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in Ionia, and the mother of many and great cities both in Pontus and Egypt, and in various other parts of the world." —This lies among the bushes behind the theatre. Near the ferry is a large lion in a couchant posture, much injured ; and in a Turkish burying ground, another. These were placed on graves, or perhaps before a building for ornament. Some fragments of ordinary churches are interspersed among the ruins; and traces remain of an old fortress erected upon the theatre, beneath which is a square inclosure designed, it seems, as a station for an armed party to dispute or defend the passage of the river. Several piers of a mean aqueduct are standing. The fountain named from Biblis, with the scene of the stories concerning her passion, was in the territory of Miletus. A marble quarry, if I mistake not, is discernible on the mountain, which bounds the plain on the left hand, at a distance toward the sea.
From the number of forsaken mosques, it is evident, that Mahometanism has flourished in its turn at Miletus. All these have been mean buildings and mere patch-work; but one, a noble and beautiful structure of marble is in use, and the dome, with a tall palm-tree or two, towers amid the ruins, and some low flat-roofed cottages, inhabited by a very few Turkish families, the present citizens of Miletus.
The history of this place, after the declension of the Greek empire, is very imperfect. The whole region has undergone frequent ravages from the Turks, while possessed of the interior country, and intent on extending their conquests westward to the shore. One sultan in 1175 sent twenty thousand men, with orders to lay waste the Roman provinces, and bring him sea-water, sand, and an oar. All the cities on the Maeander, and on the coast, were then ruined. Miletus was again destroyed toward the end of the thirteenth century by the conquering Othman.
Miletus was once exceedingly powerful and illustrious. Its early navigators extended its commerce to remote regions. The whole Euxine Sea, the Propontis, vEgypt, and other countries, were frequented by its ships, and settled by its colonies. It boasted a venerable band of memorable men, Hecataeus, an early historian; and Thales, the father of philosophy. It withstood Darius, and refused to admit Alexander. It has been styled the metropolis and head of Ionia; the bulwark of Asia; chief in war and peace; mighty by sea; the fertile mother, which had poured forth her children to every quarter, counting not fewer than seventy-five cities descended from her. It afterwards fell so low as to furnish a proverbial saying, " The Milesians were once great:" but if we compare its ancient glory, and its subsequent humiliation, with its present state, we may justly exclaim, Miletus, how much lower art thou now fallen!
The aga of Suki—To Ura*—To Branchida—Port Panormus —A water there—Ruin of the temple of Apollo Didymeus —Other remains.
While we were employed on the theatre of Miletus, the aga of Suki, son-in-law by marriage to Elez-Oglue, crossed the plain towards us, attended by a considerable train of domestics and officers, their vests and turbans of various and lively colours, mounted on long-tailed horses, with showy trappings, and glittering furniture. He returned after hawking to Miletus, and we went to visit him, with a present of coffee and sugar; but were told that two favourite birds had flown away, and that he was vexed and tired. A couch was prepared for him beneath a shed made against a cottage, and covered with green boughs to keep off the sun. He entered, as we were standing by, and fell down on it to sleep, without taking any notice of us. We rambled over the ruins, until he awoke, when we were again admitted. He was sitting on a carpet, cross-legged, with a hooded falcon on his knee, and another, which he stroked often and caressed, before him on a stand. Round about him were dogs and horses The Armenian, who interpreted for us, offered him our firhman; but he said, it was sufficient that he knew our country, that the English and Turks were brethren. He examined our weapons with attention; discoursed on them and our apparel, expressed regret^ that he was unable to entertain us so well as he wished; and promised us a letter of recommendation to the aga of Melasso. We were treated each with a pipe and dish of coffee; after which, making our obeisance, we retired, well pleased with his manly politeness and civility. In the morning he sent the letter, and a little old man, a Turk, who had been a camel-leader, and was well acquainted with the roads, to be our guide.
Wc set out at twenty minutes before eight for Ura, or Urada, where we expected to find the ruins of Branchidae, a place famous for a most magnificent temple dedicated to Apollo Didymeus. Near the city-gate, going thither, on the left hand of the road, was once the monument of Neleus, a leader of the Ionians, and founder of Miletus. This was probably a barrow. We saw no traces of the city-wall. In half an hour the plain ended, and we came to a range of hills, called anciently Mount Lattnus ; and soon after to a poor village of Greeks named Aucti, where we staid an hour to procure fowls, eggs, and other provisions, to be carried with us. At ten we had passed a heathy vale by the sea, and then crossing a high ridge, had in view some columns of the temple, which are yet standing. The road was over the mountain among low shrubs, chiefly the arbutus then laden with fruit, like strawberries, large and tempting; the colour a lively red, the taste luscious and woody.* Before us was a small inlet or gulf on the north-side of the promontory Posidium, on which the temple is situated. We came to the head of it, and turning up in a valley, arrived about twelve at Ura, where are a few straggling huts.
A peasant of Ura undertook to conduct us to the ruins, which are half an hour distant. We proceeded without dismounting, and on a sudden, a wild bull, roaring, rushed out of a thicket, close by the road, and made furiously at our guide. The man, who was before us on foot,, turning nimbly round some bushes eluded the attack. This terrible animal had for sometime infested that district.
In descending from the mountain toward the gulf, I had remarked in the sea something white on the farther side; and going afterwards to examine it, found the remain of a circular pier belonging to the port, which was called Panormus. The stones, which are marble, and about six feet in diameter, extend from near the shore; where are traces of buildings, probably houses, over-run with thickets of myrtle, mastic,,
* Pliny calls it " pomum inhonorum." Nat. Hist.xv- 24..
and ever-greens. Some water occurring fifteen minutes from Ura, and presently becoming more considerable, I traced it to the gulf, which it enters at the head, after a very short course, full and slow. This was anciently supposed to have its source on Mount Mycale, and to pass the sea in its way to Port Panormus, by which it emerged opposite to Branchidae.
The temple of Apollo was eighteen or twenty stadia, or about two miles and a half from the shore; and one hundred and eighty stadia, or twenty two miles and a half from Miletus. It is approached by a gentle ascent, and seen afar off; the land toward the sea lying flat and level. The memory of the pleasure, which this spot afforded me, will not be soon or easily erased. The columns yet entire are so exquisitely fine, the marble mass so vast and noble, that it is impossible perhaps to conceive greater beauty and majesty of ruin. At evening, a large flock of goats, returning to the fold, their bells tinkling, spread over the heap, climbing to browse on the shrubs and trees growing between the huge stones: The whole mass was illuminated by the declining sun with a variety of rich tints, and cast a very strong shade. The sea, at a distance, was smooth and shining, bordered by a mountainous coast, with rocky islands. The picture was as delightful as striking. A view of part of the heap, with plates of the architecture of this glorious edifice, has been engraved and published, with its history, at the expense of the society of Dilettanti.
We found among the ruins, which are extensive, a plain stone cistern, covered, except an end, with soil; many marble coffins, unopened, or with the lids broken; and one, in which was a thigh bone; all sunk deep in earth: with five statues, near each other, in a row almost buried. In the stubble of