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the Turks in the American weed, we learn, that the English were then upacquainted with the oriental berry. He describes the Turks as sitting in houses resembling taverns, sipping a drink called coffa, in little china dishes, as hot as they could endure, black as soot, and tasting not much unlike it. To this description of coffee he subjoins, “ Why not the black broth of the Lacedæmonians ?" a question, I believe, hitherto unanswered I shall reply to it, that for making their black broth, the cook was furnished with salt and vinegar, and bid to procure what was wanting from a victim.* This, it has been conjectured, was blood. The epicure will not lament, that the entire recipe has not reached us.

CHAP. LVIII.

Form Mylasa to Iasus--To Mendelet--A temple-An ancient

town--Of Labranda and the temple of Jupiter--Inscriptions -The mountain-We re-enter Ionia.

The month of October was now ending. The nights, to which our men were often exposed, without any cover, grew cold; and our janizary was ill. We found it necessary to hasten to our winter quarters. We engaged the Swiss, whom we met at Mylasa on our return to the khan, in our service; pleased with his activity and intrepidity. The purchase of a horse to carry him was managed by our Turk, who, with the seller opposite, sate on the ground cross-legged, and told down some pieces of gold, and after a pause added to them,

* Plutarch.

and so continued, until the price was accepted. We passed the first night, leaving Mylasa, in the sepulchre at Iasus.

On the way from Iasus to Mendelet, which is distant four hours, and three from Mylasa, we left the level green, with the booths of the Turcomans mentioned before, on our right hand; and, riding northward, through stubble of Turkey wheat, came in an hour to a beautiful and extensive plain covered with vines, olive and fig-trees, and flocks and herds feeding; and skirted by mountains with villages. We crossed it by a winding road, with the country-house of the aga of Mylasa on the right hand ; and, passing a village called Iakli, unexpectedly discovered the solemn ruin of a temple; but, as it was dusk, we continued our journey to Mendelet, which was an hour farther on. The merchants, our late companions, had given us a letter to some Armenians, who kindly admitted us to partake in their apartment in the khan, which was full.

We returned in the morning to the temple, which was of the Corinthian order ; sixteen columns, with part of their entablature standing; the cell and roof demolished. It is in a nook or recess; the front, which is toward the east, close by the mountain foot; the back and one side overlooking the plain. The style of the architecture is noble, and made us regret, that some members, and in particular the angle of the cornice, were wanting. Its marbles have been melted away, as it were pièce-meal, in the furnaces for making lime, which are still in use, by the ruin. : A town has ranged with the temple on the north. The

wall, beginning near it, makes a circuit on the hill, and descends on the side toward Mendelet. The thickets, which have over-run the site, are almost impenetrable, and prevented my pursuing it to the top, but the lower portion may easily be traced. It had square towers at intervals, and was of a similar construction with the wall at Ephesus. Within it, is a theatre cut in the rock, with some seats remaining. In the vineyards beneath are broken columns and marble fragments, and in one, behind the temple, two large massive marble coffins, carved with festoons and heads; the lids on, and a hole made by force in their sides. They are raised on pediments; and, as you approach, appear like two piers of a gate-way. Beyond the temple are also some ruins of sepulchres. I was much disappointed in finding no inscriptions to inform us of the name of this deserted place; which from its position on a mountain by the way-side, and its distance from Mylasa, I am inclined to believe was Labranda.

Labranda, according to Strabo, was a village, seated on a mountain, in the road from Alabanda to Mylasa. The temple was ancient, and the image of wood. This was styled The Military Jupiter, and was worshipped by the people all around. The way was paved near sixty-eight stadia, or eight miles and a half, as far as Mylasa, and called Sacred from the victims and processions, which passed on it. The priesthood was conferred on the most illustrious of the citizens, and was an office held for life. Ælian* l.as added-two stadia, or a quarter of a mile, to the distance of the temple from the city, and relates, that in it was a clear fountain with tame fish, which wore golden necklaces and ear rings.

The ruin of this temple coincides with the description of it given by the geographer. The fabric tottering with age was, it seems, after his time gradually renewed, and chiefly

* De Nat. Animal. 1. xii. c. 30.

by the contributions of the Stephanephori, or high priests. For on seven columns is an inscription,* which may be thus translated, “ Leo Quintus, son of Leo, when Stephanephorus, gave this column, as he had promised, with the base and capital.” And the following inscription is repeated on five or more of the columns, with some variation as to the length of the lines, and the ligatures of the letters : “ Menecrates, son of Menecrates, chief physician of the city, when Stephanephorus, gave this column, with the base and capital ; Tryphæna, his daughter, herself likewise Stephanephorus and Gymnasiarch, having provided it.” From the form of certain characters in the latter inscriptions, it may be inferred, that Leo was the earlier benefactor.

We were visited here every evening by a flock of goats and their keeper. I ascended the acclivity of the mountain by the temple, and from the summit had an extensive view of the plain toward Mylasa. It was green with the cotton-plant and with vines. I would have tarried to enjoy this prospect, which was delightful, but was much annoyed with thick smoke; a fire, either accidental, or designed to consume the herbage, spreading along the side of the mountain, crackling, and seeming to threaten, unless I hastened away, to intercept my retreat.

When the Carians and Ionians revolted from Darius, they retired after a defeat near the river Marsyas to Labranda, to the large and holy grove of plane-trees, where they were joined by other troops, and by the Milesians. The distance between Mendelet and Miletus is reckoned nine hours. On the way thither we discovered Myús, as has been related. Our course from Mendelet was twenty-five minutes north of west, with the summits of Titanus in view before us. We alighted after two hours, it being dusk, at Tarismanlá, a village near the end of the plain, and waited beneath some trees, until our men could procure us a place to lodge in, when a sudden gust of wind carried away one of our hats into a deep well. In the morning we ascended the mountain by a windi' g track shaded with pines, myrtle, and fragrant shrubs. We enjoyed on it a fine view of the plain, which we then left in our rear. The road was rough and narrow to Bafí, where we arrived in an hour. Beyond it we passed an old castle on a hill, and soon after had the lake with Ufa Bafí or Myûs in sight. The reader may recollect that we found near this city marbles, which mention Jupiter of Labranda. Our journey from thence to Miletus has been already related.

* Inscript. Ant. p. 19.

CHAP. LIX

We leave MyûsThe mountain by Mendelet-Sources of a rin

ver-At Carpuseli--Sepulchres and a stadium-Other re· mains-AlabandaThe river Harpasus-The Mæander.

The merchants, to whom we were recommended at Mendelet, informed us that Carpuseli was a place which afforded many antiquities. In our second tour we agreed to go thither from Myûs. We set out on the 18th of April in the evening, and, after riding an hour and a half by the head of the lake, pitched our tent for the night under a spreading tree by a stream. Here we were serenaded in a disagreeable man

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