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This was not in the town, but had once a village near it. On a steep abrupt rock, in sight from Mylasa, to the south, and distant an hour and three quarters, crossing the plain, is a ruined town called Paitshin, and a castle, which was repaired, as a strong hold against Soley Bey. Part of the wall of this fortress, in which were a few cannon, stands on a flight of marble steps, probably belonging once to the latter temple. Near it are many deserted mosques and buildings, and a ruined church still used by the Greeks. The site of the former temple might perhaps be discovered, if diligent inquiry were made in the town for its well.
The Mylasians were the proprietors of the famous Jupiter of Labranda. The gate-way, on which his symbol, a doublehatchet, is carved, was probably that leading to his temple, which was at a distance from the city. The god often occurs on medals, holding the hatchet. Hercules, it is related, killed the Amazon Hippolyte, and gave this, her weapon, to Omphale, queen of Lydia. From her it descended to the kings her successors, and was used as an ensign of royalty. Candaules delivered it, to be carried by one of his officers. Arselis, with auxiliaries from Mylasa, joining Gyges, when he revolted, slew Candules and the hatchet-bearer, and returned into Caria laden with spoils. He made a statue of Jupiter, and placed the hatchet in his hand.*
To Eski-hissar—Remains of Stratonicta—Its history—Mount Taurus—Temples of Hecate and Jupiter—Inscriptions— Introduction of tobacco and coffee into Turkey—Answer to a query.
The merchants preparing to leave Mylasa, and telling us, we should find ruins at Eski-hissar, where they should stop next, we agreed to accompany them to that place, distant six hours eastward. We crossed the plain, with a long train of mules carrying their goods and servants, and ascended a mountain of veined marble, when the track became very steep and rough, winding by vast precipices. The slopes were covered with large firs and pines, many scorched or fallen, and some then on fire; spreading a strong smell of turpentine. The conflagration, we have before mentioned, had extended far into the country, as driven on and directed by the wind. About mid-day we alighted to refresh, near a clear murmuring brook, shaded by pines and plane-trees. In the vales farther on were stalks of Turkey wheat, with camels feeding; and booths of the Turcomans. A shepherd, whom we met in a narrow pass, was armed and followed by two dogs, and these by his flock. We saw some of the Turcomans, the women with boots on, and one carrying a gun; and their children leading camels. After travelling an hour and a half, Mylasa bore north west; and, on our return, we had the plain in view in about four hours.
Eski-hissar, once Stratonicea, is a small village; the houses scattered among woody hills, environed by huge mountains; one of which, toward the south-west, has its summit as white as chalk. It is watered by a limpid and lively rill, with cascades. The site is strewed with marble fragments. Some shafts of columns are standing, single; and one with the capital on it. By a cottage we found two, with a pilaster, supporting an entablature, but enveloped in thick vines and trees. In the side of a hill is a theatre, with the seats remaining, and ruins of the proscenium or front, among which are pedestals of statues; one inscribed, and recording a citizen of great merit and magnificence.* Above it is a marble heap. The whole building is overgrown with moss, bushes, and trees. Without the village, on the opposite side, are broken arches, with pieces of massive wall, and marble coffins. One of these is very large, and double, or intended for two bodies. Several altars with inscriptions lie about,-)once placed in the sepulchres. The inhabitants were very civil to us; and the Greeks, some of whom accompanied us, as inquisitive as ignorant.
Stratonicea was a colony of Macedonians, and named from Stratonice, the wife of Antiochus Soter. The Selucidae or kings had adorned it with sumptuous structures; and it was a free city under the Romans. Hadrian is said to have re-edified and named it Hadrianopolis; and the remnants of architecture in general savoured of this emperor and of Antoninus, whose name occurred on a piece of architrave, much more than of the purer era of the Selucidae.
The mountains round about Stratonicea are branches of
Taurus, which, beginning in Caria and Lycia, and becoming exceedingly wide and lofty, extends eastward from the coast opposite Rhodes, to the extremities of India and Scythia, dividing the continent of Asia into two parts. The same mountain spreads in Caria to the river Maeander. Besides the city above mentioned a small town is on record, called Stratonicea by Taurus.
The Stratoniceans had two temples in their territory; one of Hecate, at Lagina, in the way to Ephesus from Physcus, very famous, and visited by multitudes of people at the yearly congresses; the other of Jupiter, styled Chrysa6reus, or with the golden sword, which was near the city, and common to all the Carians; who, as well as the Ionians, met at stated times to sacrifice, and to deliberate on their affairs. This assembly was named the Chrysa6rean system or body, and was composed of villages; the greater number giving the cities, to which they belonged, precedence in voting. The Stratoniceans, when the sanctuaries were reformed under Tiberius Caesar, produced before the Roman senate, by their deputies, the decrees of Julius and Augustus Caesar, confirming to Jupiter and Hecate their privilege of aslyum.
We found Jupiter Chrysa6reus mentioned twice on one stone; and in the wall of a spacious court, before the house of the aga, was an inscription* relating to both deities. The preamble declares, that the city in many great and lasting dangers had been preserved by these its tutelar gods; that their statues in the Senate-house furnished the most glaring evidence of their divine power, and of their presence; that crowds sacrificed and burned incense before them, suppli
* See Chissull. Antiquitates Asiatica, p. 155.
eating or returning thanks, and testifying their religious veneration of them; the senate therefore decrees, that thirty boys, of good families, be chosen to go daily two and two in procession, with their governors, to the senate-house, all dressed in white, crowned with olive, and bearing each a branch in their hands, with the citharist and herald, to sing a hymn, to be composed by Sosander. The stone is in two pieces, the characters large, with ligatures intermixed, and of a late age. In the same wall were other inscribed fragments;* and near it an altar, and many marbles embossed with round shields. This aga was polite and affable beyond any Turk we had seen. His haram was impenetrable, or, as we were told, would have afforded us several inscriptions.
We have mentioned the tobacco-plant, as growing in the plain of Mylasa. Here the leaves were now gathered, and hanging in strings against the walls of the cottages to dry. The use of it and of coffee has been prohibited under some sultans. The smoking it, now so universal, was in 1610 a novel practice even at Constantinople yf where a Turk had been recently led about the streets in derision, with a pipe thrust through his nose, as a punishment to deter others from following his example. The Turks were then strangers to the plant, and content to purchase the refuse of the English market, not understanding the commodity. The knowledge of coffee and of its virtues was imported from Arabia; and by the Turkish account,^ the first coffee-house was established at Constantinople in 1554.
From the traveller, who has remarked the inexperience of
* Inscript, Ant. p. 23. + Sandys, p. 51.
% Hist, de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, t. 23. p. 284.