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ner; frogs croaking, as it were, in chorus; owls hooting : jackalls in troops howling; and the village-dogs barking.

In the morning we again entered the plain mentioned in the preceding chapter; and, crossing it near the end, came to the foot of the mountain, and began ascending with Mendelet on our right hand; the track, as may be conjectured, that which once led from Alabanda toward Miletus, and by Labranda to Mylasa. It winded northward by a small river with fish, the water forming cascades, and turning an overshot mill or two in its way down to the lake. On the sides are furnaces for working iron. Near the top we found a Turk sitting on the ground, while his horse was feeding, by a spring, under a tree.

In descending on the opposite side of the mountain, we passed some Turkish graves, which had each a bough of myrtle stuck at the head and feet. Beyond these were the sources of a river, probably that once called Harpasus, pellucid, and many in number. We pitched our tent below them on a brow by a Turkish village, after a continued and very laborious ride of ten hours.

We were on horseback again between six and seven in the morning, and travelled first eastward, and then south-eastward ; the road good, the slopes covered with pines. The springs, which we saw the day before, had now united into a rapid transparent stream, abounding in fish. Our course lying to the south-east, we crossed it, and on the way met a Turk, a person of distinction, as appeared from his turban. He was on horseback, with a single attendant. Our janizary and Armenians respectfully alighted, and made him a profound obeisance, the former kissing the rim of his garment. He asked some questions, and went on. We arrived

about noon at Carpuselí, a village twelve hours north of Mylasa.

As we approached this place, many ancient graves occurred, cut on rock as at Myûs, and reaching over a tract of considerable extent; with some coffins, mostly plain, or without mouldings, of a brown coarse stone, and with holes broke in the sides. We rode by these, and through a ruined stadium, now a bazar, or market, the way lying between the shops, which formed a street. We pitched our tent further on, near the square basement of a large sepulchre, of handsome solid masonry, and inhabited ; standing not far from one side of the city wall, which may be traced, except toward the plain, and was of the masonry termed Pseudisodomum. Some Turks came to us here, and one desired wine. He took his turban from his head, kissed, and laid it aside; and, after drinking, replaced it with the same ceremony.

We ascended the mountain by a way paved, but rough and slippery. The remains, which we had seen from below, were a terrace wall, with a square area, and vestiges of a colonnade. Many pedestals are standing, of a coarse, brown, ragged stone. Beyond these, in the rock, is a theatre, with remnants of the front; a cistern, a square tower, and the city wall inclosing a summit; near which is another, with seven deep oval cisterns in a row, lined with plaster. At a distance behind them are four piers of a broken aqueduct. A pond or two carefully embanked, at the mountain foot, are the present reservoirs. The plain is encompassed with hills, is pleasant, and has a stream running in it toward the Harpasus.

I was here again disappointed in finding no inscription to inform us of the ancient name of the place; but suppose it to have been Alabanda That city is described as situated beneath the summits of a mountain. The founder Alabandus was worshipped there with greater devotion than any of the noble deities. The people were luxurious and gluttonous, and the city was full of female minstrels. It was much infested with scorpions, as were in general the places lying on the range of mountains between it and Mylasa. The ridge of Alabanda had been likened to an ass with a pack-saddle ; and a wag added, carrying a load of these insects. Pococke relates, that at Mendelet some persons die, every summer, by their sting.

Leaving Carpuselí at six in the morning, and going northeastward, in about an hour and a half we forded the Harpasus, the bed now wide, crooked, and sandy. Our course changing a little to the east, we crossed it several times, and passed by some villages. At ten we proceeded northward, on its bank, in a valley. We were surrounded with the delightful trilling of innumerable nightingales ; and the fish were visible in the crystal stream. This river is described by the shepherd-poet of Smyrna as impetuous after rain, roaring whole days at its junction with the Maander.* A town, called from it, Harpasia, is mentioned by Pliny; now, if I mistake not, Arpas-kalesi, a ruined place, walled, on a hill above a small plain between the mountains, about a inile south of the Mæander, directly opposite to Nosli.t

We passed several villages, and leaving the clear Harpasus behind us, came at one to the turbid Mæander, then deep in its bed; a side of the bank torn away by the violence of the current. We were two minutes in ferrying over in a triangular boat, the rope of vine-stocks hanging down lax in the water. The stream below made an elbow. An ordinary causey, across some low morassy ground, succeeded, with groves of tamarisk, and a wide road, on which we met many people. The ferry is distant about an hour from Guzel-hissar, once called Magnesia by the Mæander.

* Q. Smyrnæus, l. v. 144.

+ Pococke.


Pococke's journey to CarpuseliTo MylasaTo Eski-hissar,

or Stratonicea, and places adjacentTo Arabi-hissar, or Alinda.

We shall give here an abstract of Pococke's journey into Caria, from Guzel-hissar.* He passed the Mæander at the ferry, when the bed was full; the stream rapid, and a furlong broad. He describes the vine-boughs, of which the rope consisted, as about an inch and a half in diameter, and from ten to fifteen feet long. Three men pulled the boat over, a post fixed in it resting against the rope. The mouth of the Harpasus, which he calls the China, is, as he relates, about a mile below the ferry. The river has a wooden bridge, about eight iniles further eastward, built on nine or ten large stone piers, and about three hundred feet long. He crossed there, and went on a league to Salashar, where he lodged in a miserable khan. The next day the road lay between little green hills, for about a league and a half, when he came into the small fertile plain of Carpuselí, and to the ruined city on the south of it; which, he observes, exactly answers to the situation of Alabanda.

* P. 57.

From the south-east corner of this plain, Pococke ascended southwards, about three miles, to the top of the mountain, where is a plain about a league broad. He calls the range Mount Latmus, and was told, it was frequented by wolves, wild boars, and jackalls ; and also by bears and tigers. Many herdsmen dwell on it; and, in some places, it was ploughed up, and the fields inclosed, with large trees laid around the edges. A low, easy descent, led into the vale of Mylasa, which he computes about four leagues long, and one broad.

He set out from Mylasa on the 20th of February for Eskihissar or Stratonicea, distant about twelve miles, and crossed the mountains to the north-east. He describes that place as between hills, on a level spot opening to a large plain, in which the river China runs. He descended from thence, and going a league to the north, and then about two to the west, ascended near a league to a village called Lakena; about a mile from which is a ruined castle, strongly situated. The next morning, he went about two leagues north to the river Paieslu, which runs into the China ; and then crossing the hills to the west, for the space of three leagues, came to one of the villages called Akshouieh; and going on a league to the west, between low rocky hills, and by the side of a rivulet with a bridge, which he passed over, saw a remnant of an old aqueduct; and, entering a fine plain, travelled across it two miles northward to the village of China, which is situated at the east end, to the south of the river of that name. He went up the hill, of which the top had been fortified, and saw there two or three sepulchral grots, and a cistern cased with brick, above ground, consisting of two oblong square compartments. The village Lakena seems

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