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sitting, cross-legged, the mufti and a Turk or two on his right hand, his officers and attendants standing in a row, silent and respectful. He was a comely person, with a black beard. We made our obeisance, as usual, putting the right hand to the left breast, and inclining the head; and, taking our places on the sofa, produced our firhman. The aga, on receiving it, kissed and laid it to his forehead, and then gave it to be read. We were entertained, each with a pipe ready lighted, a spoonful of sweetmeat put into our mouths, and a cup of coffee; after which we retired, with full permission to employ our time at Mylasa as we pleased.
Of Mylasa--The temple of Augustus--A column--Of Euthydemus-An arch, or gateway-Other remains--Asepulchre -One cut in the rock-Temples of Jupiter--Of the doublehatchet.
MYLASA, or Mylassa, was the capital of Hecatomnus, king of Caria, and father of Mausolus. It has been described as situated by a very fertile plain, with a mountain rising above it, in which was a quarry of very fine white marble. This being near, was exceedingly convenient in building, and had contributed greatly to the beauty of the city, which, it is said, if any, was handsomely adorned with public edifices, porticoes, and temples. The latter were so numerous, that a certain musician entering the market-place, as if to make proclamation, began, instead of (Akovete Aaor) Hear ye People, with (Acovere Naoi) Hear ye Temples. The
founders of the city were censured as inconsiderate in placing it beneath a steep precipice, by which it was commanded. Under the Romans it was a free city. Its distance from the sea, where nearest, or from Physcus, opposite the island of Rhodes, was eighty stadia, or ten miles. It is still a large place, commonly called Melasso. The houses are numerous, but chiefly of plaster, and mean, with trees interspersed. The air is accounted bad ; and scorpions abound as anciently; entering often at the doors and windows, and lurking in the rooms. The plain is surrounded by lofty mountains, and cultivated; but was now parched and bare, except some spots green with the tobacco plant, which was in flower, and pleasing to the eye.
Our first inquiry was for the temple, erected, about twelve years before the Christian era, by the people of Mylasa to Augustus Cæsar, and the goddess Rome; which was standing not many years ago. We were shewn the basement, which remains, and were informed, the ruin had been demolished, and a new mosque, which we saw on the mountain-side, above the town, raised with the marble. The house of a Turk occupying the site, we employed the Hungarian to treat with him for admission; but he affirmed we could see nothing; and added, that there was his harám, or the apartment of his women, which was an obstacle not to be surmounted. It had six columns in front, and the whole number had been twenty-two.
On the hill, and not far from the basement of the temple, is a column, of the Corinthian order, standing, with a flatroofed cottage, upon a piece of solid wall. It has supported a statue, and on the shaft is an inscription.* “ The people have erected Menander, son of Ouliades, son of Euthydemus, a benefactor to his country, and descended from benefactors.” The Turk, who lived in the cottage, readily permitted a ladder to be placed on the terrace for measuring the capital, which was done as expeditiously as possible, but not before we were informed, that several of the inhabitants murmured, because their houses were overlooked. Besides this, two fluted columns, of the Ionic order, remained not many years since.
* Inscript. Ant. p. 27.
Euthydemus, the ancestor of Menander, was contemporary with Augustus Cæsar. He was of an illustrious family, and possessed an ample patrimony. He was eloquent, and not only great in his own country, but respected as the first person of Asia Minor. His power was so advantageous to the city, that, if it savoured of tyranny, the odium was overcome by its utility. Hybreas concluded an oration, with telling him he was a necessary evil. This demagogue, who succeeded Euthydemus, had inherited only a mule and its driver, employed then, as many now are, in bringing wood from the mountains for sale!*
Beneath the hill, on the east side of the town, is an arch, or gate-way, of marble, of the Corinthian order. On the key-stone of the exterior front, which is eastward, we observed a double hatchet, as on the two marbles near Myús. It was with difficulty we procured ladders to reach the top; and some were broken, before we could find three sufficiently long and strong for our purpose. The going up, when these were united, was not without danger. The aga had expressed some wonder at our employment, as described to
* Strabo, p: 659.
him ; and seeing one of my companions on the arch, from a window of his house, which was opposite, pronounced him, as we were told, a brave fellow, but without brains. We desired him to accept our umbrella, on his sending to purchase it for a present to a lady of his harám, who was going into the country. By the arch was a fountain, to which women came with earthen pitchers for water, and with their faces muffled.
We saw a broad marble pavement, with vestiges of a theatre, near the Corinthian column. Toward the centre of the town, we observed a small pool of water, and by it the massive arches of some public edifice. In the court of the aga's house was an altar much ornamented. We found an altar likewise in the streets, and a pedestal or two half buried, with pieces of ancient wall. Round the town are ranges of broken columns, the remnants of porticoes, now, with rubbish, bounding the vineyards. A large portion of the plain is covered with scattered fragments, and with piers of ordinary aqueducts; besides inscriptions, mostly ruined and illegible. Some altars, dedicated to Hecatomnus, have been discovered.
About a quarter of a mile from the town is a sepulchre,* of the species called by the ancients, Distega or Double-roofed. It consisted of two square rooms. In the lower, which has a door-way, were deposited the urns with the ashes of the deceased. In the upper the relations and friends solemnized the anniversary of the funeral, and performed stated rites. A hole made through the floor was designed for pouring libations of honey, milk, or wine, with which it was usual to gratify the manes or spirits. The roof is remarkable for its construction, but two stones are wanting, and some distorted. It is supported by pillars of the Corinthian order, Auted, some of which have suffered from violence, being hewn near the bases, with a view to destroy the fabric for the iron and materials. The shafts are not circular, but elliptical;t and in the angular columns square. The reason is, the sides, which are now open, were closed with marble pannels; and that form was necessary to give them a due projection. The inside has been painted blue. This structure is the first object, as you approach from Iasus, and stands by the road. The entrance was on the farther side, the ascent to it pròbably by a pair of steps, occasionally applied and removed.
* See a similar edifice in Mountfaucon, t. 5. Tab. 27.
Going down from this building, and turning from Mylasa, westward, you have the mountain on the right hand ; and come, in about an hour, to another sepulchre. This is cut in the rock, high up in the side, near the top, and very difficult of access. Within the door-way on each side is a seat or bench; on which, it is likely, the urns were placed ; and beyond is a smaller camera, or arched room. Over the entrance, without, is carved in basso relievo a facade; two Tuscan pillars between two pilasters, with an entablature and pediment, and a door. The slope of the mountain has been covered with innumerable sepulchres. In this, the Swiss, as he told us, had persevered, digging for three nights, hoping to find some hidden treasure.
Jupiter, called by a local name Hosogo or Hogoas, had in the city a temple, in which was a well of sea-water. Jupiter, styled Carius, had also a temple, which was common to the Carians, and Lydians, and Mysians, as the same people.
+ See a column described as singular by Tournefort, p. 339. Sce Pococke, p. 56