Turkish officer at Smyrna, to the aga of Aiasalúck; but, not going thither, he sent to require of us bac-shish, and was easily gratified. We then found the area of the stadium green with corn, and the site in general over-run with fennel in seed, the stalks strong and tall. Some traces, which, in the autumn before had been plain, were not discernible.
We return now to the entrance of the city from Aiasalúck. That street was nearly of the length of the stadium, which ranged along one side. The opposite side was composed of edifices equally ample and noble. The way was between a double colonnade, as we conjectured, from the many pedestals and bases of columns scattered there. These fabrics were all raised high above the level of the plain, and have their vaulted substructions yet entire.
This street was crossed by one leading from the plain, toward the valley before mentioned, which had on the left the front of the stadium, and the theatre, with the portico adjoining. On the right are ample substructions; and opposite to the stadium, lies a basin of white marble streaked with red, about fifteen feet in diameter, once belonging to a fountain ; with some shafts of small pillars near it almost buried in earth. The ruins on this side are pieces of massive wall, which have been incrusted, as appears from holes bored for affixing the marble ; and ordinary arches, of brick, among which are fragments of columns of red granite. These remains reach as far as the portico, and have behind them a morass, once the city-port. By the highest of them is the entrance of a souterrain, which extends underneath ; these buildings having been erected on a low and marshy spot. Opposite to the portico is a vacant quadrangular space, with many bases of columns and marble fragments scattered along the edges. Here, it is probable, was the agora, or market-place, which in maritime towns was generally near the port; in inland, near the centre; and commonly built with colonnades. The other remains are perhaps of the arsenals, and of the public treasury, the prison, and the like
buildings; which in the Greek cities were usually by the · market-place.*
We are now at the end of the street, and near the entrance of the valley between Prion and Corissus. Here, turning toward the sea, you have the market-place on the right hand; on the left, the sloping side of Corissus, and presently the prostrate heap of a temple, which fronted 22m east of north. The length was about one hundred and thirty feet, the breadth eighty. The cell or nave was constructed with large coarse stones. The portico was marble, of the Corinthian order. The temple was in Antis, or of the Eustyle species, and had four columns between the antæ. We found their capitals, and also one of a pilaster. The diameter of the columns is four feet and about six inches; their length thirty-nine feet two inches, but including the base and capi. tal forty-six feet and more than seven inches. The shafts were fluted, and though their dimensions are so great, each of one stone. The most entire of them is broken into two pieces. On the frieze was carved a bold foliage with boys. The ornaments in general are extremely rich, but much injured. This perhaps was the temple erected at Ephesus by permission of Augustus Cæsar to the god Julius, or that dedicated to Claudius Cæsar on his apotheosis.
* Vitruvius, l. i. c. 7.
About a mile farther on is a root of Corissus, running out toward the plain, and ending in an abrupt precipice. Upon this is a square tower, one of many belonging to the city wall, and still standing. We rode to it along the mountain side, but that way is steep and slippery. Near it are remnants of some edifice. Among the bushes beneath, we found a square altar of white marble, well preserved. On the top is an offering, like a pine apple; perhaps intended to represent a species of cake. On the face a ram’s head is carved, and a couple of horns filled with fruit; the ends twined together. The eminence commands a lovely prospect of the river Cayster, which there crosses the plain from near Gallesus, with a small but full stream, and with many luxuriant meanders.
The extent of the city toward the plain, on which side it was washed by the Cayster, cannot now be ascertained; but the mountainous region has preserved its boundary, the wall erected by Lysimachus, which is of excellent masonry. It may be traced from behind the stadium over Mount Prion, standing often above twenty feet high. It crossed the valley, in which is a thick piece, with a gap of a gate-way; the stones regularly placed, large, rough, and hard. From thence it ascended Mount Corissus, and is seen ranging along the lofty brow, almost entire, except near the precipice, where it ceases. On Mount Prion, which I rambled quite over, are likewise remnants of an exterior wall. This, from its direction, seems to have descended, and inclosed the Gymnasium, which was without the city; forming a pomerium by uniting with the wall on Corissus, which begins from a precipice beyond the valley.
The avenues of the ancient cities were commonly beset with sepulchres. The vaults of these edifices, stripped of their marble, occur near the entrance of Ephesus from Aiasaluck, where was once a gate; and again by the Gymnasium, both on Prion and Corissus; on each side of the approach to the gate in the valley; and also about the abrupt precipice, without the city wall. The vaults along the slope of Corissus, in the way thither, shew that the Ephesians buried likewise within the city. It is recorded that a sophist of Miletus was interred in the market-place, in the principal part of Ephesus, where he had lived. The gate next the sea, was that by the precipice; from which, going on at the bottom, you come to a gap in Mount Corissus, cut, it is likely, to open a commodious way to Nepolis, now Scala Nova, and to the places on the coast. The gate toward Smyrna was probably in the plain ; for the ancient road was over Gallesus.
Mount Pion, or Prion, is among the curiosities of Ionia enumerated by Pausanius.* It has served as an inexhaustible magazine of marble, and contributed largely to the magnificence of the city. Its bowels are excavated. The Ephesians, it is related, when they first resolved to provide an edifice worthy of their Diana, were met to agree on importing materials. The quarries then in use were remote, and the expense, it was foreseen, would be prodigious. At this time, a shepherd happened to be feeding his flock on the mountain, and two rams fighting, one of them missed his antagonist, and, striking the rock with his horn, broke off a crust of very white marble. He ran into the city with this specimen, which was received with excess of joy. He was
* P. 210.
highly honoured for his accidental discovery, and finally canonized; the Ephesians changing his name from Pyxodorus to Evangelus, The good Messenger; and enjoining their chief magistrate, under a penalty to visit the spot, and to sacrifice to him monthly, which custom continued in the age of Augustus Cæsar.*
The author above cited mentions Prion as a mountain of a remarkable nature. He meant perhaps some property of preserving or consuming the dead, of which it has been a principal repository. In the records of our religion it is ennobled as the burying place of St. Timothy, the companion of St. Paul, and the first bishop of Ephesus, whose body was afterwards translated to Constantinople by the founder of that city, or his son Constantius, and placed with St. Luke and St. Andrew in the church of the Apostles. The story of St. John the Evangelist was deformed in an early age with gross fiction ; but he also was interred at Ephesus, and, as appears from one narration, in this mountain.t.
In the side of Prion, not far from the Gymnasium, are cavities with mouths, like ovens, made to admit the bodies, which were thrust in, head or feet foremost. One has an inscription on the plane of the rock, beginning, as usual, This is the monument, fc. The traces of numerous sepulchres may be likewise seen. Then follows, farther on, a wide aperture or two, which are avenues to the interior quarries, of a romantic appearance, with hanging precipices; and in one is the ruin of a church, of brick, the roof arched, the ceiling plaster or stucco, painted in streaks corresponding with the mouldings. Many names of persons and sentences
* Vitruv. 1. x. c. 7.
+ See Cave.