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some Turkey wheat were a number of bee-hives, each a long hollow trunk of wood headed like a barrel, piled in a heap. An Armenian, who was with me, on our putting up a hare, to my surprise slunk away. This animal, as I was afterwards informed, is held in abomination by that people, and the seeing it accounted an ill omen...


At the temple-At UraIgnorance of the TurksTheir huts

--We continue our journey--The confines of Ionia with Caria.

The temple of Apollo Didyméus seening likely to detain us some time, we regretted the entire solitude of the spot, which obliged us to fix our quarters at Ura. Our Armenian cook, who tarried there with our baggage, sent us provisions ready dressed, and we dined under a shady tree by the ruins. Our horses were tied and feeding by us. Our camel-leader testified his benevolence and regard, by frequent tenders of his short pipe, and of coffee, which he made unceasingly, sitting cross-legged by a small fire. The crows settled in large companies round about, and the partridge called in the stubble.

. At our return in the evening to Ura, we found two fires, with our kettles boiling, in the open air, amid the huts and thickets. A mat was spread for us on the ground by one of them. The Turks of Ura, about fourteen in number, some with long beards, sitting cross-legged, helped to complete the grotesque circle. We were lighted by the moon, then full, and shining in a blue cloudless sky. The Turks smoked, talked, and drank coffee with great gravity, composure, and deliberation. One entertained us with playing on the Turkish guitar, and with uncouth singing. The thin-voiced women, curious to see us, glided as ghosts across the glades, in white, with their faces muffled. The assemblage and the scene was uncommonly wild, and as solemn as savage.

The attention and knowledge of our guests was wholly confined to agriculture, their flocks and herds. They called the ruin of the temple an old castle, and we inferred from their answers to our inquiries about it, that the magnificence of the building had never excited in them one reflection, or indeed attracted their observation, even for a moment. Our discourse, which was carried on by interpreters, not very expert-in the Italian language, soon became languid and tiresome; and the fatigues of the day contributtd to render repose and silence desirable.

We retired, after supper, to one of the huts, which was near the fire, and, like the rest, resembled a soldier's tent; being made with poles inclining, as the two sides of a triangle, and thatched with straw. It was barely a covering for three persons lying on the ground. The furniture was a jar of salted olives, at the farther end. Our men slept round the fire, and watched some hours for an opportunity to shoot the bull, which twice came near the huts, allured by the cattle. He then changed his haunt, removing to a thicket at a distance, where we frequently saw him, or heard him roar. The weather as yet was clear and pleasant, and the sun powerful. We drooped with heat at noon, but at night experienced cold, and in the morning our thatch was dripping with wet.

The disorders, which began to prevail among us, required a speedy exchange of the thickets for some lodging less damp

and chilly. We renewed our journey, after two entire days, with satisfaction ; leaving the temple at eleven, on a Friday, and travelling nearly south-eastward over low stony land covered with tufts or bushes. Before us was the mountain, anciently called Grius, a high craggy range, parallel to Mount Latmus; then stretching from the Milesian territory eastward through Caria as far as Euromus, which was on the sea-coast, and once a place of some consequence.

We came in two hours and a half to a deep bay, formerly called Sinis Basilicus, on the south side of Posidium. The road for twenty minutes was on the beach. We tarried under a tree near a small peninsula, on which was a hut or two, while our Turks performed the devotions customary on their sabbath. We then entered between the mountains, the boundary now, as we were told, of the jurisdiction of Elez-Oglu, and anciently of Ionia.

We now return to Scala Nova, or Neapolis.


Of the IoniansTheir general assembly-Panionium-Story

of the city Helice.

On the arrival of the Ionian adventurers from the European continent, the people, who before possessed the country, retired, or were expelled. The Carians had settled about Miletus, Mycale, and Ephesus ; and the Leleges on the side toward Phocéa. Their sepulchres and castles, with vestiges of their towns, remained for many ages, and some are perhaps even now extant.

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The Ionian cities on the continent were, as has been mentioned, ten in number, not reckoning Smyrna. These, with Chios and Samos, gloried in their name ; and to preserve the memory of their common origin, to promote amity and concord, and to facilitate their union for mutual defence, when occasion should require, instituted a general assembly, in which their deputies or representatives had power to propose and enact decrees, to debate and to determine on the interests of the community.

The place, wliere this famous council, called the Panionian, met, was on the coast named Trogilia, three stadia, or a quarter of a mile and a half from the shore. It was a portion of Mount Mycale named Panionium, fronting the north, in the territory of Priene, selected by the Ionic body, and consecrated to Neptune Heliconius. The cities jointly sacrificed to that deity at the season of the congress. The ceremony is represented on the reverse of a medalion of the emperor Gallus, struck by the Colophonians. The thirteen deputies are there seeil, each with his right hand uplifted, or in the act of supplication, standing round an altar, with fire, and a bull before the image and temple.* If the victim lowed while dragging to the altar, it was deemed a good omen.

The Prienéans were descended from the Ionians of Helice in Achaia, and introduced the worship of this god. They bad petitioned their mother-city to transmit to them an image of him, and a plan of his temple, intending to erect one on 'the same model, but were refused. They then obtained from the Achæan community, a decree in their favour; and, Helice not complying with it; Neptune, it is related, grew angry, and in the following winter, that city was swallowed up by an inundation of the sea and an earthquake. This event happened in the night, two years before the battle of Leuctra. The Achæans then delivered to the Ionians the plan they had requested. A young man was appointed by the Prienéans to preside at the rites, as sacrificing king, during the festival.

* See Museum C. Albani, v. 2. pl. 80. and p: 42. The deity is there supposed to be Apollo Clarius.


We set out from Scala Nova-Separate and lose our way-Be

nighted on Mount Mycale-Goat-herdsTo Changlee_To Panionium-To Kelibesh.

In going from Scala Nova toward Miletus, as related in a preceding chapter, we had in view on the right hand the coast called Trogilia, and the promontory. We then passed Priene, that journey having for its principal object the temple of Apollo Didyméus. On our second arrival at Scala Nova from Ephesus, we resolved to proceed to Priene by Changlee, or, as was supposed, Panionium. That village is distant about three hours from Scala Nova. We stopped at the khan, while our men purchased provisions; and set forward, at four in the afternoon, with a guide from the town, who put us into the road, which we have mentioned as leading toward the sea, and then returned.

We passed, after descending to the water-side, along the edge of the bay, and near a ruined castle on a hill in the plain. Our janizary was mounted on a free horse, and we, to keep

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