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the wall, filled with large eggs, speckled with red. Among the rubbish was a pillar, on which a cross is carved, and a marble with a sepulchral inscription,* “ Heraclides, son of Sotades, (NewKopos) Temple-sweeper to Hecate.” This goddess, perhaps, was worshipped by the Charoniun near Thymbria. The persons, who enjoyed that title, had the general care of the temples, to which they belonged. The office was accounted very honourable. It was sometimes conferred on cities, and is found upon record on their medals, and other remaining monuments.

Lower down the lake is a rock, which I visited in a boat, or rather a few boards badly fastened together. I had with me the Swiss and one of the natives. It is joined to the continent by a low sand-bank, and has a wall of despicable patch-work round it. Mount Titanus is the margin of the lake on that side. Our return to Myûs was attended with some risk. It was evening, our float slight, the gale strong, and the sea rough.

I was desirous to go down the lake to its mouth, as we supposed, eight or ten miles distant. The inbat seemed regular, and it was expected would waft us pleasantly back. We embarked in the morning in a larger boat, but could procure no sail. We rode to a picturesque islet, beyond the rock, covered with ruins of a monastery, and found an inscription in Greek over the door-way of the church, but the letters so disguised by ligatures exceedingly complicated, that I could neither copy nor decipher it. On a couple of marbles* in the wall is carved a double hatchet, and under it the name of the proprietor, “ Jupiter of Labranda.” This deity was much worshipped in Caria, to which province Myûs once belonged. We shall have occasion, when we arrive at Mylasa, to treat of him, and shall then explain his symbol, which occurs, not seldom, to the antiquary, and especially the medallist.

* Inscript. Ant: p. 18.

Our boat moved very heavily, but we tugged on from this islet to one in a line with it, and on the north side of the lake, overspread likewise with rubbish. On the shore we found young tortoises, lively ; but so small, that we supposed they were just hatched from the eggs. The fish rose all around us, and the tops of the rocks, above the surface of the water, were covered with birds. We were amused with vast flights of fowl, some of a species unknown to us.

The Greek emperor Manuel lay near this lake with his army about the middle of the twelfth century. - His camp," says the historian, to “ was situated toward the mouths of the Mæander. There an immense quantity of water issues forth at the feet of the mountains, as it were the produce of a thousand springs; and spreading a deluge over the adjacent country, at first composes a lake, and then going on cuts a deep bed, and forms a river." We were now told that its junction with the Mæander is by a channel about half a mile long. The city of Myús had anciently an intercourse by water with Miletus, and a communication with the sea, from which a boat might still pass up to it.

We had observed at Myûs many small square niches cut; and rocks, with steps to ascend up to the top. These places, it may be conjectured, were designed for the worship of the watery divinities; to receive propitiatory offerings or votive tablets; the memorials of real or imaginary perils and escapes ; the tribute of their suppliants distressed and relieved in their occupation, or voyages on the lake.

4 Cinnamus, p. 66.


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First discovery of Myús-To Mersenet-To Miletus To Oran

duick-The night-To Suki and Smyrna-Remark on the water-course in the plain--Account of a journey in 1673– Remarks on it.

We were led unexpectedly to the discovery of Myūs in our first journey, on the way to Miletus from Mylasa in Caria. We had crossed the mountain, and our guide, at the head of the lake, leaving the road to Miletus, which is on the opposite side, conducted us to Myûs. We dismounted at the castle, and took a cursory survey of the ruins. It was evening before we had finished, and too late to attempt reaching Miletus.

We had consumed our whole store of provisions, which consisted of a few hard eggs, some grapes and bread, on our arrival here. We now found we could procure neither corn for our horses, nor any kind of food to allay our own hunger, which began to be importunate. We mounted, and went in quest of a lodging, passing from village to village, and inquiring, in vain, for corn. At length we were benighted among the hills on the south side of the lake, with jackalls howling round us. After some time we stopped at Mersenet, a village upon Mount Latmus, which afforded us a dish of boiled wheat, and some must of wine, with honey; but the quantity so small, it rather pacified the present cravings of appetite, than satisfied the stomach. Nothing remained for the morning, and both we and our horses set out fasting.


The way to Miletus, after descending the mountain, was by the lake to the plain. We had then the Mæander winding on our right, and Mount Latmus bordering the level green on our left, both at a distance. Our course was 20m north of west, and in five hours we arrived the second time at Miletus.

Our lodging at this place before had been a smith's shop, in which we lay very roughly, straitened for room, and pestered exceedingly with gnats and other insects. We had now no inclination to resume it ; but resolved, after resting awhile, to go on to a village bearing north-east from Miletus, distant three hours, called Oranduick. We ferried over the Mæander in the evening, and crossing the plain, were surrounded on the way by vast packs of jackalls, hunting in full cry. It was dark when we arrived, and were admitted into a small mud-built hut, in which were seven or eight Turks.

Before we had been long at this place, we would gladly have exchanged for the shop at Miletus, with all its inconveniencies. The conversation, which passed among the Turks, gave room to apprehend bad purposes, and our men in general were very uneasy. It thundered and lightened exceedingly at a distance; but, sleeping in the air by a fire, about which some of them were sitting, seemed to me preferable to heat and suspected company within the hut. In a short time, after a dead silence, the village-dogs began on a sudden to bark, the cattle to low as if in distress, and the jackalls to howl; a violent rush of wind had scattered away the embers of the fire, with my bed-cloths, and rain was falling heavily in large drops. A flash of blue lightning directed me to

the hut, which in an instant was crowded with our men and baggage, and almost as soon let in the wet on us. This storm, however, had its use, as by assembling us, it frustrated any evil intentions of the Turks.

After a most uncomfortable night, we mounted, at seven in the morning, for Suki. Our course was nearly north by west, across the middle of the plain. We left the rocks or knolls, which we observed in our way from Pržene to the ferry, with Osebashá, upon the right hand, and passed a wide watercourse twice. The soil was slimy and slippery, and our guide, who was on a grey horse, like his rider, stricken in years, had a fall, but was not hurt. We arrived at Suki after ten, somewhat indisposed from our late sufferings, and the janizary complaining of an old rupture. We left the khan in the afternoon ; our little Turk, whom we had paid and dismissed, standing in the road, and following us with good wishes, the effusions of his gratitude and regard. We lay at Scala Nova, and the next night at Osebanar, beyond Aiasaluck. We were on horseback again before day-break, and reached Smyrna in: the evening.

In traversing the plain back to Suki, as above related, the water-course, 'which embarrassed us so much in going to Miletus, did not occur. The conclusion was obvious, that it had been worn by torrents from Mount Mycale. In this opinion I was afterwards confirmed by a view of it from the precipice of Priene. It is continued from the valley, where coming from Changlee, we observed the banks steep and torn with corn standing on the brink. The bed approaching Suki is wide and shallow, the ground being hard. It then cuts the plain with many windings, its direction most straight before Priene ; and, farther on, crosses from near Mycale, 20" west

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